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PHYTOLOGIA 

An  international  journal  to  expedite  botanical  and  phytoecological  publication 

Vol.  54  September  1983  No.  1 

FIFTIETH  JUBILEE  YEAR 

CONTENTS 

BEETLE,  A.  A. ,  Noteworthy  grasses  from  Mexico  XI 1 

GANDHI,  K.  N.,  &  THOMAS,  R.  D.,  A  note  on  the  androecium  of 
the  genus  Croton  and  flowers  in  general  of  the  family 
Euphorbiaceae 6 

TURNER,  B.  L.,  The  Texas  species  of  Paronychia  (Caryophyllaceae) 9 

TURNER,  B.  L.,  A  new  species  of  Russellia  (Scrophulariaceae) 24 

RUDD,  V.  E.,  Reduction  of  the  genus  Goniogyna  to  Crotalaria 

(Leguminosae) 26 

KING,  R.  M,  &  ROBINSON,  H.,  Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae).  CCXVII.  Three  new  species  of  Adenostemma 29 

KING,  R.  M.,  &  ROBINSON,  H.,  Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae).  CCXVI.  Various  new  species  from  the  Andes 

and  Panama 36 

ROBINSON,  H.,  Studies  in  the  Heliantheae  (Asteraceae).  XXX. 

Four  new  species  from  Peru 52 

ROBINSON,  H.,  Studies  in  the  Liabeae  (Asteraceae).  XVI. 

New  taxa  from  Peru 62 

VIOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  Notes  on  new  and  noteworthy  plants.  CLXIX 66 

vlOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  Additional  notes  on  the  Eriocaulaceae .  LXXXIX 82 

vIOLDENKE,  A.  L.,  Book  reviews 82 


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NOTEWORTHY  GRASSES  FROM  MEXICO  XI. 

Alan  A.  Beetle,  APDO  Postal 

Hermosillo,  Sonora,  Mexico 

These  are  results  from  continuing  studies  sponsored  by 
the  Comision  Tecnico  Consultiva  para  la  determinacion 
Regional  de  los  coeficientes  de  Agostadero,  fundada  en  1966, 
under  the  Secretaria  de  Agricultura  y  recursos  hidraulicos. 

For  previous  papers  see  Phytologia  27:1974;  28:1974; 
30:1975;  35:1977;  38:1978;  47:1981;  49:33-43;  and  52:11-17, 
1981. 

Bouteloua  barbata  Lag.  var.  arenosa  (Vasey)  comb,  nov . 

Bouteloua  arenosa  Vasey,  U.S.  Div.  Bot.  Bull.  12(1): 
PI.  34.  1890. 

Bouteloua  hirsuta  Lag.  var.  Cienc.  4:141.  1805. 

f.  vivipara  form.  nov. 

"Haec  forma  a  forma  typica  speciei  spiculae  viviparae" 

Plants  similar  to  Bouteloua  hirsuta  Lag.  but  the  spikelets 
proliferating. 

Type:   G.  Galvan  481  collected  Mexico,  State  of 
Tamaulipas,  Ejido  5  de  Mayo,  mpio  de  Soto  La  Marina, 
Palmar  de  Sabal  Mexicana  a  140  msnm. 

Eragrostis  secundif lora  Presl  var.  capitata  (Fourn.)  comb.  nov. 

Poa  oxylepis  Torr.  in  Marcy,  Expl .  Red  River  301, 
PIT  15.  1553. 

Eragrostis  oxylepis  (Torr.)Torr.  U.S.  Expl.  Miss. 
Pacific.  Rept.  4:156.  1857. 

Eragrostis  secundif lora  Presl.  ssp.  oxylepis  (Torr.) 
Koch,  Rhodora  80:397.  1978. 

Eragrostis  verae-crucis  Rupr.  Bull.  Acad.  Brux. 
9:235.  1842,  nomen ;  Fourn.  Mex.  PI.  2:118.  1886, 
nomen. 


2  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

Megastachya  oxylepis  var.  capitata  Fourn.  Mex.  PI. 
2:ii8!  18^. 

Megastachya  oxylepis  (Torr.)  Fourn.  Mex.  PI.  2:118. 
1886. 

Sheaths  and  blades  glabrous,  except  for  a  tuft  of  hairs 
flanking  the  base  of  the  blade  at  the  top  of  the  sheath. 

E.  secundif lora  var.  capitata 

Sheaths  and  both  sides  of  the  blades  typically  densely 
covered  with  long  pustulate-based  hairs. 

E.  secundif lora  var.  secundif lora 

Eriochloa  lemmoni  Vasey  &  Scribn.  Bot .  Gaz.  9:185.  PI.  2.  1884. 
var.  minor  (Vasey)  comb.  nov. 

Eriochloa  punctata  (L.)Desv.  ex  Hamilton  var.  minor 
Vasey,  Contrib.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb.  3:21.  1892. 

Eriochloa  gracilis  var.  minor  (Vasey )Hitchc .  Jour. 
Wash.  Acad.  Sci.  23:456.  1933. 

Helopus  gracilis  Fourn.  Mex.  PI.  2:13.  1886. 

Eriochloa  lemmoni  var.  gracilis  ( Fourn. ) Gould, 
Leafl.  West.  Bot.  6:51.  1950. 

Ichnanthus  pallens  (Sw.)Munro  f.  monstrosum  (Fourn.)  comb.  nov. 

Panicum  schlechtendalii  Fourn.  var.  monstrosum 
Fourn.  Mex.  PI.  2:31.  1886. 

Ixophorus  Schlecht  has  usually  been  treated  as  a  mono- 
typic  genus  but  it  appears  that  there  are  two  species  which 
may  be  keyed  as  follows: 

Slender  annual  with  culm  base  1-2  mm  wide,  not  succulent; 
leaves  less  than  5  mm  broad;  raceme  branches  2-5. 

Ixophorus  palmeri 

Robus  annual  or  short-lived  perennial  with  culm  base 
5  mm  or  more  wide,  succulent;  some  leaves  more  than  1  cm  wide; 
raceme  branches  10  to  many. 


1983  Beetle,  Noteworthy  grasses  3 

Ixophorus  unisetus 

Ixophorus  palmer!  (Vasey)  comb.  nov. 

Panicum  palmer!  Vasey,  Contr.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb. 
1:281.  1893. 

Panicum  prlngle!  Vasey,  Contr.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb. 
1:363.  1M5T^ 

Panicum  schledeanum  Trin. ;  Seal,  Grasses  N.  Amer. 
2:119.  IMT. 

Ixophorus  prlnglei  ( Vasey ) Scribn.  U.S.  Dept .  Agr . 
t)iv.  Agrost.  Bull.  4:6.  PI.  2.  1897. 

Ixophorus  prlnglei  var.  minor  Scribn.  U.S.  Dept. 
Agr.  Div.  Agrost.  Bull.  4:7.  1897. 

Ixophorus  palmer!  (Vasey)  comb.  nov. 

Panicum  palmer!  Vasey,  Contr.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb. 
1:281.  1893. 
Annual,  culms  slender  epehemeral ,  1-2  mm  broad  at  base, 
sheaths  glabrous;  ligule  membranaceous,  ca.  1  mm  long,  some- 
what erose  or  finged,  sometimes  with  a  few  long  white  hairs 
at  the  collar;  blades  glabrous,  up  to  10  cm  long,  less  than 
5  mm  broad. 

Panicle  composed  of  two  to  five  racemose  branches  well 
exserted  above  the  blades,  each  spikelet  subtended  by  a  single 
awn-like  projection  up  to  8  mm  long;  first  glume  ca .  1  mm 
long,  second  glume  and  lemma  of  the  lower  staminate  floret 
3-4  mm  long,  concealing  the  lemma  of  the  upper  pistillate 
floret. 

Described  from  Jalisco  (Tequila);  native,  endemic, 
apparently  confined  to  the  Jalisco-Colima  area. 

Koeleria  cristata  (L.)Pers.  var.  elegantula  (DomIN)  comb.  nov. 

Koeleria  elegantula  Domin,  Bibl .  Bot .  65:172.  PI.  14, 
f.  10.  1907. 

This  small-flowered  type  is  a  good  geographical  variety. 
Type  collection,  C.  F.  Baker  576  from  Gunnison  Colorado,  seen 
in  the  U.S.  Nat.  Herb.   The  United  States  Forest  Service 
herbarium  now  at  Laramie,  Wyoming  has  an  excellent  series  of 
collections  of  this  variety. 


4  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

Leptochloa  dubia  (HBK)Nees,  SyLl.  Pi.  Ratisb.  1:4.  1824. 

var.  humboldtiana  (Kuntze)  comb.  nov. 

Dlplachne  dubia  (HBK)Scribn.  var.  humboldtiana 
Kuntze  Rev.  Gen.  PI.  3:349.  1898. 

Pan i cum  decolorans  HBK.  Nov.  Gen.  &  Sp.  1:100.  1815. 

var.  parcum  (Hitchc.  &  Chase)  comb.  nov. 

Panicum  parcum  Hitchc.  &  Chase,  Contr.  U.S.  Nat. 
Herb.  15:68.  f.  53.  1910. 

Piptochaetium  leianthum  (Hitchc.)  comb.  nov. 

Stipa  leiantha  Hitchc.  Contr.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb. 
24:236.  Pi.  51.  fig.  8,  9.  1925,  described  from 
Mexico:   Puebla,  near  Esperanza;  cf.  Beetle 
M-3000,  a  topotype. 

Piptochaetium  mexicanum  (Hitchc.)  comb.  nov. 

Stipa  mexicana  Hitchc.  Contr.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb. 
24:247.  Pi.  52,  fig.  5,  6.  1925,  described  from 
Mexico:   State  of  Mexico,  Sierra  de  las  Cruces; 
cf.  Beetle  M-254,  a  topotype. 

Piptochaetium  virescens  (HBK)Parodi,  Rev.  Mus .  La  Plata, 
Bot.  n.ser.  6:223,  230.  f.  10.  1944. 

Stipa  virescens  HBK  Nov.  Gen.  &  Sp.  1:126.  1815. 

Piptochaetium  virescens  (HBK)Parodi  var.  arsenii  (Hack.) 
comb.  nov. 

Stipa  arsenii  Hack.  Repert .  Sp.  Nov.  Fedde  8:515. 
1910,  described  from  Mexico:   Michoacan,  near 
Morelia. 

Setaria  variifolium  (Swallen)  comb.  nov. 

Panicum  variifolium  Swallen,  Carnegie  Inst.  Wash, 
fubl.  436:345.  £.  7.  1934. 

Described  from  Mexico:   Yucatan,  Chichen  Itza. 


1983  Beetle,  Noteworthy  grasses  5 

Sporobolus  airoides  var.  minor  (Vasey)  comb.  nov. 

Sporobolus  altlssimus  Vasey  var.  minor,  Vasey, 
Calif.  Acad.  Sci.  Proc .  II.  2:213.  1889. 

Trachypogon  plumosus  (H.  &  B.  ex  Willd. )Nees  var.  secundus 
( Anaerss . )  comb.  nov. 

Trachypogon  preslii  var.  secundus  Anderss. 

Ofvers  Svensk.  Vetensk.  Akad.  Forhandl .  14:50.  1857, 

Triplasis  caribensis  (Pohl)  comb.  nov. 

Triplasis  purpurea  ( Walt . ) Chapm.  var.  caribensis 
Pohl,  Iowa  State  Jour.  Res.  47:76.  197T: 

Now  added  to  the  Mexican  grass  flora.   Collected  by 
Andres  Suarez,  coastal  dues,  Cuauhtemotzin,  Tabasco. 


A  NOTE  ON  THE  ANDROECIUM  OF  THE  GENUS  CROTON  AND  FLOWERS 
IN  GENERAL  OF  THE  FAMILY  EUPHORBIACEAE 

K.  N.  Gandhi  and  R.  Dale  Thomas 
The  Herbarium,  Department  of  Biology,  Northeast  Louisiana 
University,  Monroe,  La.   71209 

The  occurrence  of  haplostemony ,  diplostemony ,  and 
triplostemony  represents  a  regular  sequence  in  the  Angio- 
sperm  flower.   The  reverse  of  these  arrangements  (obhap- 
lostemony,  obdiplostemony,  and  ob triplostemony)  brings 
interruptions  in  the  usual  arrangement.   Many  hypotheses 
have  been  proposed  in  the  past  to  explain  these  reversal 
arrangements.   The  most  acceptable  one  has  been  the 
"reduction  concept."   According  to  this  concept,  in  all 
flowers  exhibiting  obhaplostemony ,  obdiplostemony,  or 
obtriplostemony ,  the  present  outer  whorl  represents  what 
was  once  the  second  whorl  of  stamens.   Thus  all  obhap- 
lostemony flowers  were  once  diplostemony  ones  and  so  on 
(Eames  1961) .   This  reduction  concept  derives  support 
from  the  presence  of  some  rudiments  of  staminal  structures 
in  a  few  flowers  of  this  kind.   People  who  resent  the 
concept  of  reduction  believe  that  the  staminal  arrangement 
in  the  Angiosperm  flower  is  only  a  matter  of  spatial  and 
mechanical  possibilities  and  that  it  has  nothing  to  do 
with  the  morphological  modifications  in  the  flower. 

A  study  of  the  flowers  of  Euphorbiaceae  in  general 
and  of  Croton  L.  in  particular  adds  some  insight  into 
this  problem.   The  flowers  of  Euphorbiaceae  are  usually 
unisexual,  but  bisexual  flowers  (said  to  be  atavistic) 
have  been  reported  in  Cicca  L.  (Rao  1973).   The  flowers 
of  Euphorbiaceae  are  often  apetalous  or  even  achlamydeous 
(Euphorbia  L.,  Anthostema  Juss.,  and  Synandenium  Boiss.). 
Generally  the  number  of  staminate  flowers ,  when  compared 
to  the  number  of  pistillate  ones,  is  numerous.   This 
strongly  suggests  that  anemophily  was  once  prevalent  in 
this  family.   Even  today,  Mercurial is  L.  is  pollinated 
by  the  wind.   Certain  features  suggest  that  this  family 
is  returning  to  the  entomophily  type  of  pollination. 
These  include  the  aggregation  of  achlamydeous  flowers  in 
the  form  of  cyathia  bearing  one  to  five  extra  floral 
nectaries  on  the  involucre  cup,  the  presence  of  brightly 
colored  bracts  or  leaves  subtending  the  flowers ,  and  the 
presence  of  nectariferous  glands  in  both  mal,e  and  female 
flowers.   Although  the  grasses  are  wind  pollinated  and 
are  most  successful,  they  have  intercalary  growth  and 
rhizomes  both  of  which  are  absent  from  the  euphorbs . 
Thus  it  would  seem  to  be  a  selective  advantage  to  the 
spurge   family  to  return  to  entomophily.   In  most  of  its 
members,  there  has  been  a  total  loss  of  genes  for  the 

6 


1983  Gandhi  &  Thomas,  Androeclum  of  Croton  7 

development   of  a  conspicuous  corolla  and  even  those  few 
taxa  with  corollas  have  small  inconspicuous  ones 
(Jatropa  L.,  with  its  bright  corolla,  is  an  exception.). 
The  absence  of  the  corolla  is  balanced  in  various  taxa 
with  conspicuous  sepals,  bracts,  or  stamens.   It  is  also 
noteworthy  that  the  number  and  nature  of  stamens  are 
very  variable  in  the  Euphorbiaceae  (eg.,  1  in  Euphorbia  L. , 
3  and  synandrous  in  Phyllanthus  L.,  8  to  10  in  2  whorls 
but  all  monadelphus  m  Jatropa  L. ,  many  and  dendroid  in 
Ricinus  L.,  etc.).   However,  in  contrast,  the  number  of 
ovaries  is  usually  one  with  three  fused  carpels. 

Croton  L.  generally  has  dichlamydeous  and  hetero- 
chlamydeous  male  flowers  and  the  corolla  is  inconspicuous. 
The  stamens  range  in  number  from  4  to  16  or  even  more. 
There  are  four  or  five  antesepalous  nectariferous  glands 
or  scales  between  the  corolla  and  the  androecium.   The 
female  flowers  are  generally  apetalous  and  have  the 
staminal  scales  or  glands  but  no  well  developed  staminodes. 

The  authors  made  a  study  of  the  staminal  arrangement 
in  six  species  of  Croton.   Croton  monanthogynus  Michx. 
has  six  stamens  per  flower.   Each  flower  has  one  stamen 
in  the  center  and  the  five  remaining  ones  are  in  an 
antepetalous  whorl  (obhaplostemony) .   C^  argyranthemus 
Michx. ,  C^  capitatus  Michx. ,  and  C.  glanduTosus  L.  have 
eleven  stamens  per  flower.   Each  TTower  has  one  stamen  in 
the  center  and  the  remaining  ten  occur  in  two  whorls  of 
five  each.   The  outer  whorl  is  antesepalous  (obdiplo- 
stemony) .   C^  bonplandianus  Baill.  and  C^  punctatus  Jacq. 
have  sixteen  stamens  per  flower.   Each  flower  has  one 
stamen  in  the  center  and  the  remaining  fifteen  stamens 
occur  in  three  whorls  of  five  each.   The  outer  whorl  is 
antesepalous  (obtriplostemony) . 

In  all  the  above  taxa  the  staminal  primordia  can 
proliferate  and  lead  to  one  or  two  more  stamens  per 
flower  or  the  primordia  can  fail  to  develop  and  lead  to 
one  to  four  fewer  stamens  per  flower.   When  there  is  an 
increase  in  stamen  number,  there  are  two  stamens  in  the 
center  rather  than  one.   Often,  all  the  stamens  are 
attached  to  a  rudimentary  stalk  in  the  center  of  the 
flower.   The  central  stamen (s)  may  be  functional  or 
sterile.   Obviously,  the  meristem  that  is  generally 
consumed  in  the  formation  of  a  sterile  or  fertile 
gynoecium  in  other  unisexual  or  bisexual  flowers  termi- 
nates here  in  a  fertile  or  sterile  stamen.   This  sort 
of  development,  coupled  with  the  absence  of  staminodes 
in  female  flowers  (scales  or  nectaries  excluded) , 
indicates  the  strong  unisexuality  attained  by  Croton  L. , 
and  perhaps  by  the  whole  family.   The  occurrence  of  all 
three  types  of  unusual  staminal  arrangements  in  a  single 


8  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

genus  is  extraordinary.   (Its  pollen  is  also  character- 
istic and  is  called  Croton  type:  spherical,  bearing 
minute  projections,  and  without  any  aperature)  (Punt 
1962) .   Perhaps  this  situation  is  comparable  to  the  one 
existing  in  Mitella  L.  (Saxifragaceae)  in  which  three 
different  staminal  arrangements  occur:  haplostemony 
(M.  breweri  L.),  obhaplostemony  (M^  pentandra  Hook.), 
an3  diplostemony  (M^  nuda  L. ) (Cronquist  1968).   This 
reversal  staminal  arrangement  is  also  seen  in  Manihot 
Mill,  and  Tragia  L. ,  and  it  is  quite  possible  that  other 
taxa  in  Euphorbiaceae  also  exhibit  this  arrangement;  if 
so,  it  would  strengthen  the  concept  of  associating  the 
Euphorbiaceae  with  the  Geraniales . 

We  conclude  that  the  occurrence  of  the  unusual 
staminal  arrangement  in  the  Angiosperm  flower  is  well 
explained  by  the  "reduction  concept."   This  conclusion 
is  based  on  the  presence  of  antesepalous  nectaries  or 
scales  (all  staminal  in  origin)  found  between  the  corolla 
and  the  androecium. 

We  are  thankful  to  Miss  V.  Shobba,  Mr.  C.  M.  Ranjith 
Singh  and  Mr.  Jayaram  of  The  National  College,  Bangalore-4, 
India  for  providing  the  flowering  material  of  Croton 
bonplandianus  Baill.  and  for  the  discussion  on  its 
obtriplostemonous  nature . 

Literature  Cited 

Cronquist,  A.  J.   1968.   The  evolution  and  classification 

of  flowering  plants.   Houghton  Mifflin  Co.,  Boston. 

396  pp. 
Eames ,  A.  J.   1961.   Morphology  of  the  Angiosperms . 

McGraw-Hill  Book  Co.,  New  York.   518  pp. 
Punt,  W.   1962.   Pollen  morphology  of  the  Euphorbiaceae 

with  special  reference  to  taxonomy.   Wentia  7:47-53, 
Rao,  C.  K.   1973.   Hermaphrodite  flowers  in  Euphorbiaceae: 

Cicca  acida  (L.)  Merr .   Curr .  Sci.  42(8):  295. 


THE  TEXAS  SPECIES  OF  PARONYCHIA   (CARYOPHYLLACEAE) 

B.    L.   Turner 
Dept.  of  Botany,  The  University  of  Texas,  Austin,  TX     78712 


Attempts  to  ascertain  the  biological  and/or  nomenclatural 
status  of  putative  endangered  taxa  of  Paronychia  for  the  state  of 
Texas  occasioned  the  present  paper.  In  particular,  I  wanted  to 
know  if  the  several  species  described  by  the  late  D.  S.  Correll 
subsequent  to  the  monograph  of  Paronychia  by  Chaudhri  (1968)  were 
valid  taxa.  The  names  concerned  are  P^  maccartii ,  P^  congesta  and 
P^  nudata.  In  my  efforts  to  ascertain  their  status  I  was 
inevitably  led  to  an  overall  study  of  the  genus  in  Texas  and 
adjacent  regions,  especially  Mexico.  This  was  accomplished  by 
drawing  heavily  upon  the  treatment  of  Chaudhri  (1968)  and  upon 
that  of  Correll  (1970)  for  the  Flora  of  Texas.  In  addition,  I 
studied  all  of  the  Texas  and  Mexico  collections  of  Paronychia  from 
the  four  largest  herbaria  in  the  state  of  Texas,  namely  LL,  SMU, 
TAES  and  TEX.  Altogether  over  800  sheets  from  Texas  and  Mexico 
were  examined,  as  follows: 

LL,  C.   L.   Lundell   Herbarium,  Austin  250 

SMU,  Southern  Methodist  University,  Dallas  153 

TAES,  Texas  A  &  M  University,  College  Station  95 

TEX,  University  of  Texas,  Austin  310 

All  of  the  material  was  duly  annotated  and  Figures  1  and  2, 
showing  the  distribution  of  the  species  in  Texas  have  been 
prepared  from  these.  Where  collections  are  relatively  few  in 
herbaria  these  are  represented  in  the  figures  by  appropriate  site- 
symbols;  where  collections  are  numerous  over  a  broad  area,  these 
are  shown  by  general   shading  or  lining. 

In  the  presentation  here  I  saw  no  reason  to  duplicate  again 
the  careful  descriptions  rendered  by  Chaudhri  and  Correll.  At 
most  any  "emended"  description  would  merely  call  attention  to  a 
relatively  minor,  usually  highly  variable,  character  which  this  or 
that  key  empasized  to  vouchsafe  a  given  species.  I  have  therefore 
confined  my  observations  to  the  major  questions:  How  many  species 
of  Paronychia  are  there  in  Texas?  How  can  they  be  recognized? 
And  what  are  their  distributional   relationships? 

In  my  pursuit  of  the  answers  I  have  examined  types  of  all  of 
the  critical  taxa,  visited  their  type  localities  several  times  and 
observed  numerous  populations  elsewhere.  Because  of  this  I  feel 
confident  that  the  treatment  rendered  here  is  biologically  sound. 

9 


10  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

The  last  comprehensive  treatment  of  Paronychia  for  Texas  was 
that  of  Correll  (1970)  who  recognized  15  species  for  the  state. 
In  this  he  more  or  less  accepted  the  same  species  as  Chaudhri 
(1968)  but  added,  as  already  noted,  an  additional  three  species: 
P^  congesta,  P^  maccarti  i  and  P^  nudata.  I  have  reduced  the 
latter  name  to  synonymy  under  the  relatively  widespread  P^ 
monticola  but  have  had  to  accept,  albeit  reluctantly,  the 
specific  status  of  the  former  two. 

Paronychia  maccarti i  is  known  only  from  the  type  collection. 
It  is  quite  distinct,  superficially  resembling  the  more  western 
P^  wi  1 kinsoni  i ,  but  readily  distinguished  by  a  number  of 
characters.  Paronychia  congesta ,  is  also  known  only  by 
collections  from  the  type  locality.  It  is  superficially  similar 
to  the  widespread,  variable,  P.  jamesii,  but  is  isolated  from  the 
range  of  that  species  and  possesses  several  quite  distinct 
characters.  In  spite  of  numerous  attempts  to  locate  again 
populations  of  P^  maccarti  i ,  I  have  not  succeeded  in  this 
endeavor.  I  was  able  to  relocate  a  few  living  plants  of  P. 
congesta,  but  only  with  much  effort. 

I  am  confident  that  P^  maccarti i  still  lives  on  somewhere  in 
the  vicinity  of  its  type  locality  and  urge  future  workers, 
interested  amateurs  even,  to  locate  living  plants  of  the  species 
so  that  the  plant  might  legitimately  be  listed  as  an  "endangered" 
taxon.  Without  recently  sighted  populations  (i.e.,  an 
authoritative  recent  account  of  its  existence  in  nature)  the  U. 
S.  Wildlife  Service  will  not  submit  such  plants  for  listing.  At 
least  such  is  the  case  for  another  south-Texas  endemic,  Man i hot 
wal kerae  Croizat.  In  spite  of  the  potential  of  the  latter 
species  for  the  genetic  improvement  of  the  important  crop  plant, 
M.  esculenta  (cassava),  this  agency  would  not  list  the  plant  as 
"Endangered"  since  the  present  author  could  not  locate  natural 
populations  of  the  species  in  his  preparation  of  a  report  for 
that  agency.  The  species  was  last  collected  in  1947  in  La  Jolla, 
Texas;  while  rare  at  the  time  it  surely  exists  somewhere  in  that 
area  today,  and  were  sufficient  efforts  made  to  locate  the  plant 
the  species  might  still  be  placed  on  the  "endangered"  list.  But 
such  are  the  foibles  of  government  agencies. 

Incidental  to  my  excursion  into  the  status  of  Correll 's 
several  names,  I  found  it  necessary  to  sink  yet  two  other  names 
recognized  by  Correll  (P^  chorizanthoides  and  P^  parksii)  and  add 
a  new  species  to  the  genus,  P.  lundellorum,  described  herein. 

Overall  then,  I  recognize  13  species  for  the  state.  Their 
distribution  is  shown  in  Figures  1  and  2.  The  taxa  are  keyed 
below  and  additional  comments  upon  the  treatment  rendered  are 
given  in  the  specific  discussions  that  follow. 

I  am  grateful  to  the  Directors  concerned  for  the  loan  of 


1981  Turner,  Texas  species  of  Paronychia  11 

herbarium  materials,  to  Dr.  M.  C.  Johnston  for  the  Latin  diagnosis 
and  to  Gayle  Turner  for  the  sketches  provided.   However 
inadequate,  the  U.  S.  Department  of  the  Interior,  U.  S.  Fish  and 
Wildlife  Service,  Albuquerque,  New  Mexico,  supported,  in  part, 
field  work  for  the  present  study. 


Key  to  Texas  species  of  Paronychia 


1.  Annual  species,  stems  arising  from  a  single,  usually  unbranched 
taproot. 

2.  Leaves  variously  elliptical  to  oblanceolate,  2-5  mm  wide. 

3.  Calyx  glabrous  or  nearly  so, 
0.8-1.2  mm  long;  sepals 
unmargined  with  an  ill  defined 
mucro  0.1  mm  long  or  less 1.  P.  fastigiata 

3.  Calyx  variously  pubescent, 
especially  below,  1.5-2.5 
mm  long;  sepals  with  prominent 
white  scarious  margins. 

4.  Stems  prostrate;  calyx 
with  at  least  a  few 
decidedly  enlarged, 
uncinate  hairs 2.  P.  jonesii 

4.  Stems  erect;  calyx 
rather  uniformly 
pubescent  with 
uncinate  hairs 3.  P.  drummondi 

2.  Leaves  narrowly  linear,  1  mm  wide  or  less 

5.  Sepals  with  definite  and 
distinctive  white  scarious 
margins;  stems  very  hispid 
throughout;  plants  of  sandy 
soils  in  eastern  southcentral 
Texas 4.  P.  setacea 


Sepals  not  as  above;  stems 
mostly  minutely  hispid  to 
nearly  glabrous;  plants  of 


12  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,   No.    1 

various  soils  on  the 

Edwards  Plateau  in  central 

Texas 5.   P.   lindheimeri 


1.   Perennial   species,  stems  usually  arising  from  a  branched, 
thickened,  caudex  or  persistent  root-stock. 

6.  Flowers  sessile  at  the  tips  of  Lycopodium  like  stems; 
stems  short  with  uniformly  shortened  internodes,  each 
leaf  overlapping  at  least  2  or  more  nodes. 

7.  Apex  of  sepals  merely 
mucronate  or  short  awned, 
not  at  all   snowy  white;  mar- 
gin of  the  sepals  not 
noticeably  scarious; 
panhandle  Texas 6.   P.   sessiliflora 

7.  Apex  of  sepals  terminated 
by  a  snowy  white  appendage; 
margins  of  sepals  scarious 
and  snowy  white 

8.   Leaves  shorter  than  the 
stipules;  sepals  without 
an  inner  tuft  of  white 
hairs  below  the  hood;  awns 
of  calyx  1.5-2.0  mm  long; 
plants  of  trans-Pecos 
Texas 7 .   P^  wilkinsonii 

8.   Leaves  longer  than  the 
stipules;  sepals  with  an 
inner  tuft  of  white  hairs 
below  the  hood;  awns  of 
calyx  0.9-1.2  mm  long; 
plants  of  southern  Texas.. 8.   P.  maccartii 

6.  Flowers  not  as  above,  clearly  borne  in  terminal,  open  or 
somwhat  congested  numerous  flowered,  corymbose  panicles. 

9.  Sepals  triangular  lanceolate, 
prominently  3  ribbed,  3.0-5.0  mm 
long;  plants  mostly  30-50  cm 
tall 9.   P_^  virginica 

9.   Sepals  not  as  above;  plants 
mostly  5-20  cm  tall 

10.  Calyx  evenly  hispid 


1983  Turner,  Texas  species  of  Paronychia  13 

pubescent  throughout; 

sepals  gradually  tapering 

into  a  straight  awn 10.  P.  congesta 

10.  Calyx  glabrous  or  unevenly 
pubescent,  the  united 
portions  more  prominently 
strigose;  sepals  usually 
abruptly  terminated  by  a 
divergent  awn. 

11.  Sepals,  excluding  the 
awn,  less  than  2  mm 
long  with  a  clearly 
defined  scarious 
yellow  margin;  plants 
of  sandy  soils  in 
southern  Texas 11.  P.  lundellorum 

11.  Sepals,  excluding  the 
awn,  2-3  mm  long, 
without  a  clearly 
defined  scarious  yellow 
margin;  plants  of  various 
soils  in  western  Texas. 

12.  Foliage  glabrous  or 
nearly  so;  sepals 
glabrous;  plants 
with  usually  a 
single  unbranched 
tap  root 12.  P.  monticola 

12.  Foliage  variously 

hispid  or  hispidulous; 

sepals  pubescent; 

plants  with  usually 

a  well  developed 

branched  caudex.l3.  P.  jamesii 

1.  PARONYCHIA  FASTI6IATA  Fern.  (1936) 

This  is  a  widespread  delicate  annual  of  the  eastern  United 
States.  It  is  represented  in  Texas  by  relatively  few  collections 
(Fig.  1)  from  the  northeastern  most  regions  of  the  state  where  it 
occurs  in  sandy  soils. 

2.  PARONYCHIA  JONESII  M.  C.  Johnst. (1963) 

This  species  is  recognized  by  both  Chaudhri  (1968)  and 
Correll  (1970).   It  is  a  weakly  differentiated  taxon  very  closely 


lA 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    1 


F=\  P.  setQcea 

rm  p.  drummondii 

•  P.  lindheimeri 

^  P.  fastigiata 

J  P.  jonesii 


Fig.  I.     Distribution    of    annual    species    of     Paronychia 
in    Texas. 


1983  Turner,   Texas   species  of    Paronychia  15 

related  to  P^  drummondi  i  but  readily  distinguished  by  its 
prostrate  stems  and  somewhat  enlarged  strigose  calyx  hairs.  In 
the  dune  sands  just  north  of  Corpus  Christi,  erect-stemmed 
populations  referrable  to  P.  drummondi  i  occur  but  it  is  likely 
that  these  are  relic  progenitor  populations  that  gave  rise  to  P^ 
Jones ii  there  being  otherwise  no  clear  distinctions  between  the 
two  taxa  in  this   area. 

3.  PARONYCHIA   DRUMMONDII    T.    &   G.    (1838) 

Paronychia  drummondi i   subsp.    parviflora  Chaudhri    (1968) 

Chaudhri  recognized  two  weakly  differentiated  subspecies 
(subsp.  drummondi i  and  subsp.  parviflora)  within  this  taxon  and 
these  are  "keyed"  by  Correll  (1970,  quoting  Chaudhri,  1968).  In 
my  opinion  the  "subspecies"  are  not  deserving  of  nomenclatural 
rank,  there  being  a  wide  range  of  intermediates  over  a  broad  area 
between  the  putative  taxa.  In  general,  less  pubescent  plants 
with  smaller  flowers  occur  in  the  northeastern  regions  of  the 
state  (northwest  of  about  Austin,  Texas)  while  somewhat  more 
pubescent  plants  with  larger  flowers  occur  in  central  and  south 
central  Texas.  This  might  suggest  varietal  status  for  the 
populations  concerned  but  such  regional  recognition  would  distort 
Chaudhri's  concept  of  the  subsp.  parvi  flora  (which  was 
represented,  as  inferred  from  his  description  and  specimen- 
citations,  by  relatively  few  atypical  collections  from 
northeastern  Texas).  Considering  this  fact,  and  the  large  number 
of  intermediates  to  be  found  between  such  forms  in  northeastern 
Texas,  it  seems  meaningless  to  recognize  the  extremes. 

4.  PARONYCHIA  SETACEA  T.  &  G.   (1938) 

The  type  material  of  this  relatively  delicate  annual  was 
collected  by  Drummond  in  sandy  soils  of  east-central  Texas.  It 
is  most  easily  distinguished  from  P^  lindheimeri  (with  which  it 
has  been  confused,  at  least  in  part,  by  nearly  all  previous 
workers)  by  its  very  pubescent  foliage  and  scarious-margined 
sepals. 

5.  PARONYCHIA   LINDHEIMERI   Engelm.   ex   Gray  (1850) 
Paronychia  chorizanthoides   Small    (1897) 


16 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,   No.    1 


LLU 

P. 

jamesii 

S 

P 

monticola 

^ 

P 

virginica 

^ 

P 

wilkinsonii 

• 

P 

sessilifloro 

c 

P. 

congesto 

M 

P, 

moccartii 

Fig.  I.     Distribution    of    perennial    species    of    Paronychia 
in     Texas. 


1983  Turner,  Texas  species  of  Paronychia  17 

of  P^  lindheimerl. 

6.  PARONYCHIA  SESSILIFLORA  Nutt.  (1818) 

This  species  is  readily  recognized  and  is  apparently  fairly 
common  in  the  rocky  breaks  of  the  Panhandle  region  of  Texas  (Fig. 
2). 

7.  PARONYCHIA  WILKINSONII  S.  Wats.  (1886) 

Core  (1943)  only  knew  the  species  from  two  sites  in  northern 
Mexico.  Several  additional  collections  are  now  known  from  this 
region,  plus  two  sites  in  Texas,  both  in  Brewster  County  (Glass 
Mountains  and  near  Pena  Colorado,  just  south  of  Marathon)  where 
it  occurs  as  a  crevice  plant  on  a  specific  geological  outcrop  of 
Devonian  age  known  as  Cabal los  Novaculite. 

8.  PARONYCHIA  MACCARTII  Correll  (1963)  Fig.  3 

The  species  is  known  only  by  the  type  material  which  was 
reportedly  collected  in  tight  red  sandy  soil  along  Farm  Road  649, 
8.3  miles  south  of  Mirando  City  in  eastern  Webb  County.  The 
collections  were  made  by  Mr.  William  McCart  and  students  from 
Laredo  Junior  College  in  March  of  1962.  I  have  made  numerous 
visits  to  this  area  over  a  several  year  period  in  hopes  of 
locating  the  plant  but  these  have  proven  unsuccessful.  The  plant 
is  strikingly  different  from  other  species  of  Paronychia  in  the 
region,  much  resembling  P^  wilkinsonii  of  trans-Pecos  Texas  but 
clearly  different  from  the  latter. 

Botanists,  and  wild  flower  enthusiasts  generally  are  urged 
to  look  for  extant  populations  and  report  such  findings  to  the 
present  author  or  else  call  this  to  the  attention  of  appropriate 
authorities  so  that  some  efforts  might  be  taken  to  protect  such 
1 i ving  individuals. 

9.  PARONYCHIA  VIRGINICA  Spreng.  (1825) 

Paronychia  scoparia   Small    (1897) 

Paronychia   parksii    Cory  (1944) 

Paronychia   virginica   var.    scoparia   (Small)   Cory  (1944) 

ParonychiT  virginica   var.    parksii   (Cory)   Chaudhri    (1968) 

Chaudhri  (1968)  did  not  recognize  the  var.  scoparia,  thinking 
it  synonymous  with  his  var.  virginica.  He  did  recognize  P^ 
parksii ,  but  only  as  a  variety  of  P.  virginica.  I  tend  to  agree 
with  Correll  (1970)  who  notes  that  P.  parksii  "appears  to  be 
little  more  than  a  habit  variation  of  P.  virginica  var. 
scoparia".  This  is  also  implied  in  Chaudhrf^  comment  (p.  140) 
that  spreading  versus  erect  habits  can  be  environmentally  induced 
when  plants  are  grown  from  seed.      Since  P.   virginica  shows  a 


18  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

continuous  distribution  on  limestone  soils  from  northcentral  to 
central  Texas  I  see  no  compelling  reasons  to  assign  nomenclatural 
status  to  the  somewhat  larger  but  variable  plants  from  the  latter 
area. 

10.  PARONYCHIA  CONGESTA  Correll  (1966)  Fig.  4 

This  species  is  known  from  only  two  collections  from 
approximately  the  same  site,  one  by  its  original  collectors 
(Correll  &  Wasshausen,  about  one  mile  south  of  Thompsonville,  on 
rocky  slopes  of  breaks)  and  one  by  the  present  author  who,  after 
several  hours'  search,  observed  only  four  plants  at  a  site  0.8 
miles  south  of  the  old  site  of  Thompsonville.  The  latter 
inhabitation  is  now  totally  replaced  by  a  single  small  Exxon  pump 
station. 

Paronychia  congesta  is  seemingly  most  closely  related  to  the 
more  western  perennial,  P.  jamesii ,  but  has  a  more  congested 
inflorescence  with  gradually  tapered  sepals  and  non-divergent 
awns.  In  my  opinion  it  is  a  "good"  taxon  deserving  of  specific 
rank. 

Attempts  should  be  made  to  locate  additional  individuals  of 
this  rare  and  endangered  taxon  so  that  appropriate  action  might 
be  made  to  conserve  such  populations. 

11.  PARONYCHIA  LUNDELLORUM  B.  L.  Turner,  sp.  nov. 

Paronychia  setacea  accedens  sed  plantis  robustis 
perennibus  pedicel  lis  florum  longioribus. 

Perennial  low  herb  6-24  cm  tall.  Leaves  linear,  1-3  cm. 
long,  0.5-0.7  mm.  wide,  rigid,  erect-spreading,  minutely  and 
evenly  pubescent,  the  apices  with  a  short  mucro.  Stipules  ca. 
1/2  as  long  as  the  leaves.  Calyx  urn-shaped,  ca.  2.5  mm  long, 
decidedly  pedicellate,  the  pedicels  0.5-1.0  mm  long,  especially 
in  vernal  forms;  lobes  of  the  sepals  ca.  2  mm  long,  abrubtly 
terminated  by  a  pronounced  mucro,  0.75-1.00  mm  long,  that 
diverges  at  a  nearly  right  angle  to  their  axis,  the  fused  portion 
of  the  calyx  body  expanded  and  prominently  white  strigose,  the 
lobes  glabrous  or  nearly  so,  each  of  the  sepals  possessing  a 
well-defined,  hyaline  margin. 

TYPE:  TEXAS.  Brooks  Co.:  in  Spartina  flats,  3  mi  S  of 
Falfurrias,  in  low  pasture,  on  sandy  soil ,  21  Apr  1949,  C^  L^ 
Lundell  14911  (holotype,  LL). 

Additional  specimens  examined:  TEXAS.  KENEDY  CO.:  King 
Ranch,  Norias  Division,  San  Jose  Pasture,  open  sandy  plain,  25 
Sep  1958,  Lundell  &  Correll  15216  (LL);  Norias,  hiway  right  of 
way,  dune  sand,  4  Dec  1948,  Tharp  et  al.  48-19  (TEX).  Kleberg 


1983 


Turner,  Texas  species  of  Paronychia 


19 


Fig    3      Poronychia    maccartii-     A    hobit;     B.    stem,   showing    leaves 
and    stipules;    C     flower,    (from    isotype,  LL). 


20  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    1 

Co.:  6.5  mi   WNW  of  Riviera,  sandy  mesquite  prairie.  King  Ranch, 
Santa   Gertrudis   Division,   6  Jul    1954,   Johnston   541140  (TEX). 

Paronychia  lundellorum  is  most  closely  related  to  P^  setacea 
but  can  be  distinguished  by  its  larger,  more  pedicillate  flowers 
and  perennial  habit.  It  is  largely  confined  to  Southern  Texas 
where  it  occurs  in  low,  sandy,  somewhat  saline  soils  dominated  by 
Spartina  grasses.  The  species  is  superficially  similar  to  the 
perennial  P^  congesta,  which  is  known  only  from  western  Jim  Hogg 
County  where  it  occurs  in  calcareous  soils.  The  latter  is 
readily  distinguished  by  its  short,  gradually  acute,  non-reflexed 
calyx  awns  and  its  emarginate  (non  scarious)  sepals. 

Previous  workers,  who  looked  critically  at  the  type 
material ,  and  published  on  the  group  have  annotated  these  as  P^ 
setacea  ("unusual  form!",  Hartman  1976,  LL),  as  P.  jamesii  var. 
jamesii  (Chaudhri,  1968,  TEX)  or  as  P.  lindheimeri  var. 
lindheimeri  (Chaudhri,  1968;  TEX).  None  of  these  taxa  occurs  in 
the  region  concerned  and  most  of  the  confusion  seems  to  stem  from 
the  few  collections  available  to  these  two  workers  and  to  the 
fact  that  P.  lundellorum  occurs  in  a  vernal  form  (relatively 
open,  annual  like  plants)  and  an  autumnal  form  (congested, 
perennials  with  shorter  nodes).  This  is  readily  seen  in  Lundell 
&  Correll  15216  (LL)  where  both  forms  are  mounted  upon  the  same 
sheet. 

The  species  is  named  for  Amelia  A.  and  Cyris  L.  Lundell  who 
together  have  collected  extensively  in  southern  Texas,  adding 
considerably  to  our  knowledge  of  the  flora  of  this  region. 

12.      PARONYCHIA   MONTICOLA  Cory  (1944) 

Paronychia   nudata   Correll    (1966) 

In  my  opinion  Paronychia  nudata  belongs  to  a  group  of 
individuals  heretofore  designated  as  P^  monticola.  The  holotype 
collected  by  Correll  and  Wasshausen  in  Crockett  County  is 
essentially  like  P.  monticola;  indeed,  a  paratype  and  the  only 
other  collection  of  P^  nudata  cited  by  Correll  (Muller  3097  from 
Coahuila,  Mexico)  is  cited  by  Chaudhri  (1968)  as  belonging  to  P^ 
monticola. 

Correll  (1970)  in  his  key  to  species,  distinguished  P^ 
monticola  from  P.  nudata  by  the  supposedly  annual  habit  of  the 
former  and  perennial  habit  of  the  latter.  But,  as  noted  by 
Chaudhri  (1968),  P^  monticola  appears  to  be  a  "biennial  or, 
mostly,  perennial  herb",  an  observation  with  which  I  concur. 
Correll,  in  his  original  description,  noted  P^  nudata  to  be 
superficially  similar  to  the  perennial  P.  jamesii  but,  strangely, 
did  not  reckon  P^  monticola  as  particularly  close,  presumably 
because  he  thought  the  latter  to  be  annual,  and  that  the  Crockett 


1983 


Turner,  Texas  species  of  Paronychia 


21 


ilv 


C.  "■ 


Fig  4  Poroa^hio  congesto  A  hobit,  B  node,  showing  stipules, 
base  of  leaves,  and  pedicel;  C  flower;  D.  sepol  with 
attached   stomen     (from    hoiotype,   LL) 


22  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    1 

Santa  Gertrudis   Division,   6  Jul    1954,   Johnston   541140  (TEX). 

Paronychia  lundellorum  is  most  closely  related  to  P^  setacea 
but  can  be  distinguished  by  its  larger,  more  pedicillate  flowers 
and  perennial  habit.  It  is  largely  confined  to  Southern  Texas 
where  it  occurs  in  low,  sandy,  somewhat  saline  soils  dominated  by 
Spartina  grasses.  The  species  is  superficially  similar  to  the 
perennial  £^  congesta,  which  is  known  only  from  western  Jim  Hogg 
County  where  it  occurs  in  calcareous  soils.  The  latter  is 
readily  distinguished  by  its  short,  gradually  acute,  non-reflexed 
calyx  awns  and   its  emarginate  (non  scarious)  sepals. 

Previous  workers,  who  looked  critically  at  the  type 
material,  and  published  on  the  group  have  annotated  these  as  P. 
setacea  ("unusual  form!",  Hartman  1976,  LL),  as  P.  jamesi  i  var. 
James  i  i  (Chaudhri,  1968,  TEX)  or  as  P_^  1  i  n  d  h  e  i  m  e  r  i  var. 
lindheimeri  (Chaudhri,  1968;  TEX).  None  of  these  taxa  occurs  in 
the  region  concerned  and  most  of  the  confusion  seems  to  stem  from 
the  few  collections  available  to  these  two  workers  and  to  the 
fact  that  P.  lundellorum  occurs  in  a  vernal  form  (relatively 
open,  annual  like  plants)  and  an  autumnal  form  (congested, 
perennials  with  shorter  nodes).  This  is  readily  seen  in  Lundell 
&  Correll  15216  (LL)  where  both  forms  are  mounted  upon  the  same 
sheet. 

The  species  is  named  for  Amelia  A.  and  Cyris  L.  Lundell  who 
together  have  collected  extensively  in  southern  Texas,  adding 
considerably  to  our  knowledge  of  the  flora  of  this  region. 

12.      PARONYCHIA   MONTICOLA  Cory  (1944) 

Paronychia   nudata   Correll    (1966) 

In  my  opinion  Paronychia  nudata  belongs  to  a  group  of 
individuals  heretofore  designated  as  P^  monticola.  The  holotype 
collected  by  Correll  and  Wasshausen  in  Crockett  County  is 
essentially  like  P.  monticola;  indeed,  a  paratype  and  the  only 
other  collection  of  P^  nudata  cited  by  Correll  (Muller  3097  from 
Coahuila,  Mexico)  is  cited  by  Chaudhri  (1968)  as  belonging  to  P^ 
monticola. 

Correll  (1970)  in  his  key  to  species,  distinguished  P^ 
monticola  from  P.  nudata  by  the  supposedly  annual  habit  of  the 
former  and  perennial  habit  of  the  latter.  But,  as  noted  by 
Chaudhri  (1968),  P^  monticola  appears  to  be  a  "biennial  or, 
mostly,  perennial  herb",  an  observation  with  which  I  concur. 
Correll,  in  his  original  description,  noted  P^  nudata  to  be 
superficially  similar  to  the  perennial  P.  jamesi i  but,  strangely, 
did  not  reckon  P^  monticola  as  particularly  close,  presumably 
because  he  thought  the  latter  to  be  annual,  and  that  the  Crockett 
county  locality  was   too   removed   from   the   Davis    Mountains    (type 


1983  Turner,   Texas   species  of  Paronychia  23 

county   locality   was    too   removed    from   the   Davis    Mountains   (type 
area  of  P^  monticola)  to   warrant   such  consideration. 

The  biological  status  of  Paronychia  monticola  is  moot.  It 
is  apparently  sympatric  with  P.  jamesii  in  trans-Pecos  Texas  and, 
except  for  its  glabrousity  and  relatively  simple  caudex,  strongly 
resembles  the  highly  variable  P.  jamesii.  It  is  possible  that 
glabrous  forms  with  relatively  simple  caudices  have  been  singled 
out  for  recognition  in  this  instance.  But  again  two  distinct 
species  may  be  involved,  with  evidence  of  occasional 
hybridization,  to  judge  from  the  variation  found  in  these 
putative  taxa  in  trans-Pecos  Texas.  Future  field  workers  should 
attempt  to  resolve  this  problem. 

13.     PARONYCHIA  JAMESII  T.  &  G.  (1838) 

P^  jamesii    var.    praelongifolia   (1966) 

P^  jamesii    var.    parviflora   Chaudhri    (1968) 

P^  jamesii    var.    hirsuta   Chaudhri    (1968) 

Paronychia  jamesii  is  by  far  the  most  common,  widespread, 
variable  species  in  Texas  being  represented  in  the  major  herbaria 
by  several  hundred  collections  from  most  counties  west  of  a  line 
from  south  central  Oklahoma  to  Del  Rio  (Val  Verde  Co.)  Texas. 
Core  (1943)  did  not  recognize  intraspecific  taxa  in  the  group  but 
Chaudhri   (1968)  recognized   four   varieties: 

1)  var.  James i  i  (represented  by  an  overwhelming  list  of 
citations);  2)  var.  hirsuta,  exceptionally  pubescent  forms  from 
Pecos  County,  Texas;~3l  war.  parviflora,  a  small  flowered  form 
from  the  Glass  Mountains  in  Brewster  County  and;  4)  var. 
praelongifol ia,  occasional  forms  with  elongated  floral  bracts, 
the  type  being  from  Guadalupe  Mountains,  Culberson  County,  but 
such  forms  occur  sporadically  from  Kansas,  Colorado,  Oklahoma  to 
central  Texas.  In  my  opinion  these  several  taxa  are  but  names 
applied  to  segregating  forms  and  have  no  meaningful  application 
in  the  biological  sense.  That  is,  they  do  not  apply  to 
differentiated  regional    populations. 


Literature  Cited 

Chaudhri,  M.  N.     1968.    A  revision  of  the  Paronychiinae,     Revis. 
Paronychiinae.     440  p. 

Core,   E,   L.     1943.     The  North  American  species  of  Paronychia. 
Amer.  Midi.   Natur.     26:369-397. 

Correll,   D.   S.     1970.     Paronychia.      In   Manual   of  the  Vascular 
Plants  of  Texas.     Contr.  Tex.  Res.   Found.     6:625-629. 


A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  RUSSELLIA  (SCROPHULARIACEAE) 

B,   L.   Turner 
Dept.  of  Botany,  Univ.  of  Texas,  Austin,  TX     78712 


It  has  been  some  25  years  since  the  appearance  of  Margery 
Carlson's  1957  monographic  treatment  of  Russell ia.  This  was  based 
upon  collections  up  to  about  1955.  Since  that  time  numerous  new 
collections  from  Mexico  have  inevitably  led  to  the  detection  of 
novel  taxa,  the  species  described  below,  from  Sinaloa,  being  one 
of  the  more  obvious;  no  doubt  study  of  the  Russell ia  collections 
assembled  at  yet  other  institutions  will  yield  further  undescribed 
taxa.  I  am  grateful  to  M.  C.  Johnston  for  the  Latin  diagnosis  and 
to  Prof.  Worthington  for  freely  making  available  his  fine 
collections  from  the  area  of  Durango,  Mexico. 


Russell ia  worthingtonii   B.   L.  Turner,  sp.  nov. 

Russel 1 ia  elongata  accedens  sed  corol lis  parvioribus, 
inflorescentiis  plurifloris  foliis  amplioribus. 

Plants  suffruticose  up  to  1.5  m  tall;  stems  terete, 
Equisetum-like,  4  to  numerous  ribs,  glabrous.  Leaves  glabrous, 
not  resinous-lepidote,  verticillate  on  primary  shoots,  opposite 
or  ternate  on  the  secondary  shoots;  verticillate  leaves 
lanceolate,  much  reduced  and  soon  caducous;  secondary  leaves 
obliquely  ovate  to  somewhat  falcate,  3-6  cm  long,  1.5-2.0  cm 
wide;  petioles  0.5-2.0  mm  long.  Inflorescence  an  elongate, 
interrupted  "spike"  the  flowers  15-30  at  each  node,  borne  in 
secund  glomerules  which  arise  from  a  3-branched  system. 
Peduncles  6-7  mm  long,  glabrous.  Pedicels  mostly  2-3  mm  long, 
glabrous.  Calyx  lobes  ca  3  mm  long,  long-acuminate,  glabrous. 
Corolla  glabrous  without,  "cherry"  when  fresh;  crimson  when 
dried,  9-10  mm  long,  narrowly  tubular,  emarginate,  the  lobes  1.0- 
1.5  mm  long.     Capsule  ovoid,  glabrous,   ca.    3  mm  across. 

TYPE.  MEXICO.  Sinaloa:  4.9  road  mi  SW  of  Santa  Lucia  (ca. 
23  24'N  x  105  55'W),  ca  3500  ft.,  open  oak  forest,  7  Jan  1983, 
Worthington  et  a1 .  9367   (holotype  TEX;  isotype  UMEX). 

Russellia  worthingtonii,  what  with  its  numerous,  cherry- 
colored,  flowers  borne  in  secund  glomerules,  is  a  strikingly 
beautiful  species,  even  upon  a  herbarium  sheet.  The  lower, 
hollow,  stems  have  the  texture  and  appearance  of  an  Equisetum, 
being  somewhat  glaucous  and  constricted  at  the  nodes.  It  is 
clearly  related  to  Russellia  elongata  Carlson,  a  species  known 

24 


1983  Turner,  A  new  species  of  Russellia  25 

only  from  the  type  (Sonora:  Sapopa  Canyon,  Rio  Maya,  Gentry  1287, 
F),  but  that  species  has  larger  corollas  (13-15  mm  long)  and 
fewer-flowered  inflorescences  (3-12  flowers  to  a  glomerule). 

It  is  a  pleasure  to  name  the  species  for  one  of  its  only 
known  collectors.  Prof.  W.  D.  Worthington  of  the  Biology  Dept., 
University  of  Texas,  El  Paso,  whose  carefully  documented,  superb 
collections  from  the  region  concerned  are  a  delight  to  work  with. 


Literature  Cited 

Carlson,  M.  C.  1957.  Monograph  of  the  genus  Russellia.  Fieldiana 
Bot.  29:  231-292. 


REDUCTION  OF  THE  GENUS  GONIOGYNA  TO  CHOTALARIA  (LBGUMINOSAE) 
Velva  E.  Rudd 
California  State  University,  Northridge,  Ca.  91330 

A  species  of  legiime  occurring  in  Sri  Lanka,  India,  and  West 
Pakistan,  formerly  known  as  Hevliindia  latebrosa  (L.)  DC.  and,  more 
recently,  as  Goniogyna  hirta  (Willd.)  Ali.  is  now  accepted  as  ref- 
erable to  Crotalaria.  Polhill  (Kew  Bull.  22:  171,  301,  302.  1968) 
noted  that  there  is  no  good  reason  for  separating  the  genus  Gonio- 
gyna  DC.  (s  Heylandia  DC.)  from  Crotalaria.  and  placed  it  in  sec- 
tion Calycinae  Wight  &  Am.  As  a  Crotalaria.  a  new  specific  name  is 
required,  here  proposed  as  Crotalaria  hebecarpa  (DC.)  Rudd,  comb. 


The  original  publication  of  Goniogyna  DC.  (Ann.  Sci.  Nat. 
Paris  4:  91.  Jan  1825)  included  three  species:  G.  hebecarpa. 
G.  leiocarpa.  and  G.  latebrosa.  Later  (Prodr.  2:  123.  Nov  1825; 
M4m.  Leg.  198.  Feb  1826),  to  honor  his  illustrator,  J.  C.  Hey land, 
de  Candolle  published  the  genus  Heylandia.  based  on  the  same  three 
species,  with  no  mention  of  the  earlier  generic  name.  Plate  34  in 
the  M^qjoires,  reproduced  in  this  paper,  is  an  illustration  by  Hey- 
land,  to  whom  the  genus  was  dedicated. 

In  his  discussion  of  Heylandia  in  the  M^moires  (pp.  198-201) 
de  Candolle  mentioned  its  similarity  to  Crotalaria  except  that  its 
pods  are  compressed  rather  than  inflated  as  in  Crotalaria.  Bentham 
concurred,  stating  "It  is  closely  allied  to  Crotalaria  in  which 
Roxbxirgh  had  included  it,  but  is  easily  known  by  its  constantly 
eiiillary  inflorescence,  and  small  lenticular  pod"  (Hook.  London 
Joum.  Bot.  2:  471.  1843).  In  floral  and  vegetative  characters 
there  is  apparent  close  relationship  with  such  species  as  Crotal- 
aria angulata  Mill.  (=  £.  biflora  (L.)  L.),  £.  evolvuloides  Wight 
ei  Wight  &  Am.,  and  £.  prostrata  Rozb. 

As  mentioned  by  Bentham,  Roxburgh  (F1.  Ind.  3:  271.  1832) 
recognized  this  tazon  as  a  Crotalaria.  £.  tiniflora  Koenig  ex  Rox- 
b\irgh,  but  cited  in  synonymy  Hallia  hirta  Willd..  the  basis  of 
Goniogyna  leiocarpa  DC . ,  Heylandia  leiocarpa  DC ,  and  Goniogyna 
hirta  (Willd.)  Ali.  No  other  specimen  was  cited. 

Wight  and  Amott  ( Prodr.  180.  1834)  maintained  Heylandia  as 
a  separate  genus  but  combined  de  Candolle 's  three  species,  as 
H.  latebrosa  DC.,  believing  them  to  be  states  of  the  same  plant, 
with  the  pods  varying  "from  glabrous  to  very  hairy  on  the  same 
specimen" .  They  included  in  the  synonymy,  Crotalaria  uniflora 
Koenig  ex  Roxburgh. 

26 


1983 


Rudd.  Reduction  of  Goniogyna 


27 


^ 


{     ' 


Of 

5  ^  * 


Fig.  1.  Copy  of  plate  54,  Heylandia  hebecarpa . 
A.  P.  de  Candolle,  M^moires  sur  la  Famille  de  L^gumineuses . 


28  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 


Following  is  the  rather  lengthy  synonymy  of  this  one  little 
species,  which  will  be  included,  in  greater  detail,  in  the  treat- 
ment of  Crotalaria  for  the  Smithsonian  Project,  A  Revised  Handbook 
of  the  Flora  of  Ceylon. 

CROTALARIA  HEBECARPA  (DC.)  Rudd,  comb.  nov. 

Hallia  hirta  Willd..  Sp.  PI.  3:  1169.  1802.  Type:  /Koenig  ?/,  India, 

Tranquebar.  Holotype  B-Willd.  (microfiche  13750),  non  Crotalaria 

hirta  Willd.  1803,  nee  Lag.  1816,  nee  Roth  1821. 
Goniogyna  hebecarpa  DC.,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Paris  4:  92.  Jan  1825. 

Type:  Leschenault .  Ceylon,  in  1823.  Holotype  C-DC;  isotype  P. 
Goniogyna  leiocarpa  DC.,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Paris  4:  92.  Jan  1825, 

based  on  Hallia  hirta  Willd. ,  non  Crotalaria  leiocarpa  Vog.  1843. 
Hevlandia  hebecarpa  DC..  Prodr.  2:  123.  Nov  1825;  Mm.   Leg.  200. 

Feb  1826;  tab.  34.  Jan  1827,  based  on  the  same  collection  as 

Goniogyna  hebecarpa  DC.,  without  reference  to  the  earlier  name. 
Hevlandia  leiocarpa  DC.  Prodr.  2:  123.  Nov  1825;  M^m.  Leg.  200. 

Feb  1826,  based  on  Hallia  hirta  Willd.,  non  Crotalaria  leiocarpa 

Vog.  1843. 
Crotalaria  uniflora  Koenig  ex  Roxb,  Fl.  Ind.  3=  271.  1832,  based 

on  Hallia  hirta  Willd.  given  as  synonym  but,  possibly,  intended 

as  a  new  name  for  the  same  Koenig  collection,  non  Baker  in  Oliver, 

1871. 
Goniogyna  hirta  ( Willd.)  Ali,  Taxon  16:  463.  1967,  based  on  Hallia 

hirta  Willd. 

The  third  species  of  Goniogyna.  C.  latebrosa  (L.)  DC.,  Ann. 
Sci.  Nat.  Paris  4:  92.  Jan  1825  U  Heylandia  latebrosa  (L.)  DC., 
Prodr.  2:  Nov  1825;  M^m.  Leg.  201.  Feb  1826),  based  on  Hedysarum 
latebrosum  L.,  Mant  2:  270.  1771,  was  actually  described  from  a 
galled  shoot  of  a  rhamnaceous  shrub,  Sageretia  theezans  (L.)  Brojagn. 
(Polhill  1.  c.  p.  301;  in  litt.  1969),  therefore  is  not  included 
in  the  above  list  of  synonymy.  The  specimen  in  the  Linnaean  herbar- 
ixim,  LINN  921. 15 i  presumably  is  the  holotype.  It  bears  the  name  of 
Hedysarum  latebrosum  in  Linnaeus'  handwriting  but  no  collector's 
name  or  locality  is  given. 

I  wish  to  thank  Dr.  Roger  Polhill  who  kindly  advised  me  as  to 
the  status  of  various  epithets  related  to  this  taxon. 


STUDIES  IN  THE  EUPATORIEAE  (ASTERACEAE) .   CCXVII, 
THREE  NEW  SPECIES  OF  ADENOSTEMMA. 

R.  M.  King  and  H.  Robinson 

Department  of  Botany 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.,  20560. 


Most  problems  in  the  delimitation  of  the  American  species  of 
Adenostemma   were  resolved  in  the  study  by  King  and  Robinson 
(1974),  and  no  additions  to  the  genus  have  been  noted  from  the 
area  during  the  nearly  ten  years  since  that  study.   It  is  rather 
unexpected,  therefore,  that  a  limited  attempt  to  identify  a 
single  new  specimen  from  Brasil  would  result  in  the  recognition 
of  the  following  three  new  American  species. 

ADENOSTH^^  FLINTII  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  herbaceae  ca.  0.5  m  altae?  vegetative  non  vel  pauce 
ramosae.   Caules  sordido-virides  subteretes  in  sicco  sulcati 
glabri  vel  subglabri.   Folia  opposita,  petiolis  2-3  cm  longis 
angustis  indistincte  vel  distaliter  vix  alatis ;  laminae  late 
ovatae  plerumque  4-5  cm  longae  et  3.5-4.5  cm  latae  base  sub- 
truncatae  in  medio  breviter  acuminatae  margine  lateraliter  argute 
multo  serratae  apice  breviter  argute  acutae  fere  ad  basem  valde 
trinervatae  supra  et  subtus  plerumque  glabrae  vel  subglabrae 
subtus  in  nervis  sparse  vel  subdense  puberulae.   Inf lorescentiae 
in  axibus  primariis  opposito-ramosae  in  ramis  cymoso-ramosae , 
bracteis  primariis  minute  foliiformibus  serrulatis  caeteris 
minutis,  ramis  ultimis  0.7-1.6  cm  longis  sensim  dense  minute 
puberulis.   Capitula  late  campanulata  ca.  5  mm  alta  et  6  mm  lata; 
squamae  involucri  ca.  23  subequales  biseriatae  herbaceae  oblongae 
ad  3.5  mm  longae  in  partibus  libris  ca.  1.5-2.0  mm  longae  et  0.7- 
1.0  mm  latae  sparse  minute  puberulae;  corollae  albae?  ca.  2  mm 
longae,  tubis  angustis  ca.  0.5  mm  longis  extus  sparse  minute 
stipitato-glanduliferis;  faucibus  ca.  0.8  mm  longis  infeme  sub- 
cylindricis  supeme  late  infundibularibus  extus  dense  pilosulis , 
lobis  late  triangularibus  ca.  0.2  mm  longis  et  0.3  mm  latis 
extus  inf erne  dense  puberulis ;  f ilamenta  in  partibus  superior- 
ibus  subcylindrica  ca.  0.2  mm  longa;  thecae  ca.  0.5  mm  longae; 
appendices  antherarum  ca.  0.1  mm  longae  et  0.2  mm  latae;  scapi 
stylorum  glabri;  appendices  stylorum  angustaead  0.2  mm  latae. 
Achaenia  2.5  mm  longa  leniter  curvata  subtrigona  multo  tuber- 
culato-glandulifera;  clavulae  pappi  3  ca.  0.8  mm  longe  angustae 
glanduli ferae.   Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  20-23  ym. 

TYPE:  NICARAGUA:  1868.   C.  Flint  6    (Holotype:  US). 

The  only  species  previously  known  from  Central  America  is 
the  distinctive  A.    hirtiflonon   Benth.  with  its  five  rather  than 
three  knobs  on  the  pappus.   The  new  species  differs  from  the 

29 


30  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

latter  and  from  all  other  American  species  of  the  genus  by  the 
lack  of  hairs  on  the  shaft  of  the  style.   The  numerous  sharp 
serrations  of  the  leaf  margin  are  also  distinctive. 

The  species  is  named  for  the  collector  Charles  W.  Flint. 

ADENOSTENNA  GOYAZENSE  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suf fruticosae  ad  1.2  m  altae  infeme  pauce  ramosae. 
Caules  sordido-virides  subteretes  in  sicco  sulcati  puberuli. 
Folia  opposita,  petiolis  1-3  cm  longis  distaliter  sensim  alatis; 
laminae  ovatae  plerumque  5-9  cm  longae  et  1.5-5.0  cm  latae  base 
late  acutae  vel  rotundatae  in  medio  valde  acuminatae  et  in 
petiolis  decurrentes  margine  crenato-serratae  apice  acutae  fere 
ad  basem  valde  trinervatae  supra  et  subtus  sparse  puberulae  et 
breviter  pilosae  subtus  in  nervis  dense  puberulae  et  breviter 
pilosae.   Inf lorescentiae  in  intemodis  inferioribus  elongatls, 
in  bracteis  foliiformibus  decreascentes  infeme  non  ramosae 
distaliter  pauce  capitatae,  ramulis  ultimis  plerumque  1.0-1.7  cm 
longis  dense  minute  stipitato-glanduliferis .   Capitula  late 
campanulata  7-10  mm  lata  et  ca.  7  mm  alta;  squamae  involucri  ca. 
25-30  subaequales  biseriatae  herbaceae  oblongae  3.5-4.5  mm  longae 
et  ca.  1.3  mm  latae  apice  rotundatae  extus  infeme  minute  stipi- 
tato-glanduliferae  supeme  pilosulae  vel  scabridulae.   Corollae 
albae?  ca.  3.5  mm  longae  subcylindricae,  tubis  ca.  0.7  mm  longis 
extus  minute  stipitato-glanduliferis,  faucibus  ca.  2.3  mm  longis 
extus  glanduliferis  et  pilosulis,  lobis  triangularibus  ca.  0.5 
mm  longis  et  latis  extus  infeme  dense  pilosulis;  filamenta  in 
partibus  superioribus  base  dilatata  ca.  0.2  ram  longa;  thecae 
antherarum  ca.  1.3  mm  longae;  appendices  antherarum  breves  ca. 
0.1  mm  longae  et  0.3  mm  latae;  scapi  stylorum  distincte  hirsuti; 
appendices  stylorum  albae  grosse  inf latae  clavatae  ad.  0.8  mm 
latae.   Achaenia  2.5-3.0  mm  longa  leniter  curvata  subtrigona 
dense  minute  stipitato-glandulifera;  clavulae  pappi  3  ca.  1  mm 
longae  glanduli ferae.   Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  20  pm. 

TYPE:  BRASIL:  Goias:  Municfpio  de  S.  Joao  D'alian^a,  fazenda 
Corrente  GO.  Herbacea  de  mata  inudada  alterada  com  1,2  m  a 
altura,  caule  avermelhado,  folhas  membranaceas ,  bracteas  verdes, 
f lores  brancas.   30-XII-1979.  F.    C.    e  Silva  &  R.    C.   Mendonga 
160    (Holotype,  IBGE;  isotype,  US). 

The  new  species  is  most  distinctive  among  the  members  of  the 
genus  with  erect  habits  and  larger  heads  by  the  sparingly  branch- 
ed inflorescence  having' elongate  basal  intemodes.   The  species 
differs  further  from  the  more  common  members  of  the  genus  in 
Brasil  by  the  ovate  non-triangular  blades  of  the  leaves.   The 
veins  of  the  leaves  appear  to  be  more  densely  pubescent  below 
than  in  some  other  members  of  the  genus ,  and  stipitate  glands  on 
the  inflorescence  are  rare  or  lacking  in  such  species  as  Adeno- 
sterma  ptatyphyllum   Cass,  which  have  similar  shaped  leaves  and 
similarly  broadened  style  branches. 


1983  King  &  Robinson,  Three  new  species  31 

ADENOSTENtiA  VARGASII  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suf f ruticosae  ad  0.5  m  altae  pauce  ramosae.   Caules 
f lavo-virides  subteretes  in  sicco  sulcati  minute  appresse  puber- 
ull.   Folia  opposite,  petiolis  2-6  cm  longis  distaliter  sensim 
alatis;  laminae  ovatae  plerumque  4-12  cm  longae  et  3-9  cm  latae 
base  late  acutae  vel  subtruncatae  in  medio  late  acuminatae  in 
petiolis  decurrentes  margine  crenato-serratae  vel  dentatae  apice 
late  acutae  fere  ad  basem  valde  trinervatae  supra  et  subtus 
sparse  minute  appresse  puberulae  subtus  in  nervis  densius  minute 
puberulae.   Inf lorescentiae  late  cymosae  multo  ramosae,  ramis 
ultimis  3-15  mm  longis  dense  puberulis.   Capitula  late  campanu- 
lata  ca.  9  mm  lata  et  6-7  mm  alta;  squamae  involucri  ca.  25-30 
subaequales  biseriatae  herbaceae  oblongae  3-4  ram  longae  et  ca. 
1  mm  latae  apice  rotundatae  extus  infeme  dense  puberulae  supeme 
glabrae  vel  sparse  pilosae.   Corollae  virides  3.0-3.5  mm  longae 
in  tubis  et  faucibus  inferioribus  cylindraceae  supeme  leniter 
infundibulares ,  tubis  ca.  0.8  mm  longis  glabris,  faucibus 
inferioribus  ca.  0.6  mm  longis  sparse  pilosis  superioribus  ca. 
1.2  mm  longis  glabris  vel  subglabris,  lobis  triangularibus  ca. 
0.4  mm  longis  et  latis  infeme  extus  dense  minute  puberulis; 
filamenta  in  partibus  superioribus  base  dilatata  ca.  0.1  mm 
longa  et  lata;  thecae  antherarum  ca.  1  mm  longae;  appendices 
antherarum  breves  ca.  0.07  mm  longae  et  0.2  mm  latae;  scapi 
stylorum  distincte  puberuli;  appendices  stylorum  albae  medio- 
criter  inf latae  ad  0.3  mm  latae.   Achaenia  ca.  2  mm  longa  leniter 
curvata  subtrigona  dense  tuberculata;  clavulae  pappi  1-2  vestig- 
iales  0.3-0-4  mm  longae  plerumque  ad  0.25  mm  latae  non  glandul- 
iferae.   Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  23  iim. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Cuzco:  Prov.  Paucartambo.   KosSipata:  Pilcopata- 
Atalaya.   Terrenos  roasados.   Alt.  450-550  m.   5  de  agosto  1956. 
C.  Vccpgas   11283    (Holotype,  US).   PARATYPES:  PERU:  Cuzco:  Paucar- 
tambo.  Atalaya-Pilcopata.   borde  monte.   Alt.  720  m.   16  Nov. 
1964.  C.    Vargas   15750   (US);  Atalaya,  hillside  &  riverbank  near 
jet.  Rio  Carbon  with  Rio  Alto  Madre  de  Dios.   Shrub  ^  m.   Aug. 
6-7,  1974.  Robin  B.   Foster  3019  with  W.   A.   Foster ^   E.   Brokau 
&  M.   Brokau)   (US). 

The  three  specimens, from  a  restricted  area  in  the  Dept.  of 
Cuzco  in  Peru,  were  first  noted  because  of  a  greenish  color  of 
the  corollas  in  well-preserved  material.   The  related  Adeno- 
stenrna  platyphytZum   Cass.,  to  which  the  species  is  related  and 
with  which  it  has  been  confused,  always  seems  to  have  a  reddish 
color  in  the  corolla  throat.   The  distinct  nature  of  the  new 
species  is  proven  by  the  comparatively  vestigial  nature  of  the 
pappus,  a  feature  that  seems  to  explain  the  restricted  distrib- 
ution of  the  species.   The  species  also  has  style  branches  less 
enlarged  than  those  of  A.    platyphyllian     but  not  as  small  as 
those  of  the  other  species  found  in  Peru,  A.    fosbergii   K.&  R. 


32 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  1 


\   y  / 


f/.      \k       A  ?i^' 


> 


>*• 


f/r«;?,'  f?^>*  t 


Adenostemma  flintii   R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  Holotype, 
United  States  National  Herbarium.   Photos  by  Victor  E.  Krantz, 
Staff  Photographer,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 


1983 


King  &  Robinson,    Three  new  species 


33 


utiiieo   si«T t 


3'jn2r)44 


N«noN<i.    HcnaARiuia 


I  H  G   E 

RESLRV*   ECOlOOICA    DO   ROMCAOOB 

Coapot^ti 


NuntcTpto   dt   S.    Jojo  D'i1la«{t,   ttttn6» 
Cerrcnt*   60. 
K»r6<ce<    dc   aata    (nud«dt   alttrtdi    coa   \,2m  ■ 
•  Iturt,    ctule   <*«ra«lhido,    follKs   ■eabrini- 
ccit,    brtcteis    ««rdes.    florti   brtnco. 

NV      160  30-III-197) 

Leg.    F.    C.    t   S<1»t    1   ».    C.    Ntndonca 


\Jn±t//tTl^^"T   ^^^'^f  «^^  R-  M-  King  &  H.  Robinson.   Isotype, 
United  States  National  Herbarium. 


34 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,   No.    1 


MfRRMilO  \*RG*S   CllZCO   PERU 

PLdMTAf  nCRUVUNAf  ^    . 


Adenostemma  Vargasit   R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  Holotype, 
United  States  National  Herbarium. 


1983 


King  &  Robinson,  Three  new  species 


35 


I  I  I  1  i  I 


Enlargements  of  heads  of  Adenostenma.      Top.  A.   flintii. 
Middle.  A.    goyazense.      Bottom.  A.    vargasii. 


King,  R.  M.  and  H,  Robinson   1974.   Studies  in  the  Eupatori- 
eae  (Asteraceae) .  CXXVII.   Additions  to  the  American  and  Pacific 
Adenostemmatinae.  Adenostenma^    Gymnoaovonis   and  Saiadooephala. 
Phytologia  29  (1):  1-20. 


STUDIES  IN  THE  EUPATORIEAE  (ASTERACEAE) .  CCXVI . 

VARIOUS  NEW  SPECIES   FROM  THE  ANDES 

AND  PANAMA. 

R.  M.  King  and  H.  Robinson 

Department  of  Botany 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.,  20560. 


New  species  of  Eupatorieae  are  described  here  in  the  genera 
Aristeguietia,  Agefatina,   Cronquistianthus ,   Eehealinivm     and 
Koanophytton   from  Panama,  Colombia  and  northern  Peru.   The 
specimens  are  from  various  sources  and  include  both  older  and 
recent  collections. 

ARISTEGUIETIA  URIBEI  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  fruticosae  ca.  1  m  altae  mediocriter  vel  multo 
ramosae.   Caules  teretes  dense  brunneo-hirsuti.   Folia  opposita 
subsessilia;  laminae  ovatae  1.2-2.5  cm  longae  et  0.8-1.7  cm  latae 
base  cordatae  margine  multo  crenato-dentatae  mediocriter  reflexae 
apice  breviter  acutae  base  vel  fere  ad  basem  leniter  trinervatae 
supra  leniter  bullatae  glabrae  vel  submargine  sparse  scabridae 
subtus  dense  hirsutae  in  nervis  et  nervulis  prominentes.   Inflor- 
escentiae  in  ramis  terminales  subdense  corymbosae,  rsimis  ascend- 
entibus,  ramis  ultimis  plerumque  7-16  mm  longis  dense  hirsutis. 
Capitula  ca,  10  mm  alta  et  6-7  mm  lata;  squamae  involucri  ca.  30 
distincte  subimbricatae  ca.  4-seriatae  persistentes  lineares  3-8 
mm  longae  ca.  0.8  mm  latae  apice  breviter  acutae  margine  puber- 
ulae  extus  anguste  leniter  bicostatae  glabrae.   Flores  ca.  20  in 
capitulo;  corollae  violascentes  5.5-6.0  mm  longae  anguste  infund- 
ibulares  extus  glabrae,  tubis  ca.  1.5  mm  longis,  faucibus  ca.  3 
mm  longis,  lobis  longe  triangularibus  ca.  0.8  mm  longis  et  0.5 
mm  latis;  filamenta  in  parte  superiore  ca.  0.5  mm  longa;  thecae 
antherarum  ca.  1.5  mm  longae;  appendices  antherarum  ca.  0.3  mm 
longae  et  0.25  mm  latae;  appendices  stylorum  ad  0.3  mm  latae. 
Achaenia  3.0-3.5  mm  longa  plerumque  in  costis  dense  scabridulae; 
carpopodia  perbreviter  obturaculiformia,  cellulis  parvis  sub- 
quadratis;  setae  pappi  ca.  45-48  robustiores  ad  6  mm  longae 
distaliter  angustiores  apice  acutae.   Grana  pollinis  in  diametro 
ca.  25  pn. 

TYPE:  COLOMBIA:  Boyaca:  Ventaquemada,  bosques  al  occidente 
de  la  Carretera  Central  en  el  km  106.   Alt.  2900  m.   Arbustillo 
de  cerca  de  1  metro.   Inf lorescencias  de  bello  color  violeta. 
die.  1972.  Lorenzo  Uribe  Uribe  7651   (Holotype,  US). 

The  new  species  is  distinctive  in  its  subsessile  leaves 
with  cordate  bases.  It  resembles  A.  glutinosa  of  Ecuador  in 
the  cordate  bases  and  bullate  upper  surfaces  of  the  leaves ,  but 

36 


1983  King  &  Robinson,  Various  new  species  37 

s  evidently  not  very  closely  related,  having  a  basically  trinerv- 
ate  rather  than  pinnate  venation.   Although  there  is  no  doubt  of 
the  generic  placement,  the  carpopodium  of  the  new  species  differs 
from  those  of  other  Aristeguietia   species  by  its  short  subquadrate 
rather  than  oblong  cells. 

AGERATINA  (Typical)  BISHOPII  R.  M.  King  &  H,  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suf f ruticosae  in  parte  ca.  15  cm  altae  multo  ramosae. 
Caules  f lavo-brunnescentes  subteretes  dense  puberuli,  intemodis 
plerumque  5-10  mm  longis.  Folia  opposita,  petiolis  2-4  mm  longis; 
laminae  ovatae  7-15  mm  longae  4-9  mm  latae  base  rotundatae  vel 
subtruncatae  margine  3-5-crenato-serrulatae  apice  breviter  acutae 
fere  ad  basem  trinervatae  supra  et  subtus  sparse  puberulae  subtus 
in  nervis  densiores.   Inf lores centiae  laxe  ramosae,  ramls  ultimis 
14-30  mm  longis  dense  minute  puberulis.   Capitula  5  mm  alta  et 
3-5  mm  lata;  squamae  involucri  ca.  20  eximbricatae  biseriatae 
anguste  ellipticae  2.5-3.5  mm  longae  0.5-0.8  mm  latae  apice 
obtusae  extus  bicostatae  sparse  puberulae.   Flores  25-32  in 
capitulo;  corollae  albae  ca.  3  mm  longae,  tubis  1.2  mm  longis 
perangustatis  glabris ,  faucibus  abrupte  breviter  campanulatis  ca. 
1.3  mm  longis  ad  1  mm  latis  extus  base  et  apice  sparse  pilosulis 
supeme  longiores  intus  inf  erne  pauce  breviter  pilosulis,  lobis 
triangularibus  0.7  ram  longis  et  latis  extus  longe  pilosulis  intus 
distincte  laxe  papillosis;  filamenta  in  parte  superiore  0 . 2  mm 
longa;  thecae  antherarum  ca.  0.6  mm  longae;  appendices  antherarum 
ca.  0.2  mm  longae  et  0.15  ram  latae;  basi  stylorum  leniter  nodul- 
iferi;  rami  stylorum  dense  papillosi.   Achaenia  subfusiformia  ca. 
2  mm  longa  in  costis  infeme  scabridula  supeme  setulifera;  carp- 
opodia  cylindrica, cellulis  elongatls;  setae  pappi  ca.  20  facile 
deciduae  ca.  2.5  mm  longae  distallter  vlx  latiores,  scabris 
inferioribus  contortis  apice  rotundatae;  seriebus  exteriores 
subnullis.   Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  20-23  pm. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Amazonas :  40  kms  along  road  from  Leimebamba  SW 
towards  Celendin.   Elevation  ca.  8400  ft.   Herb  in  pasture, 
flowers  white.   19  January  1983.  R.M.King  &  I.E. Bishop  9246 
(Holotype,  US). 

The  new  species  is  similar  in  habit  to  A.    saopulonan    (Wedd.) 
K.&  R. ,  but  it  has  smaller  heads  and  has  shorter  broader  throats 
in  the  corolla.   Actual  closest  relationship  seems  to  be  to  A. 
ahoriaephaloides    (B.L.Robins.)  K.&  R.  which  is  generally  a  more 
robust  plant,  often  subscandent,  with  larger  slightly  cordate- 
based  leaf  blades.   The  latter  typical  also  bears  stipitate 
glands  on  the  pedicels,  a  feature  not  seen  in  the  available 
material  of  the  new  species.   The  corolla  of  A.    bishopii   has  a 
corolla  throat  generally  broader  and  shorter  than  those  of 
relatives  with  comparatively  larger  lobes,  and  the  type  shows 
hairs  on  the  inner  of  the  corolla  throat  near  the  base  unlike 
any  related  species.   The  species  is  named  for  the  collector, 
Luther  Earl  Bishop. 


38  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

AGERATINA  (Andinia)  BARCLAYAE  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  fruticosae  ca.  0.5  m  latae  mediocriter  ramosae. 
Caules  brunnescentes  teretes  dense  articulate  hirsuti.   Folia 
opposita,  petiolis  5-10  mm  longis  dense  hirsutis;  laminae  late 
ellipticae  6-9  cm  longae  et  2,2-4,0  cm  latae  base  acutae  margine 
obscure  serrulatae  interdum  anguste  reflexae  apice  obtusae  vel 
breviter  acutae  supra  et  subtus  sparse  hirsutae  in  nervulis 
prominulae,  nervis  primariis  utrinque  dense  hirsutis  subtus  prom- 
inentibus,  nervis  secundariis  pinnatis  utrinque  ca,  6,   Inflores- 
centiae  in  ramis  terminales  late  corymbosae  ascendentiter  ramosae, 
ramis  ultimis  pierumque  10-15  mm  longis  dense  hirsutis.   Capitula 
ca.  10  mm  alta  et  8-10  mm  lata;  squamae  involucri  ca.  15  eximbri- 
catae  1-2-seriatae  6-7  mm  longae  et  1.0-1.5  mm  latae  apice  acutae 
extus  leniter  bicostatae  distincte  hirtellae.   Flores  ca.  35-40 
in  capitulo;  corollae  distaliter  rubro-violaceae  ca.  7  mm  longae 
leniter  infundibulares  extus  glabrae,  tubis  ca.  3  ram  longis, 
faucibus  ca.  3  mm  longis,  lobis  triangularibus  ca.  1  mm  longis  et 
0.7  mm  latis  intus  dense  breviter  papillosis;  filamenta  in  parte 
superiore  ca.  0.5  mm  longa,  cellulis  pierumque  subquadratis ; 
thecae  antherarum  ca.  2  mm  longae,  cellulis  quadratis;  appendices 
antherarum  ca.  0.25  mm  longae  et  0.3  mm  latae;  basi  stylorum  non 
noduliferi;  appendices  stylorum  dense  breviter  papillosae  apice 
subtruncatae.   Achaenia  submatura  ca.  3.5  ram  longa  dense  breviter 
glandulifera  et  sparse  scabridula;  carpopodia  breviter  obtura- 
culiformia,  cellulis  quadratis;  setae  pappi  ca.  28  subpersisten- 
tes  ca.  7.5  mm  longae  distaliter  pallide  lavandulae  leniter 
latiores  apice  acutae;  seriebus  exteriores  brevibus  pierumque 
0.3-0.4  mm  longae.   Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  40  pm. 

TYPE:  COLOMBIA:  Magdalena:  Sierra  Nevada  de  Santa  Marta, 
alrededores  de  cabeceras  de  Rio  Sevilla.   Under  trees  of  bosque 
(low  forest)  on  north  facing  slope  below  and  west  of  campsite, 
Sta.  10.   Alt.  cerca  3330  m.  Stem  covered  with  jointed  brown 
hairs.   Leaf  blades  to  9  X  4  cm,  lighter  with  darker  veins  and 
more  hairs  below.   Involucre  green  hairy;  no  rays;  disc  flowers 
light  red-violet,  deeper  at  tips;  pappus  pink  to  light  red- 
violet.  Jan.  27,  1959.  Harviet  G.   Barolay  &  Pedro  Juajibioy 
6724    (Holotype,  US). 

The  species  has  the  general  appearance  of  the  subgenus 
Andinia  and  in  spite  of  the  slight  immaturity  of  the  heads,  the 
species  shows  details  that  justify  such  a  placement.   Still,  the 
species,  like  many  from  Santa  Marta,  is  unusual  in  the  genus, 
both  in  the  lack  of  a  basal  node  on  the  style  and  in  the  dense 
hirsute  pubescence  on  stems,  leaves,  and  inflorescence.   The 
other  Colombian  species  lacking  a  basal  stylar  node,  A.    arassi- 
oeps    (B.L.Robins.)  K.&  R. ,  is  an  essentially  glabrous  glutinous 
plant  with  fewer  noding  heads  and  subimbricate  graduated  invol- 
ucral  bracts.   The  densely  glanduliferous  and  sparsely  scabrid- 
ulous  achenes  with  somewhat  thickened  walls  in  part  of  the 
carpopodium  mark  the  new  species ,  but  also  occur  in  some  other 
members  of  the  subgenus.   The  retrorse  position  of  the  leaves  in 


1983  King  &  Robinson,  Various  new  species  39 

the  type  may  be  an  artifact  of  pressing. 

The  species  is  named  in  honor  of  the  collector,  Harriet  G. 
Barclay. 

AGERATINA  (Andinia)  BOEKEI  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  fruticosae  ad  3  m  altae  mediocriter  ramosae.   Caules 
atro-brunnescentes  valde  costati  dense  grosse  pilosi  vel  hirsuti. 
Folia  opposita,  petiolis  5-10  mm  longis;  laminae  anguste  ellip- 
ticae  subsessiles  plerumque  9-17  cm  longae  et  1.5-3.5  cm  latae  in 
ramis  ca.  5  cm  longae  et  ca.  1.5  cm  latae  base  anguste  acutae 
leniter  acuminatae  margine  integrae  vel  subintegrae  saepe  anguste 
revolutae  apice  subacutae    vel  leniter  acuminatae  supra  planae 
sparse  pilosae  subtus  pallidiores  sparse  pilosae  in  nervis  et 
nervulis  prominentes  et  promlnulae,  nervis  secundariis  pinnatis 
utrinque  plerumque  5-10.   Inf lorescentiae  late  dense  corymbosae, 
ramis  late  divaricatis,  ramis  ultimis  1-3  mm  longis  dense  hirtel- 
lis.   Capitula  ca.  8  mm  lata  et  5  mm  lata;  squamae  involucri  ca. 
17  leniter  subimbricatae  2-3-seriatae  anguste  oblongae  2.5-4.5 
mm  longae  et  0.7-1.5  mm  latae  apice  obtusae  interdum  denticulatae 
extus  leniter  4-costatae  glabrae  vel  sparse  puberulae.   Flores 
12-15  in  capitulo;  corollae  albae  ca.  5.5  mm  longae  leniter 
infundibulares  extus  sparse  glanduliferae  in  tubis  densiores, 
tubis  ca.  1.8  mm  longis,  faucibus  ca.  3  mm  longis,  lobis  tri- 
angularibus  ca.  0.7  mm  longis  et  0.5  mm  latis  intus  dense 
breviter  papillosis;  filamenta  in  parte  superiore  ca.  0.4  mm 
longa;  thecae  antherarum  ca.  1.5  ram  longae;  appendices  anther- 
arum  ca.  0.3  mm  longae  et  ca.  0.2  mm  latae;  basi  stylorum  leniter 
nodulosi;  appendices  stylorum  dense  breviter  papillosae.   Achaen- 
ia  ca.  3  mm  longa  dense  glandulifera,  scabris  brevibus  plerumque 
in  cellulis  uniseriatis  in  costis  dispositis;  carpopodia  per- 
breviter  obturaculiformia  leniter  rotundata,  cellulis  quadratis; 
setae  pappi  ca.  25  plerumque  3.0-4.5  mm  longae  persistentes  sub- 
scabridae  distaliter  non  vel  vix  latiores  apice  breviter  acutae; 
seriebus  exteriores  sparsae  ad  0.4  mm  longis.   Grana  pollinis  in 
diametro  ca.  28  pm. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Amazonas :  Prov.  Chachapoyas .   Leimebamba- 
Lajasbamba  trail.   Lajasbamba.   Elfin  forest.   Shrub  ca.  3  m. 
Heads  white.   27  June  1977.  Jef  D.    Boeke   2024    (Holotype,  US). 

The  new  species  is  a  coarser  more  pubescent  plant  with 
larger  leaves  and  more  ribbed  stems  than  other  members  of  the 
subgenus  in  Peru.   The  species  has  none  of  the  glutinous  stem 
and  leaf  surface  found  in  A.    wurdaakii   which  occurs  in  the  same 
general  area.   The  new  species  has  some  resemblance  to  the 
Colombian  and  Venezuelan  member  of  the  subgenus,  A.    nerii folia 
(B.L.Robins.)  K.&  R. ,  but  the  latter  plant  seems  less  coarse  in 
all  parts,  lacks  the  ribs  on  the  stems,  and  has  slender  petioles 
and  leaf  tips.   The  uniseriate  scabri  of  the  achene  are  rather 
distinctive.   Both  this  and  the  previous  species  have  pollen 
grains  larger  than  found  in  most  Eupatorieae,  but  the  present 
species  is  less  exceptional  than  the  preceding. 


40  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

The  new  species  is  named  in  honor  of  the  collector,  Jef 
Boeke. 

CRDNQUISTIANTHUS  BISHOPII  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  frutlcosae  ca.  1  m  altae  medlocrlter  ramosae.   Caules 
sordldo-f lavl  subteretes  et  striati  dense  lanati.   Folia  opposita, 
petiolis  distinctis  1-2  cm  longis ;  laminae  ovatae  6-10  cm  longae 
et  3.0-4.5  cm  latae  base  rotundatae  margine  multo  crenato- 
serratae  apice  breviter  acutae  supra  bullatae  dense  pilosulae 
subtus  albo-lanatae,  nervis  secundariis  pinnatis  utrinque  ca. 
8-11.   Inflorescentiae  in  ramis  terminales  late  corymbosae  ca. 
16  cm  altae  et  12  cm  latae,  ramulis  ultimis  plerumque  1-2  mm 
longis  dense  lanatis.   Capitula  ca.  7  mm  alta  et  3  mm  lata; 
squamae  involucri  f lavo-brunnescentes  ca.  18  distincte  subimbri- 
catae  3-seriatae  1.5-5.0  mm  longae  et  1.0-1.7  mm  latae  apice 
rotundatae  vel  vix  obtusae  extus  4-costatae  exteriores  sparse 
minute  glandulo-punctatae  et  sparse  puberulae  caetera  glabrae. 
Flores  ca.  14  in  capitulo;  corollae  albae  ca.  4  mm  longae  leniter 
inf undibulares ,  tubis  ca.  2  mm  longis  glabris,  faucibus  e  tubis 
indistincte  demarcatis  ca.  1.5  mm  longis  extus  persparse  gland- 
uliferis  intus  fere  ad  basem  antherarum  valde  plicatis,  lobis 
triangularibus  0.45  mm  longis  et  0.4  mm  latis  extus  dense  gland- 
uliferis;  filamenta  in  parte  superiore  ca.  0.4  mm  longa,  cellulis 
in  parietibus  valde  annulate  ornatis ;  thecae  antherarum  ca.  0.8 
mm  longae;  appendices  antherarum  ca.  0.2  mm  longae  et  0.17  mm 
latae;  appendices  stylorum  dense  breviter  papillosae.   Achaenia 
1.8-2.0  mm  longa  5-costata  plerumque  in  costis  longe  setulifera; 
carpopodia  obturaculiformia  ca.  0.35  pm  lata  et  0.2-0.35  pm 
longa  distincte  asymmetrica;  setae  pappi  ca.  40  plerumque  2.5- 
3.5  mm  longae  apice  tenuiores  argute  acutae.   Grana  pollinis  in 
diametro  ca.  20  um. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Amazonas :  Mountains  behind  Tingo.   Elev.  ca. 
7000  ft.   Shrub  one  meter  tall,  flowers  whitish.   21  January 
1983.  R.M.King  &  I.E. Bishop  9281   (Holotype,  US). 

The  new  species  is  thoroughly  distinctive  in  the  genus  by 
the  densely  lanate  stems  and  leaf  undersurf aces.   The  plant  is 
also  larger  with  larger  leaf  blades  than  seen  in  most  members 
of  the  genus.   The  well-developed  flanges  on  the  inside  of  the 
corolla  around  the  bases  of  the  anther  filaments  are  reminescent 
of  those  in  C.  kalenhomianus     which  may  indicate  some  relation- 
ship. 

The  species  is  named  in  honor  of  Luthur  Earl  Bishop  who 
collected  the  specimen. 

CRONQUISTIANTHUS  LOPEZ -MIRANDAE  (Cabrera)  R.M.King  &  H.Robinson, 

comb.  nov.  Eupatorium  lopezmirccndae   Cabrera,  Bol.  Soc. 
Argent.  Hot.  10:  21.  1962.   The  species  was  originally  described 
by  Cabrera  from  the  interior  of  the  Dept.  of  La  Libertad  in  Peru, 
close  to  the  border  of  Cajamarca.   A  second  specimen  has  now 
been  seen,  from  southeastern  Cajamarca  along  the  Quebrada  de  San 


1983  King  &  Robinson,  Various  new  species  41 

Vicente,  southwest  of  Cajamarca,  at  2700  m  alt.   June  11-12,  1948. 
collected  by  F.    W.   Pennell   15486    (PH) .   On  the  basis  of  the 
closeness  of  the  localities  and  close  match  with  the  description, 
there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  that  a  single  species  is  involved. 
Still,  on  the  basis  of  the  new  specimen,  it  would  seem  that 
Cabrera  illustrated  the  tips  of  the  involucral  bracts  too  narrow- 
ly.  The  bracts  in  the  Pennell  specimen  do  not  obviously  taper 
and  they  have  rounded  tips  as  in  other  species  of  the  genus.   The 
most  obvious  distinction  of  the  species  is  the  short  pappus,  less 
than  1  mm  long.   A  somewhat  shortened  pappus,  about  half  as  long 
as  the  corolla,  also  occurs  in  another  Peruvian  species,  however, 
C.    infantesii   K.&  R.,  also  of  La  Libertad.   A  greater  reason  for 
excluding  the  Cabrera  species  from  the  genus  would  be  the  comp- 
aratively weak  asymmetry  of  the  carpopodium,  but  the  asymmetry 
is  most  obvious  where  it  is  most  helpful,  on  the  surface.   The 
cells  of  the  corolla  have  a  slight  development  of  oxalate 
crystals,  a  feature  almost  unknown  in  the  tribe  even  to  the 
slight  extent  involved.   The  only  other  example  that  has  been 
observed  is  in  the  same  genus  in  C.    kalenbomianus    (B.L.Robins.) 
K.&  R. 

HEBECLINIUM  KNAPPII  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suf fruticosae  ca.  1  m  altae  mediocriter  ramosae. 
Caules  rubescentes  tenues  subteretes  striati  sparse  appresse 
pilosuli.   Folia  opposita,  petiolis  4-7  mm  longis ;  laminae 
oblongo-ovatae  membranaceae  7-13  cm  longae  et  3-4  cm  latae  base 
late  rotundatae  margine  remote  serratae  apice  anguste  acuminatae 
supra  et  subtus  subglabrae  laeves  in  nervis  et  nervulis  sparse 
appresse  puberulae,  nervis  secundariis  pinnatis  utrinque  3-4 
arcuatis  sensim  valde  ascendentibus .   Inf lorescentiae  in  ramis 
terminales  laxe  ramosae  dense  ramulosae  corymbosae,  ramis 
ultimis  tenuibus  1-6  mm  longis  minute  puberulis.   Capitula  5-6 
ram  alta  et  ca.  4  mm  lata;  squamae  involucri  ca.  30  distincte 
subimbricatae  ca.  4-seriatae  anguste  oblongae  vel  lanceolatae 
1.5-4.0  mm  longae  et  0.4-0.6  mm  latae  apice  obtusae  extus  anguste 
4-costatae  sparse  minute  puberulae.   Flores  ca.  34  in  capitulo; 
corollae  albae  ca.  3  mm  longae  leniter  infundibulares ,  tubis 
cylindraceis  ca.  1.5  mm  longis  extus  glabris,  faucibus  ca.  1.5 
mm  longis  base  et  distaliter  sparse  puberulis,  lobis  triangular- 
ibus  ca.  0.3  mm  longis  et  latis  extus  dense  puberulis,  setis 
uniseriatis  apice  rotundatis;  filamenta  in  parte  superiore  ca. 
0.2  mm  longa;  thecae  antherarum  ca.  1  mm  longae;  appendices 
antherarum  ca.  0.2  mm  longae  et  0.15  mm  latae;  appendices  styl- 
orum  filiformes  subflexuosae  subteretes  leniter  mamillosae  apice 
vix  latiores.   Achaenia  ca.  1.7  mm  longa  leniter  curvata  in 
costis  supeme  uniseriate  setulifera;  carpopodia  indistincta, 
cellulis  tenuis;  setae  pappi  ca.  35-40  contigues  ca.  3  mm  longae 
distaliter  vix  latiores  apice  acutae.   Grana  pollinis  in  diamet- 
ro  ca.  20  pm. 

TYPE:  PANAMA:  Darien:  Top  of  ridges  separating  R^o  Jaque 


42  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

Valley  from  Pacific  Ocean;  7026'N,  78°05'W.   Tropical  wet  forest; 
elev.  300-500  m.   Herb  1.0  m;  flowers  white;  leaves  purple 
beneath.   24  January  1982.  S.Knapp  &  J, Mallet  3090   (Holotype, 
US;  isotype,  MO) . 

The  new  species  is  one  of  a  group  of  slender-stemmed 
acuminate-leaved  species  from  Colombia  and  Panama  including 
H.    lellingern.   K.&  R.  and  H.    gentryi   K.&  R.   The  former  from  the 
Choco  in  Colombia  differs  most  by  the  acute  leaf  bases,  the  more 
glabrous  stems   leaves  and  involucral  bracts,  the  fewer  hairs  on 
the  corolla  lobes,  the  minute  glands  on  the  achenes ,  and  the 
distinct  enlargements  on  the  tips  of  the  pappus  bristles.   The 
latter  species,  H.    gentinji,   also  from  the  Choco,  is  much  closer 
to  H.    knccppii y   but  differs  by  the  lanate  stems  and  leaf  veins, 
the  shorter  more  ovate  leaves  with  obtuse  bases,  the  somewhat 
longer  petioles,  the  densely  puberulous  rounded  tips  on  the 
involucral  bracts,  the  more  numerous  usually  ca.  5-seriate 
involucral  bracts,  and  the  seemingly  more  flexuous  style  branch- 
es . 

The  species  is  named  in  honor  of  the  collector,  Sandra 
Knapp. 

KOANOPHYLLON  SAGASTEGUII  R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suffruticosae  ad  1  m  altae  mediocriter  ramosae. 
Caules  brunnescentes  subteretes  leniter  striati  dense  breviter 
puberuli.   Folia  opposita,  petiolis  tenuibus  5-15  mm  longis ; 
laminae  ovatae  2-6  cm  longae  et  1.2-3.2  cm  latae  base  late 
rotundatae  supra  basem  trinervatae  margine  utrinque  8-15-serru- 
latae  apice  breviter  argute  acuminatae  supra  dense  hirtello- 
pilosulae  et  minute  glandulo-punctatae  subtus  pallidiores  brev- 
iter dense  tomentellae  obscure  glandulo-punctatae.   Inflores- 
centiae  in  ramis  terminales  pyramidaliter  thyrsoideo-paniculatae 
in  ramis  subdense  corymbosae,  ramis  ultimis  3-12  mm  longis  dense 
puberulis.   Capitula  ca.  1  cm  alta;  squamae  involucri  ca.  15 
minime  subimbricatae  2-3-seriatae  lanceolatae  3-5  mm  longae  et 
0.5-0.8  mm  latae  apice  anguste  acutae  extus  leniter  bicostatae 
breviter  puberulae  et  sparse  minute  glandulo-punctatae.   Flores 
ca.  25  in  capitulo;  corollas  albae  ca.  4.5  mm  longae,  tubis  ca. 
2  mm  longis  cylindraceis  glabris,  faucibus  ca.  2  mm  longis  len- 
iter infundibularibus  glabris,  lobis  triangularibus  ca.  0.6  mm 
longis  et  0.5  mm  latis  extus  multo  glandulo-punctatis  obsitis; 
filamenta  in  parte  superiore  ca.  0.35  mm  longa;  thecae  anther- 
arum  ca.  1.3  mm  longae;  appendices  antherarum  oblongo-ovatae  ca. 
0.27  mm  longae  et  0.2  mm  latae  ad  medio  exaratae;  rami  stylorum 
distaliter  vix  vel  non  latiores.   Achaenia  3.5-3.8  mm  longa 
dense  glandulifera  sparse  breviter  scabro-setulifera  infeme 
leniter  angustiores;  carpopodia  perbreviter  obturaculiformia; 
setae  pappi  ca.  30  plerumque  ca.  4.5  mm  longae  distaliter 
distincte  leniter  latiores  et  scabriores.   Grana  pollinis  in 
diametro  ca.  20  pm  breviter  papillate  splnulifera. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Cajamarca:  Dept.  Cajamarca.  El  Molino  (San 


1983  King  &  Robinson,  Various  new  species  43 

Pablo).  Alt.  2320  m.   Sufrvltice  con  capftulos  blanquecinos .   22 
Mayo  1975.  A.Sagastegui  A.    &  J.Cabanillas   5.  8011   (Holotype,  IJ; 
Isotype,  US) 

The  pyramidal  Inflorescence  and  weakly  subimbrlcate  invol- 
ucre might  suggest  relationship  to  the  typical  element  of  the 
genus,  but  the  anther  appendages  are  distinctly  longer  than  wide, 
a  feature  seen  in  the  genus  thus  far  only  In  various  atypical 
members.   The  lack  of  broadened  tips  on  the  style  branches  is 
also  unusual  though  not  unique  in  the  genus.   The  corolla  lobes 
of  the  species  are  only  slightly  longer  than  wide,  but  most 
other  species  of  the  genus  have  the  lobes  consistently  slightly 
shorter  than  wide.   The  species  can  be  most  easily  identified  by 
the  short  sharp  acuminations  of  the  leaves  and  the  soft  pubes- 
cence on  the  leaf  undersurface. 

The  new  species  is  named  in  honor  of  the  collector,  Abundio 
Sagastegui  Alva  of  the  Universidad  Nacional  de  Trujillo  in  Peru. 


44 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,   No.    1 


274i:<0ti 


NATIONAI.  HtRBARIUM 


Aristeguietia  ur-ibei   R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  Holotype, 
United  States  National  Herbarium.   Photos  by  Victor  E.  Krantz, 
Staff  Photographer,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History, 


\ 


1983 


King  &  Robinson,    Various   new  specif 


45 


i, 


UMITtO     STATtS 


2933993 


NATIONilL      HCIIBAIIIUK 


I 


I'l.ANTAl   HlRl  \rANAI 
KINC.II  BISHOPIlgt'l^ 

Mton..:    40  Il»   .ion,  ra«l   froa  Uiarb.M>.   «w 
towarJa   Olrndin        CUvalisn  c«.    MOO    (t 

■rh    in   pa*turf ,    floweri  white. 

I.  ...  Il.«i>.  Mll.m  Ki«.M  1,  ,«,  ,  .,    ^  ,.,  . 


Ageratina  bishovii    ^     m     v 
>'"U.d  states  Nat,o„,THeL";.,^"«  '  «•    ^"^ 


Lnson,    Holotype, 


46 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  1 


AgeraUna  baratayae   R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  Holotype, 
United  States  National  Herbarium 


1983 


King  &  Robinson, 


Various  new  species 


47 


puurts  Of  Twm 


O.,to.   *-.««—     '"»•    O-'"*!""" 


H»IIOtl«l.    MtRMBIU" 


Ageratina  boekei   R.  M.  King  8. 
States  National  Herbarium. 


H.  Robinson,  Holotype,  United 


48 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    1 


UNITtD    5T«TfS 


L'f)33fl(;i 


rtONAL      HERBARIUM 


I'l  ANTAI    I'l  HrVIASM 

kiN(>ii  iirsHoi'iiyri 

N..      ''-hi                                                                                         '' 

Cronq4ii5tianthuf«   bi»hopii    H.H.Kin. 

Ama2ona«:    aK>untAin«   behind  Tinf;o 
7000   ft. 

Shrub   one   meter   tall,    (lowor.  wh,l.>„ 

LK.Hi  R<«MT  MMKIU  KiW.  tT  ll  tKH.  t  .«,   h     ,. 

:r::;:r:::r::r' ^'-" 

Cronquistianthus  bishopii   R,  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  Holotype, 
United  States  National  Herbarium. 


1983  King  &  Robinson,  Various  new  species  49 


»'ri>  nhtt'i  l<xv,.. 


2;i.j(itin 


NATIONAL      HCRDOIIUM 


Nts'Sw*!   XITAMICAL  CAkDOl  nHitVll.'*' 


Hebealinium  knapvii   R.  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  Holotype, 
United  States  National  Herbarium. 


PHYTOLOGIA 


UNIVERSIDAD     NACIONAL     DE     TRUJILLO 

FLORA      PERUA 


Hobilol;       l**" 
AlMud:         ^^^'^ 


ic   M.yo  1,975 


Leg  A.  Sagditegu)  A. 
J.  Cobonilios  S. 
O.  Oio.  C. 


Koanophyllon  sagasteguii   R,  M.  King  &  H.  Robinson,  Holotype, 
United  States  National  Herbarium. 


1983 


King  &  Robinson,  Various  new  species 


51 


I  I  I  1  I  I  I  I  i  I  M  i  M  I  I  I  I  i  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  M  M  I  I  I  I  I  I 


Enlargements  of  heads.   Top  left.  Artstegutetia  uribei. 
Top  right.  Ageratina  bishovii.      Bottom  left.  Hebealinium 
knappii.      Bottom  right.  Koanophyllon  sagasteguii. 


STUDIES  IN  THE  HELIANTHEAE  (ASTERACEAE) .  XXX. 
FOUR  NEW  SPECIES  FROM  PERU. 


Harold  Robinson 

Department  of  Botany 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.,  20560. 


Recent  specimens  from  Peru  collected  by  R.  M.  King  and 
L.  E.  Bishop  include  representatives  of  four  undescribed  species 
of  the  tribe  Heliantheae.   The  species  are  described  here  to 
allow  duplicates  to  be  distributed  under  the  names. 

HELIANTHOPSIS  BISHOPII  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  subarborescentes  ad  3  m  altae  mediocriter  vel  multo 
ramosae.   Caules  subhexagonales  dense  f lavo-lanati;  pilis  base 
vermiformibus  apice  perelongatis  nematiformibus .   Folia  altema, 
petiolis  5-13  mm  longis  dense  lanatis ;  laminae  ovatae  vel  anguste 
ovatae  plerumque  3-6  cm  longae  et  0.8-2.0  cm  latae  base  breviter 
acutae  margine  integrae  anguste  reflexae  apice  anguste  acutae 
vel  acuminatae  fere  ad  basem  leniter  trinervatae  supra  atro- 
virides  minute  subbullatae  dense  scabridae  subtus  dense  flavo- 
tomentosae  vel  lanatae.   Inf lorescentiae  in  ramis  foliosis 
terminales  sessiles  unicapitatae.   Capitula  ca.  2  cm  alta, 
involucra  ca.  3  cm  lata  dense  sordido-lanata;   squamae  involucri 
A5-50  ca.  A-seriatae  reflexae  lanceolatae  12-17  mm  longae  et 
3-4  mm  latae  apice  anguste  acutae  vel  leniter  acuminatae  supra 
serisceae  interiores  glabrae  subtus  lanatae;  paleae  atrescentes 
oblongo-ellipticae  ad  9  mm  longae  ca.  3  mm  latae  apice  erectae 
breviter  acutae  extus  glabrae  in  medio  anguste  carinatae. 
Flores  radii  ca.  30  in  capitulo;  corollae  flavae  ca.  30  mm  longae 
in  tubis  2.5  mm  longis  in  laminis  ad  3.2  mm  latae  apice  anguste 
bidentatae  extus  pilosulae  et  minute  glanduliferae  in  tubis 
densiores.   Achaenia  radii  sterilia.   Flores  disci  ca.  250  in 
capitulo;  corollae  inf erne  flavae  distaliter  nigrescentes  7  mm 
longae,  tubis  ca.  2  mm  longis  extus  scabridis  supeme  densiores, 
faucibus  longe  campanulatis  3.5  mm  longis  extus  base  dense 
scabridulae,  lobis  triangularibus  ca.  1.5  mm  longis  et  0.8  mm 
latis  vix  scabridis;  filamenta  antherarum  in  parte  superiore  ca. 
0.2  mm  longa;  thecae  antherarum  nigrae  ca.  2.7  mm  longae; 
appendices  antherarum  nigrescentes  ovatae  ca.  0.6  mm  longae  et 
0.4  mm  latae  extus  pauce  glanduliferae.   Achaenia  disci  sub- 
matura  ca.  4  mm  longa  et  1  mm  lata  glabra;  subulae  pappi  pallidae 
deciduae  lineari-lanceolatae  ca.  3  mm  longae  inf erne  ad  0.3  mm 
latae.   Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  38  pn  longe  anguste 
spinulosa. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Cajamarca:  62  kms  NE  of  Cajamarca  along  the 
road  to  Celendin.   Elevation  11,000  ft.   Small  tree  to  3  meters 

52 


1983  Robinson,  Four  new  species  53 

tall,  ray  flowers  yellow,  disc  yellow-brown.   9  January  1983. 
/?.  M.    King  S  L.    E.    Bishop  9141   (Holotype,  US). 

Helianthopsis  bishopii   would  key  roughly  in  Robinson  (1979) 
to  H.    stuebelii    (Hieron.)  H.  Robins,  also  of  northern  Peru,  but 
the  latter  has  non-lanate  stems  and  has  more  branching  inflores- 
cences with  longer  pedunculate  heads.   The  new  species  actually 
seems  closest  to  the  more  recently  described  H.    smithii   Ferreyra 
(1980)  from  the  neighboring  region  of  La  Libertad,  but  the  latter 
seems  to  be  a  smaller  plant  in  all  its  parts  with  somewhat  fewer 
flowers  in  the  heads  and  yellow  disc  corollas  and  anther  append- 
ages.  The  latter  also  has  more  numerous  and  more  prominent  hairs 
on  the  lower  half  of  the  disc  corolla  throat. 

HELIANTHOPSIS  UTOJBAMBENSIS  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suf f ruticosae  ad  1.5  m  altae  mediocriter  ramosae. 
Caules  brunnescentes  teretes  hispidi.   Folia  altema;  petiolis 
plerumque  1-2  cm  longis ;  laminae  ovatae  vel  anguste  ovatae  4-10 
cm  longae  et  i. 5-4.5  cm  latae  base  acutae  vel  leniter  acuminatae 
base  vel  fere  ad  basem  ascendentiter  trinervatae  margine  sub- 
integrae  vel  serrulatae  planae  apice  anguste  acutae  vel  distincte 
acuminatae  supra  minute  velutinae  subtus  cinereo-tomentellae. 
Inflorescentiae  terminales  divaricate  ramosae  foliosae  pauce 
capitatae,  ramis  ultimis  maturitatis  plerumque  2-4  cm  longis 
dense  hispidulis.   Capitula  8-9  mm  alta  et  ca.  12  mm  lata; 
squamae  involucri  ca.  18-20  bi-tri-seriatae  oblongo-lanceolatae 
6-7  mm  longae  et  ca.  2  mm  latae  apice  acutae  reflexae  extus  et 
distaliter  intus  dense  hirtellae  vel  subtomentellae ;  paleae 
oblongo-ovatae  ca.  5.5  mm  longae  et  1.5  mm  latae  apice  acutae  et 
in  squamis  inter!  oribus  reflexae  extus  sparse  vel  dense  puberulae 
in  medio  prominule  costatae.   Flores  radii  ca.  12  in  capitulo; 
corollae  flavae  ca.  10  mm  longae  in  tubis  ca.  1.5  mm  longae  et 
in  laminis  ad  4.2  mm  latae  apice  late  bi-tri-lobatae  extus 
scabridulae  et  puberulae  supeme  in  costis  densiores,  glandulis 
minutis  plerumque  inter  costam  dispositis.   Achaenia  radii 
sterilia.   Flores  disci  ca.  50-60;  corolla  flavae  4.5-5.0  mm 
longae  extus  scabridulae  in  faucibus  in  nervis  densiores,  tubis 
1.0-1.5  mm  longis,  faucibus  longe  anguste  campanulatis  2.0-2.5 
mm  longis,  lobis  ca.  1.0  ram  longis  et  0.7  mm  latis  submargine 
densius  puberulentibus;  filamenta  antherarum  in  parte  superiore 
ca.  0.25  mm  longa;  thecae  antherarum  pallidae  ca.  1.7  mm  longae; 
appendices  antherarum  ovatae  ca.  0.4  mm  longae  et  0.3  mm  latae 
extus  saepe  glanduliferae.   Achaenia  disci  ca.  3  mm  longa  et  1.3 
mm  lata  sericeo-setulifera;  subulae  pappi  pallidae  deciduae 
lineari-lanceolatae  ca.  2.3  mm  longae  infeme  eroso-alatae  ad 
0.3  mm  latae.   Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  27  pm  longe 
spinulosa. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Amazonas :  Rio  Utcubamba  Valley,  3  kms  along 
road  S  of  Tingo.   Elevation  ca.  5500  ft.   Shrub  to  Ih   meters 
tall,  flowers  yellow.   21  January  1983.  R.   M.    King  &  L.    E. 
Bishop  9271    (Holotype,  US).   PARATYPES:  PERU:  Amazonas:  3  kms  E 


54  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

of  Chachapoyas  along  road  to  Mendoza.   Elevation  ca.  7000  ft. 
Rays  yellow,  disc  greenish  yellow.   12  January  1983.  R.   M.    King 
&  L.    E.    Bishop  9155    (US);    6  kms  along  road  W  of  Chachapoyas. 
Elevation  ca.  6600  ft.   Shrub  Ih   meters  tall,  flowers  yellow. 
13  January  1983.  H.    M.    King  &  L.    E.    Bishop  9193    (US). 

Helianthopsis  utcubambensis   is  clearly  a  member  of  the 
species  group  in  northern  Peru  having  pale  anther  thecae  (Robin- 
son, 1979),  and  is  geographically  close  to  or  sympatric  with  the 
other  members  of  the  group.   The  heads  are  of  the  size  range 
nearest  H.   matthewsii    (Hochr.)  H.Robinson  and  H.    verbesinoides 
(H.B.K.)  H.Robinson  but  have  reflexed  involucral  bracts  and  palea 
tips  as  in  the  more  recently  described  H.    hutahisonii   H.  Robinson 
and  H.    sagasteguii   H.  Robinson.   Of  the  latter  two,  the 
inflorescence  is  more  branched  and  foliose  as  in  H.    sagasteguii y 
but  the  pubescence  is  much  smaller,  nearer  that  of  H.    hutahisonii. 
The  two  related  species  seem  to  be  separated  somewhat  geographi- 
cally from  the  new  species  by  being  from  Cajamarca  in  the  Rio 
Maranon  Valley  at  the  eastern  edge  of  Amazonas .   The  related 
species  may  be  separated  seasonally  also,  both  having  been 
collected  in  May  while  the  present  specimens  are  mature  in  Janu- 
ary. 

PERYMENIUM  BISHOPII  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suffruticosae  ad  0.5  m  altae  inferne  mediocriter 
vel  multo  ramosae.   Caules  atro-brunnescentes  subteretes  vel  sub- 
haxagonales  dense  longe  albide  antrorse  scabridi.   Folia  opposita; 
petiolis  1-2  mm  longis ;  laminae  ellipticae  vel  oblongo-lanceolatae 
plerumque  1-3  cm  longae  et  0.3-0.9  cm  latae  base  acutae  margine 
obscure  subserrulatae  leniter  anguste  reflexae  apice  anguste 
acutae  fere  ad  basem  valde  trinervatae  supra  atro-virides  micro- 
bullatae  dense  albo-scabridae  subtus  dense  appresse  canescentiter 
strigosae,  pilis  in  parietibus  rugulosis.   Inf lorescentiae  in 
ramis  terminales  laxe  ramosae  foliosae  pauce  et  plerumque  tripli- 
citer  capitatae,  ramis  ultimis  plerumque  3-7  cm  longis  dense 
canescentiter  antrorse  strigosae.   Capitula  7-9  mm  alta  late 
campanulata;  squamae  involucri  ca.  10  herbaceae  suborbiculares 
ca.  5-6  mm  longae  et  4-5  mm  latae  margine  integrae  distincte 
anguste  reflexae  apice  breviter  obtusae  vel  rotundatae  extus 
dense  canescentiter  strigosae  longitudinaliter  6-8-nervatae; 
squamae  basilares  interdum  ovatae  breviter  acutae  base  minute 
dentatae;  paleae  late  lanceolatae  ca.  5  mm  longe  argute  acutae 
scarisoae  supeme  ad  medio  costatae  et  pauce  strigosae  margine 
uni-  vel  bi-dentatae.   Flores  radii  12-14  feminei;  corollae 
flavae  in  tubis  ca.  2  mm  longi  minute  hispidulae  in  laminis 
ob longae  ca.  10  mm  longae  et  4  mm  latae  apice  late  tridentatae 
extus  in  costis  strigulosae.   Flores  disci  hermaphroditi  50-75; 
corollae  flavae  ca.  5  mm  longae,  tubis  ca.  1.3-1.5  mm  longis 
extus  glabris,  faucibus  anguste  campanulatis  ca.  3  mm  longis 
extus  plerumque  glabris  base  pauce  scabridulls,  lobis  ca.  0.7  mm 
longis  et  0.5  mm  latls  extus  dense  scabridulls;  fllamenta  In 


1983  Robinson,  Four  new  species  55 

parte  superiore  ca,  0.35  mm  longa;  thecae  antherarum  nigrae  1.8- 
2.2  iran  longae;  appendices  antherarum  flavae  ovatae  ca.  0.6  mm 
longae  et  O.A  ram  latae;  rami  stylorum  apice  breviter  acuti  minute 
apiculati.   Achaenia  ca.  3.5  mm  longa  et  2  ram  lata  apice  constric- 
ta  pappifera  in  humeris  anguste  alata  et  breviter  setulifera  in 
superficiis  superioribus  dense  hispidula;  setae  pappi  breves  1-2 
mm  longae  mediocriter  deciduae  flavae.   Grana  pollinis  in  dia- 
raetro  ca.  26  pra. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Cajamarca:  8  kms  E  of  Cajamarca  along  road  to 
Celenin.   Elevation  8500  ft.   Subligneous  herb  to  3  dm  tall, 
flowers  yellow.   9  January  1983.  R.   M.    King  &  L.   E.    Bishop  9122 
(Holotype,  US).   PARATYPES:  PERU:  Cajamarca:  5  km  N  along  road 
from  Cajamarca  to  Bambamarca.   Elevation  ca.  8600  ft.   Uncommon 
subligneous  herb  in  pasture,  flowers  yellow.   8  January  1983. 
R.    M.    King  &  L.    E.    Bishop   9110    (US);  Ancash :  just  below  Chancos 
at  old  sawmill  (road  to  Vicos).   Common,  lax  very  scraggly  shrub- 
let  hanging  over  banks  on  steep  slopes.   Alt.  ca.  2850  m.   11 
March  1964.  P.  C.    Hutchison  &  J.    K.    Wright  4338   (US). 

The  species  is  distinct  from  others  in  Peru  and  Ecuador  by 
the  broad  canescently  strigose  involucral  bracts  having  slight 
but  distinct  raised  costae  in  at  least  the  middle.   The  rounded 
apical  margin  is  also  often  narrowly  reflexed  and  appearing 
thickened.   The  species  seems  closest  in  leaf  form  and  geo- 
graphy to  the  common  peruvian  P.  featherstonei   Blake  but  that 
has  flat  less  pubescent  apically  darkened  involucral  bracts. 
Both  the  other  peruvian  species ,  P.  matthewsii   Blake  and  P. 
serratum   have  broad  dark  flat  tips  on  the  involucral  bracts, 
broader  leaves,  and  the  latter  has  more  densely  serrate  leaves 
with  less  pubescent  lower  leaf  surfaces. 

WEDELIA  EPISCXDPALIS  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suff ruticosae  ad  1/2  m  altae  mediocriter  ramosae. 
Caules  brunnescentes  subteretes  dense  patentiter  vel  leniter 
retrorse  hispiduli.   Folia  opposita,  petiolis  5-12  mm  longis ; 
laminae  ovatae  plerumque  3.0-6.5  cm  longae  et  1.5-3.3  cm  latae 
base  obtusae  fere  ad  basem  ascendentiter  trinervatae  margine 
remote  minime  mucrono-denticulatae  apice  acutae  supra  et  subtus 
antrorse  delicate  sericeae  subtus  densiores  canescentes.   Inflor- 
escentiae  in  ramis  terminales  uni-  vel  tri-capitatae,  ramis 
ultimis  2-7  cm  longis  dense  patentiter  vel  leniter  retrorse 
hispidulis  et  perminute  puberulis.   Capitula  ca.  1  cm  alta  late 
campanulata;  squamae  involucri  ca.  12  suborbiculatae  vel  late 
oblongo-ovatae  6-8  mm  longae  et  ca.  4  mm  latae  margine  integrae 
apice  obtusae  vel  breviter  acutae  infeme  leniter  chartaceae 
supeme  sensim  submembranaceae  extus  vix  striatae  et  dense 
puberulae;  paleae  oblongae  apice  abrupte  breviter  acutae  extus 
subapice  et  ad  medio  dense  puberulae  caetera  subglabrae.   Flores 
radii  ca.  12;  corollae  flavae,  tubis  ca.  2  mm  longis  glabris, 
laminis  ob longis  10  mm  longis  et  4.5  mm  latis  subtus  in  costis 
dense  hispidulis.   Flores  disci  ca.  35;  corollae  sordido-f lavae 


56  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

ca.  5  mm  longae ,  tubls  ca.  1.5  mm  longis  glabris,  faucibus 
anguste  cylindraceo-campanulatis  ca.  3  mm  longis  extus  plerumque 
glabris,  lobis  ca.  0.8  mm  longis  et  0.6  mm  latis  extus  dense 
scabridulis  intus  submargine  dense  longe  papillate  fimbriatis; 
filamenta  in  parte  superiore  ca.  0.3  mm  longa;  thecae  antherarum 
nigrae  ca.  2  mm  longae;  appendices  antherarum  ovatae  ca.  0.45  mm 
longae  et  0.3  mm  latae;  appendices  stylorum  apice  anguste  attenu- 
atae.   Achaenia  ca.  6  mm  longa  dense  sericeo-setulifera  supeme 
valde  constricta  in  humeris  truncate  alata  in  collis  minute 
scabridula;  corona  pappi  brevis  minute  denticulato-fimbriata. 
Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  25  um. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Cajamarca:  Rio  Jequetepeque  Valley,  2  km  along 
road  W  of  Magdalena.   Elevation  ca.  3800  ft.   Subshrub  1/2  meter 
tall,  flowers  yellow.   7  January  1983.  R.   M.    King  &  L.    E.    Bishop 
9095    (Holotype,  US). 

The  species  does  not  have  the  long    acute  involucral 
bracts  seen  in  many  members  of  the  genus  including  W.    grandiflora 
Benth.  which  occurs  in  Peru.   Still,  there  are  no  short  outer 
bracts  such  as  those  of  the  distinctly  graduated  involucres  in 
W.    Qelskii   Hieron.  of  northern  Peru.   The  bracts  are  more  chart- 
aceous  basally  than  those  in  most  related  species,  and  the  bracts 
bear  a  finer  pubescence.   The  leaf  pubescence  is  more  sericeous 
than  strigose  and  there  are  no  evident  glandular  punctations. 

As  in  two  of  the  other  species  in  this  paper,  the  name 
honors  the  collector  Luther  Earl  Bishop. 


Literature  Cited 

Ferreyra,  R.  1980.  Especies  nuevas  de  Compuestas  Peruanas. 
Bol,  Soc.  Peruana  Bot.   8  (1-2):  75-82. 

Robinson,  H.  1979.  Studies  in  the  Heliantheae  (Asteraceae) 
XVIII.  A  new  genus  Helianthopsis .  Phytologia  44  (4): 
257-269. 


1983 


Robinson,  Four  new  species 


57 


L"'T'i'i'.i7 


UTIOWl       neRM 


Helianthopsis  bishopii   H.  Robinson,  Holotype,  United  States 
National  Herbarium.   Photos  by  Victor  E.  Krantz,  Staff  Photo- 
grapher, National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 


58 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  1 


Heliccnthopsis  utoubambensis   H.  Robinson,  Holotype,  United 
States  National  Herbarium. 


1983 


Robinson,    Four  new  species 


59 


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Perymenium  bishopii   H.  Robinson,  Holotype,  United  States 
National  Herbarium 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    1 


UNITED     STATES 


2070144 


NATK}NAL      HERBARIUM 


PIANTAl    PKRI'VIANAI 
KINl.ll  BISHOPIigi'b 


Cdjjimarca:    Rio  Jequec.p«qu«  Valley,   2  ten  along  road 
W  of  Magdalena.      Elevation  ca.    3800    ft. 

Subshruh    1/2   meter    tall,    (lovers   yellow 


1  K.iKi  RnuATMBAMU  KiNarrLfTMEaEAai  Bohiw 


Wedelia  episaovalis  H.   Robinson,  Holotype,  United  States 
National  Herbarium. 


1983 


Robinson,  Four  new  species 


61 


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Enlargements  of  heads.  Top.  Helianthovsis  utaubambensis , 
Middle.  Perymenium  bishopii.      Bottom.  Wedelia  episcopalis. 


STUDIES  IN  THE  LIABEAE  (.ASTERACEAE)  .  XVI . 
NEW  TAXA  FROM  PERU. 

Harold  Robinson 

Department  of  Botany 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.,  20560, 


Two  taxa  of  Liabeae  are  described  below  which  were  not 
included  in  the  recent  revision  of  the  tribe  (Robinson,  1983). 
One  of  the  taxa,  that  was  collected  just  before  the  revision  was 
published,  proves  to  represent  an  entirely  undescribed  genus. 

LIABUM   SAUNDERSII  H.  Robinson,  sp.  nov. 

Plantae  suf fruticosae  ca.  1.7  m  altae  sparse  vel  mediocriter 
ramosae.   Caules  teretes  dense  persistentiter  albo-toraentosi, 
nodis  disciferis,  discis  in  diametro  ad  2  cm.   Folia  opposita, 
petiolis  1-2  cm  longis  late  alatis  in  discis  nodarum  confluentis; 
laminae  ovatae  plerumque  5-10  cm  longae  et  1.5-4.5  cm  latae  base 
breviter  acutae  in  petiolis  alatis  confluentae  margine  utrinque 
10-20-serrulatae  apice  breviter  argute  acuminatae  fere  ad  basem 
ascendentiter  ad  3/5  longitudinem  laminarum  attingentes  triner- 
vatae  supra  distincte  pilosulae  subtus  dense  persistentiter  albo- 
tomentosae.   Inf lorescentiae  in  ramis  terminales  in  nodis  primari- 
is  superioribus  subumbellatae,  ramis  ultimis  5-15  mm  longis  dense 
lanate  albo-tomentosis .   Capitula  ca.  13-14  mm  alta;  involucra 
late  campanulata  14-16  mm  lata  brunnescentes  subpersistentiter 
arachnoideo-albo-tomentosa;  squamae  involucri  ca.  150  anguste 
lanceolatae  vel  lineares  2-10  mm  longae  et  0.7-1.0  mm  latae  apice 
anguste  acutae  margine  supeme  minute  setulo-fimbriatae  extus 
plerumque  glabrescentes .   Flores  radii  ca.  30?  feminei;  corollae 
flavae,  tubis  ca.  8  mm  longis  tenuis  extus  plerumque  glabris 
apice  sparse  minute  puberulis ,  laminis  anguste  linearibus  ca.  7  mm 
longis  et  1  mm  latis  plerumque  glabris  apice  extus  minute  scabrid- 
ulis.   Flores  disci  hermaphroditi  ca.  125;  corollae  flavae  ca.  11 
mm  longae,  tubis  5-6  mm  longis  tenuibus  supeme  sensim  leniter 
latioribus  glabris,  faucibus  ca.  3  mm  longis  extus  glabris  linear- 
ibus ca.  2.5  mm  longis  et  0.35  mm  latis  distaliter  spiculiferis 
apice  valde  dense  spiculiferis;  filamenta  in  parte  superiore  ca. 
0.4  mm  longa;  thecae  antherarum  ca.  3  mm  longae;  appendices 
antherarum  oblongae  ca.  0.45  mm  longae  et  0.18  mm  latae;  scapi 
stylorum  in  partibus  superioribus  hispidulis  ca.  1  mm  longi;  rami 
stylorum  filiformes  ca.  5  mm  longi.   Achaenia  ca.  2  mm  longa 
10-costata  dense  breviter  setulifera;  carpopodia  late  truncata 
brevia;  setae  pappi  albae  longiores  ca.  30  ad  7  mm  longae  distal- 
iter leniter  latiores,  scabris  in  apicibus  minute  mucronatis ; 
setae  breviores  tenuiores  plerumque  0.5-2.0  mm  longae.   Grana 
pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  27  iim  irregulariter  spinulifera. 

62 


1983  Robinson,  New  taxa  from  Peru  63 

TYPE:  PERU:  Junin:  Prov.  Tarma,  Dlst.  San  Ramon.   About  200 
ft.   above  road,  left  side,  about  15  kms  from  San  Ramon  towards 
Tarma.   c.  3,400  ft.   In  deep  humus,  on  steep  hillside.   Orange 
flowers.   About  5  ft.  tall.   15.8.1960.  5.    G.    E.    Saunders  559 
(Holotype,  IJ) . 

The  new  species  is  closely  related  to  Liabum  wurdaakii 
Ferreyra  of  northern  Peru,  having  similar  terete  stems  and  narrow 
involucral  bracts.   The  related  species,  however,  is  less  robust 
with  greener  less  persistently  arachnoid-tomentose  involucral 
bracts,  has  petiolar  wings  always  narrowed  to  the  base,  and 
lacks  hairs  on  the  upper  leaf  surface  in  all  but  one  specimen. 
In  the  case  where  the  leaf  surface  has  hairs,  those  hairs  are  not 
always  present  or  as  large  as  those  in  the  new  species.   The 
location  of  the  new  species  in  central  Peru  seems  isolated  from 
the  known  range  of  Liabwn  wurdaakii   in  Amazonas  and  immediately 
adjacent  Cajamarca. 

The  new  species  is  named  for  the  collector,  S.  G.  E. 
Saunders . 

BISHOPANTHUS  SOLICEPS   H.  Robinson,  gen.  et  sp.  nov. 
Plantae  fruticosae  ad  1/2  m  altae  mediocriter  vel  multo 
ramosae.   Caules  lacticiferi  pallide  rufescentes  in  internodis 
brevibus  articulati  dense  albo-lanati  in  basis  foliorum  arete 
investientes .   Folia  opposita  base  valde  vaginata,  vaginis  plerum- 
que  ca.  5  mm  longis  quam  internodis  longioribus  et  in  partibus 
imbricatis  extus  lanato-tomentosis ,  petiolis  brevibus  ca.  0.5  mm 
longis;  laminae  oblongo-ovatae  plerumque  2-4  cm  longae  et  8-16  cm 
latae  base  rotundatae  margine  multo  distincte  serrulatae  apice 
breviter  acutae  fere  ad  basem  valde  sublongitudinaliter  trinerv- 
atae  supra  bullatae  in  nervis  majoribus  distincte  insculptae  et 
diffuse  arachnoideo-tomentosae  subtus  dense  cinereo-lanato- 
tomentosae  in  nervis  majoribus  exsculptae.   Inf lorescentiae  in 
ramis  foliosis  abrupte  terminales  unicapitatae.   Capitula  ca.  1 
cm  alta  et  ex  radiis  ca.  12  mm  latis ;  squamae  involucri  ca.  25 
subaequales  ca.  2-seriatae  oblongo-lanceolatae  7-8  mm  longae  et 
ca.  1.5  mm  latae  exteriores  apice  reflexae  supra  virides  sub- 
glabrae  subtus  dense  albe  lanato-tomentosae  interiores  non 
reflexae  acutae  subglabrae.   Flores  radii  ca.  20  feminei;  corollae 
flavae,  tubis  2.5-3.5  mm  longis  anguste  infundibularibus  sparse 
patentiter  piliferis,  laminis  linearibus  11-12  mm  longis  et  ca. 
2  mm  latis  apice  tridentatis  extus  base  breviter  minute  biseriate 
piliferis  supeme  subdense  arachnoidea-tomentosis  et  multo  gland- 
ulo-punctatis .   Flores  disci  ca.  25  hermaphroditi ;  corollae 
flavae  7.0-7.5  mm  longae,  tubis  ca.  2.5  ram  longis  leniter  infund- 
bularibus  extus  sparse  patentiter  recte  piliferis,  pilis  uni- 
seriatis,  faucibus  ca.  2.5  mm  longis  subcylindraceis  inf erne 
breviter  pauce  biseriate  piliferis  et  persparse  longe  patentiter 
uniseriate  piliferis  supeme  vix  piliferis  et  sparse  glandulo- 
punctatis,  lobis  linearibus  ca.  2.8  mm  longis  et  0.5  mm  latis 
submargine  supeme  pauce  stomatiferis  extus  multo  glandulo- 


64  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

punctatis  et  subdense  arachnoideo-tomentosis ;  filamenta  in  parte 
inferiore  laevia  in  parte  superiore  ca.  0.25  mm  longa,  cellulis 
breviter  oblongis  in  parietibus  firmis  inornatis;  thecae  anther- 
arum  ca.  2.5  mm  longae,  cellulis  obscuris  aliquantum  oblongis  in 
scutis  tenuiter  irregulariter  areolatis;  appendices  antherarum 
oblongo-ovatae  ca.  0.4-0.5  mm  longae  et  0.22  mm  latae  in  super- 
ficiis  laevibus ;  basi  stylorum  distincte  noduliferi;  scapi 
stylorum  in  partibus  superioribus  hispidulis  ca.  3  mm  longi; 
rami  stylorum  ca.  1  mm  longi.   Achaenia  ca.  2.7  mm  longa  8-10- 
costata  breviter  setulifera  pilifera  et  glandulifera,  setulis 
numerosis  contortis  superioribus  longioribus,  pilis  persparsis 
uniseriatis,  glandulis  breviter  stiptitatis  minute  capitatis 
sparsis;  carpopodia  breviter  obturaculiformia  subannuliformia  ca. 
0.35  mm  lata  et  0.15  mm  longa,  cellulis  12-15-seriatis  in  diam- 
etro  ca.  12-15  }im   in  parietibus  incrassatis;  setae  pappi  dense 
congestae  majores  ca.  35  interdum  irregulariter  elongatae  pler- 
umque  4.5-6.0  mm  longae  apice  tenues;  setae  exteriores  breviores 
tenuiores  plerumque  0.7-1.0  mm  longae,  scabris  simplicibus. 
Grana  pollinis  in  diametro  ca.  37  pm  irregulariter  spinulosa. 

TYPE:  PERU:  Amazonas :  Mountains  behind  Tingo.   Elevation  ca. 
6500  ft.   Spreading  shrub  1/2  meter  tall,  flowers  yellow,  copious 
milky  sap.   21  January  1983.   R.    M.    King  &  L.    E.    Bishop  9280 
(Holotype,  US). 

Unfortunately,  the  new  genus  became  available  at  the  time 
when  the  hopefully  complete  generic  review  of  the  tribe  was 
within  a  month  of  publication  (.Robinson,  1983),  an  example  of 
remarkably  poor  timing.   The  new  genus  is  clearly  a  member  of 
the  subtribe  Liabinae,  but  is  not  a  member  of  the  specialized 
group  containing  Liabum^   Oligaatis   and  Ferreyranthus   which  seems 
to  characteristically  lack  latex.   The  new  genus  superficially 
resembles  Caaosmia,   but  is  not  necessarily  closely  related, 
differing  by  the  solitary  heads,  subequal  involucral  bracts, 
and  well-developed  capillary  pappus.   As  preserved,  the  raphlds 
in  the  achene  walls  are  short,  but  they  are  in  elongate  cells 
and  may  be  under-developed.   The  raphid  form  is  definitely 
unlike  the  quadrate  type  characteristic  of  the  Munnoziinae  and 
the  generic  pair  Liabum-Otigaatis .      The  strongly  trinervate 
leaves  furnish  an  additional  distinction  from  the  genus 
Ferreyranthus .     The  genus  furnishes  further  evidence  that  the 
center  of  diversity  of  the  tribe  is  in  northern  Peru  and  south- 
em  Ecuador.   The  genus  is  named  for  the  collector  L.  E.  Bishop. 

Litersture  Cited 

Robinson,  H.   1983.   A  Generic  Review  of  the  Tribe  Llabeae 
(Asteraceae) .   Smiths.  Contrib.  Botany  54:  1-69. 


Robinson,  Hew  taxa  from  Peru 


65 


Liabvm  sccundersii  H.  Robinson,  Holotype,  Institute  of  Jamaica, 
Kingston.  Photos  by  Victor  E.  Krantz,  Staff  Photographer,  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History. 


NOTES  ON  NEW  AND  NOTEWORTHY  PLANTS.  CLXIX 
Harold  N.  Moldenke 


LEIOTHRIX  FLAVESCENS   var,  CHIMANTENSIS   Mold.,  var.  nov. 

Haec  varietas  a  forma  typica  specie!  foliis  erecto-adscentibus 
gracilibus  utrinque  glabris  nitidisque  apicallter  obtusis  recedit. 

This  variety  differs  from  the  typical  form  of  the  species  in 
its  smaller,  erect  or  ascending,  slender  leaves,  which  are  thin- 
textured,  glabrous  and  shiny  on  both  surfaces,  and  apically  ob- 
tuse, only  5 — 7  cm,  long  and  2,5 — 3  mm,  wide. 

The  type  of  the  variety  was  collected  by  Julian  A,  Steyermark, 
Otto  Huber,  and  Victor  Carreno  E,  (no,   128382)   in  a  swampy  savanna, 
at  about  2200  m,  altitude,  on  the  "Altoplanicie  en  la  base  meridi-  ' 
onal  de  los  farallones  superiores  del  Apacara-tepui,  sector  Norte 
del  Macizo,  ^5'20'  N, ,  62'*12'  W, ,  Distrito  Piar,  Macizo  del  Chi- 
manta,"  Bolivar,  Venezuela,  between  January  30  and  February  1, 
1983,  and  is  deposited  in  the  Lundell  Herbarium  at  the  University 
of  Texas r 

PAEPALANTHUS  APACARENSIS   var,  HVMILIS   Mold.,  var,  nov. 

Haec  varietas  a  forma  typica  speciei  statura  perparvioracapit- 
ulis  parvioribus  pedunculis  brevioribus  differt. 

This  variety  differs  from  the  typical  form  of  the  species  in  its 
much  smaller  stature,  the  leaves  only  about  5  mm.  long,  the  peduncles 
only  to  1  cm.  long,  and  the  flowering  heads  only  to  3  mm,  wide. 

The  type  of  the  variety  was  collected  by  Julian  A,  Steyermark, 
Otto  Huber,  and  Victor  CarreSb  E,  (no,   128164)   on  open  sandy  banks 
along  a  river,  on  the  "cabeceras  orientales  del  Cano  Chimanta,  Sec- 
tor centro-noreste  del  Chimanta-tepui,  Macizo  del  Chimanta,  Dis- 
trito Piar,"  S'lS'  N, ,  62°09'  W, ,  Bolfvar,  Venezuela,  at  about  2000 
m.  altitude,  between  January  26  and  29,  1983,  and  is  deposited  in 
the  Lundell  Herbarium  at  the  University  of  Texas, 

PAEPALANTHUS  FRATERNUS   var,  CHIMANTENSIS   Mold.,  var.  nov. 

Haec  varietas  a  forma  typica  speciei  statura  humilior  foliis  dense 
congestis  parvioribus  1 — 1.5  cm.  longis  1.5 — 2  mm,  latis  utrinque 
glabris  nitidisque  supra  iridescenti-caeruleis  apicaliter  acutis 
pedunculis  4 — 5  cm.  longis  tortls  striatis  glabris  recedit. 

This  variety  differs  from  the  typical  form  of  the  species,  among 
other  characters,  in  its  low  stature,  shortly  elongate  stems,  very 
densely  congested  foliage,  the  leaves  1 — 1.5  cm.  long  and  1.5 — 2  mm. 
wide,  apically  acute,  firm  but  rather  thin  in  texture,  glabrous  and 
shiny  on  both  surfaces,  iridescent  torquoise-blue  above  when  fresh, 
and  the  peduncles  only  4 — 5  cm.  long,  glabrous,  twisted,  and  striate. 

The  variety  is  based  on  Steyermark,  Huber,   S  Carreno  E,   128944a 
from  under  ledges  around  grottos  of  a  large  rock  formation,  at  about 
2450  m.  altitude,  in  the  "Seccion  oriental  del  Chimanta-tepui,  cabe- 
ceras del  afluente  derecho  superior  del  rio  Tirica  (Cano  del  Orillo), 

66 


1983  Moldenke,  New  &  noteworthy  plants  67 

Macizo  del  Chimant^,  Distrito  Piar,"  S'lS'  N, ,  62*03'  W. ,  Bolfvar, 
Venezuela,  between  February  7  and  9,  1983,  and  is  deposited  in  the 
Lundell  Herbarium  at  the  University  of  Texas, 

PETREA  ALGENTRYI   Mold.,  sp.  nov. 

Frutex  volubilis  caulibus  5  cm,  difimetro,  ramis  riunulisque  sub- 
acute tetragonis  griseis  forsan  pilosis  in  statu  senectute  glab- 
rescentibus;  internodiis  elongatis;  nodis  irregulariter  tumidis 
suberosis;  foliis  subcoriaceis  ellipticis  12 — 20  cm  longis  5 — 9 
cm,  latis  apicaliter  acutis  vel  subacuminatis  aliquando  minute 
apiculatis  vel  incurvo-bidenticulatis  basaliter  abrupte  rotunda- 
tis  vel  anguste  subtruncatis  utrinque  glabris;  petiolis  obsoletis 
vel  usque  ad  3  mm,  longis  crassis  suberosis;  racemis  axillaribus 
17 — 26  cm.  longis  remote  multifloris  pilosulis;  pedicellis  tenu- 
Issimis  10 — 20  imn.  longis;  calicis  tubo  obconico  5  mm.  longo  api- 
caliter 7  mm.  lato  dense  glanduloso-pilosis,  dentibus  triangular- 
ibus  2 — 2,5  mm.  longis  apicaliter  acutis,  lobis  anguste  ellipti- 
cis usque  ad  2.5  en.  longis  9  mm.  latis  glabratis  apicaliter 
acutis;  corollis  permagnis  5  cm,  latis  in  statu  vivo  purpureis. 

A  large  liana;  main  stems  to  5  cm.  in  diameter,  high-climbing; 
branches  and  branchlets  subacutely  tetragonal,  gray,  possibly  at 
first  pilosulous  but  glabrescent  in  age;  principal  internodes 
elongate,  sometimes  to  10  cm,  long;  nodes  conspicuously  and  ir- 
regularly swollen  and  corky;  leaves  apparently  opposite  and  decus- 
sate, sessile  or  subsessile;  petioles  obsolete  or  to  3  mm.  long, 
thick,  corky;  leaf-blades  thinly  subcoriaceous  or  thickly  charta- 
ceous,  apparently  uniformly  green  and  shiny  on  both  surfaces,  el- 
liptic, 10 — 20  cm.  long,  5 — 9  cm,  wide,  marginally  entire,  api- 
cally  acute  or  subacuminate  or  sometimes  minutely  apiculate  or 
even  minutely  reflexed-bidenticulate,  basally  abruptly  rounded  or 
abruptly  subtruncate;  racemes  axillary,  17 — 26  cm.  long,  remotely 
many-flowered,  the  flowers  opposite,  approximate,  or  in  whorls, 
distant;  peduncles  slender,  about  7  cm.  long,  more  or  less  pilos- 
ulous; rachis  densely  pilosulous,  especially  apically,  very  slen- 
der; pedicels  very  slender,  1 — 2  cm,  long,  densely  pilosulous; 
calyx  obconic,  about  5  mm,  long,  apically  7  mm,  wide,  densely 
glandular-pilose,  the  teeth  triangular,  erect,  stiff,  2 — 2,5  mm, 
long,  apically  acute;  calicinal  lobes  lavender  when  fresh,  narrow- 
ly elliptic,  to  2,5  cm,  long  and  9  mm,  wide  during  anthesis,  glab- 
rate,  venose,  apically  acute;  corolla  very  large  for  the  genus,  to 
5  cm,  wide  during  anthesis  when  fresh,  purple,  the  lobes  to  2  cm. 
long  and  wide,  rounded. 

The  type  of  this  distinctive  and  beautiful  species  was  collec- 
ted by  Al  Gentry  (in  whose  honor  it  is  named),  L.  Escobar,  and  J. 
Brand  M.  (no.    37075)    in  an  alluvial  floodplain  forest,  at  an  al- 
titude of  about  100  m.,  r£o  Tagachi,  about  12  km.  west  of  Rfo 
Atrato,  Choco,  Colombia,  6''15'  N.,  76''50'  W. ,  on  June  19,  1982, 
and  is  deposited  in  the  Lundell  Herbarium  at  the  University  of 
Texas, 

STACHYTARPHETA   SANGUINEA   var,  HATSCHBACHII   Mold,,  var,  nov, 

Haec  varietas  a  forma  typica  speciei  ramis  foliisque  inflores- 
centiisque  dense  albido-villosis  recedit. 


68  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

This  variety  differs  from  the  typical  form  of  the  species  in 
having  its  branches,  petioles,  both  leaf-surfaces,  peduncles,  ra- 
chis,  bracts,  and  calyxes  densely  white-villous;  the  leaves  also 
are  more  uniformly  small,  oblong-lanceolate,  2 — 2.5  cm,  long,  6 — 
8  mm,  wide,  and  subsessile. 

The  type  of  the  variety  was  collected  by  Gert  Hatschbach  {no, 
44170)   —  in  whose  honor  it  is  named  —  at  Corrego  Serra  Negro, 
municipality  of  Oliveira  dos  Berjinhos,  Bahia,  Brazil,  on  October 
12,  1981,  and  is  deposited  in  the  Lundell  Herbarium  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Texas, 

SYNGONANTHUS  DROUETII   var,  PARVICEPS   Mold.,  var,  nov, 

Haec  varietas  a  forma  typica  speciei  capitulis  parvioribus  ca, 
2  mm.  latis  recedit. 

This  variety  differs  from  the  typical  form  of  the  species  in 
its  smaller  flowering  heads,  which  are  only  about  2  imn.  wide, 
mostly  without  conspicuous  widely  spreading  white  bracts. 

The  type  of  the  variety  was  collected  by  William  Wayt  Thomas 
(no.  2638)    in  a  small  disturbed  savanna  with  pH  3.5,  north  of  the 
first  creek  at  the  northern  edge  of  Maroa,  Amazonas,  Venezuela, 
on  November  15,  1979,  and  is  deposited  in  the  Lundell  Herbarium 
at  the  University  of  Texas. 


ADDITIONAL  NOTES  ON  THE  ERIOCAULACEAE .   LXXXIX 
Harold  N.  Moldenke 


ERIOCAULON  SUBULATUM   N.  E.  Br. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  53:  479.  1983. 

Greenway  found  this  plant  both  in  flower  and  in  fruit  In 
September  in  Zimbabwe. 

Additional  citations:  ZIMBABWE:  Greenway  8809    (E — 1748592); 
H.   Wild  6740    (E~1781921).   SOUTH  AFRICA:  Transvaal:  Fabes  828 
(E~2792508).  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Mold,  in  Humbert,  Fl, 
Madag.  36:  [7],  fig.  24—27.  1955  (Ld). 

ERIOCAULON  SUISHAENSE   Hayata 

This  taxon  is  now  known  as  E,  merrillii   var.  suishaense 
(Hayata)  Chang,  which  see. 

ERIOCAULON  SUMATRANVM   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  25:  81,  1972; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  315  &  605.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  TAKAE   Koidz. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  458,  1979; 
Mold,,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  301  &  605.  1980. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  69 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Satake,  Bull. 
Tokyo  Sci.  Mus.  A:  pi.  6,  fig.  11.  1940  (Ld — photo  of  type); 
Koldz.  in  Matsum.,  Icon.  PI.  Koisikav.  1:  157,  pi,  79.  1913  (W) . 

ERIOCAULON   TANAKAE   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  81.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  301  &  605.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  TAQUETII     H.  Lecomte,  Notul.  Syst.  1:  192.  1909. 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  H.  Lecomte,  Notul,  Syst.  1: 
191  &  192.  1909;  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  81.  1972;  Mold.,  Phytol. 
Mem.  2:  299  &  605.  1980. 

The  original  publication  of  this  binomial  is  often  cited  as 
"1910",  but  appears  actually  to  have  been  published  in  1909. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  H.  Lecomte,  Notul. 
Syst.  1:  192.  1910  (W). 

ERIOCAULON   TENUIFOLIUM   Klotzsch 

Additional  bibliography :Knuth,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov.  Beih. 
43:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.]  179.  1927;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  458.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  115,  122,  142,  &  605.  1980;  Mold.,  Phyto- 
logia 53:  271  &  314.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  have  described  this  plant  as  30 — 40  cm,  tall, 
the  heads  gray  or  grayish-white  and  "white- tomentose",  the  bracts 
green  at  the  apex,  and  the  anthers  black.   They  have  found  it 
growing  in  moist  sand  among  rocks,  even  referring  to  it  as  "fre- 
quent or  very  common  on  wet  savannas",  at  100  m.  altitude,  in  both 
flower  and  fruit  in  February  and  October.   Huber  refers  to  it  as 
"casi  dominante  en  sabana  arenosa". 

The  species  is  certainly  very  closely  related  to  E,  atabapense 
Mold,  of  the  same  region,  and  the  Huber  1529,   cited  below,  was 
previously  regarded  by  me  as  representing  that  taxon. 

Material  of  E.  tenuifolium   has  been  misidentif ied  and  distribu- 
ted in  some  herbaria  as  Syngonanthus   sp.  as  well  as  the  very  simi- 
lar E.   atabapense   Mold.   On  the  other  hand,  the  Goodland  515,   Herb, 
Forest  Dept,   Br,   Guian.   G.641    [record  7656],  Maas  S  Westra   4029, 
Haguire,   Wurdack,   s  Keith  41890,   Prance,   Steward,   Ramos,   S  Farias 
9177,   and  A,   C.   Smith  2280,   distributed  as  and  previously  cited 
by  me  as  E,    tenuifolium,    seem  better  regarded  as  representing  the 
very  similar  and  closely  related  E,   klotzschii   Mold. 

Additional  &  emended  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  O.  Huber 
1529    (Ld),  1545  (Ld),  1597    (Ve) ,  1598    (Ld) ,  3086    (Ld);  B.  Haguire 
29256    (N,  Ve,  W — 2046473).   State  undetermined:  Herb.   Nac.    Venez, 
s,n.      (N). 

ERIOCAULON   TENUIFOLIUM   f .  VIVIPARUM   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  458.  1979;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  142  &  605.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  TENUISSIMUM   Nakai 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  36:  491.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem,  2:  299  &  605,  1980, 


70  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol,  54,  No,  1 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Nakai,  Bot.  Mag,  Tokyo  31:  97. 
1917  (W);  Satake,  Bull.  Tokyo  Sci.  Mus.  4:  pi,  7,  fig,  14,  1940 
(Ld — photo  of  type) . 

ERIOCAULON  TEPICANUM   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  33:  17,  1976;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  62  &  605,  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  TEUSCZII   Engl.  &  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  458—459.  1979; 
Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  212,  224,  226,  233,  235,  237,  240,  242, 
404,  &  605,  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  53:  267  &  271,  1983. 

Giess  describes  this  plant  as  having  its  peduncles  (scapes) 
5,8 — 8  cm.  tall,  the  basal  leaves  2 — 3.5  cm.  long  and  4  mm,  wide, 
the  heads  gray  or  black,  4  mm,  in  diameter,  and  the  anthers 
black.  He  encountered  it  both  in  flower  and  fruit  in  April, 
Phillips  describes  the  plant  as  8  inches  tall,  with  white 
"flowers",  and  found  it  growing  in  grass  on  wet  grasslands,  at 
4000 — 4300  feet  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  June  and 
July, 

Material  of  E,   teusczii   has  been  misldentif ied  and  distributed 
in  some  herbaria  as  E,  amboense   Schinz  and  E.  aristatum   H,  Hess. 

Additional  citations:  MALAWI:  £,  Phillips  2531    (Ba— 379219), 
3492    (Ba— 378962).   NAMIBIA:  Giess  15099    (Mu) ,  15193    (Mu) ,  15217 
(Ld,  Mu),  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  H,  Hess,  Bericht.  Schweiz,  Bot, 
Gesell,  65:  128,  fig,  1—3,  1955  (La), 

ERIOCAULON  TEXENSE   KiHm, 

Additional  bibliography:  Raf,,  Autikon  Bot,,  imp,  1,  189  (1840) 
and  imp,  2,  189.  1943;  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat,  Wetl,  PI, 
Southeast,  U.  S.  505,  507,  508,  513,  &  515,  fig.  294,  1979;  Mold,, 
Phytologia  41:  459,  1979;  J,  T,  &  R.  Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist  Vase, 
PI,  2:  197,  1980;  Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem,  2i  25,  41,  48,  404,  &  605, 
1980;  Duncan  &  Kortesz,  Vase,  Fl,  Ga,  36,  1981;  Mold,,  Phytologia 
50:  236  (1982)  and  53:  282  &  342,  1983, 

Additional  illustrations:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat, 
Wetl,  PI,  Southeast,  U,  S,  507,  fig,  294,  1979. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  in  clumps  in 
boggy  areas  near  lakes,  in  boggy  places  of  creek-bottoms,  and  on 
seepage  slopes  in  longleaf  pine  areas,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
May,  Krai  (1979)  describes  the  species  as  "A  clump  former,  peren- 
nating  by  means  of  short  lateral  offshoots". 

It  seems  very  probable  that  Rafinesque  (1840)  included  this  spe- 
cies in  the  Texas  portion  of  his  description  of  E»  brevifolium 
Raf,,  although  the  New  Jersey  portion  evidently  applied  to  a  form 
of  E,  pellucidum  Michx,  (cfr,  under  E,  pellucidum) , 

Material  of  E.   texense   has  been  misldentif ied  and  distributed 
in  some  herbaria  as  £,  compressum   Lam,,  Lacbnocaulon  anceps 
(Walt,)  Morong,  and  Lachnocaulon   sp. 

Additional  citations:  ALABAMA:  Washington  Co,:  R,  Krai  26602 
(Mi).  LOUISIANA:  Beauregard  Par,:  R,  Krai  20158   (W— 2470408); 
Krai  s  Ricks  16992   (W— 2470345).  Sabine  Par.:  Carroll  1736   (Ne— 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  71 

181486),  Vernon  Par.:  R.   Krai   20078    (W— 2470342);  Krai   S  Ricks 
16772    (W— 2470343).   TEXAS:  Angelina  Co.:  Correll   S  Ogden  25168 
(N).  Henderson  Co.:  Correll,   Correll,   &  Crutchfield  30952    (N) . 
Houston  Co.:  E.   J.  Palmer  13185    (W— 1602635).   MOUNTED  ILLUSTRA- 
TIONS: Krai,  Sida  2:  304.  1966  (Ld);  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  wooten, 
Aquat.  Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U.  S.  507,  fig.  294.  1979  (Ld). 

ERIOCAULON   THAILANDICUM   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  34:  493.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  285  &  605.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  THOUARSII   H.  Leconite 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  233.  1974;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  250  &  605.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  THUNBERGII   Wikstr. 

This  taxon  is  now  reduced  to  synonymy  under  E,  latifolium   J, 
E.  Sm. 

ERIOCAULON   THWAITESII   K8rn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc.  29.  1923;  C, 
E.  C.  Fischer,  Kew  Bull.  Misc.  Inf.  1930:  160.  1930;  Worsdell,  Ind. 
Lond.  Suppl.  1:  376.  1941;  Anon.,  Kew  Bull.  Gen.  Ind.  111.  1959; 
Amaratunga,  Ceyl.  Journ.  Scd .  Biol.  12:  189.  1977;  Mold.,  Phyto- 
logia 41:  459.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  262,  268,  404,  &  605. 
1980. 

Additional  illustrations:  Fyson,  Journ.  Indian  Bot.  2:  202, 
1921;  Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc.  29.  1923. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  as  a  "weed"  in 
unplowed  paddy  fields,  at  40 — 1700  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and 
fruit  in  September, 

Additional  citations:  SRI  LANKA:  Davidse  &  Sumithraarachchi 
7956    (W— 2808538);  HuJber  300    (W— 2891318);  Nooteboom  S  Huber  3139 
(W— 2757465).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Fyson,  Kew  Bull.  Misc,  Inf. 
1914:  331.  1914  (W). 

ERIOCAULON  TOFIELDIFOLIUM   Schinz 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  234.  1974;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  242,  245,  &  605.  1980. 

Giess  describes  this  plant  as  having  peduncles  (scapes)  to  20 
cm.  tall,  the  basal  leaves  fleshy,  to  8  cm.  long  and  basally  1.5  cm, 
wide,  and  the  flower-heads  oval  (not  round),  to  5  mm.  long  and  7 
mm.  wide. 

Additional  citations:  NAMIBIA:  Giess  15231    (Mu).  MOUNTED  IL- 
LUSTRATIONS: H.  Hess,  Bericht.  Schweiz,  Bot,  Gesell,  65:  265. 
1955  (Ld). 

ERIOCAULON   TOGOEnSE   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  H.  Lecomte,  Notul.  Syst.  1:  192.  1909; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  459—462.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  200, 
207,  210—212,  404,  &  606.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MALI:  Soudan:  Raynal   S  Raynal    5204    (Ld — 


72  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol,   54,   No.    1 

drawings ) . 

ERIOCAULON  TONKINENSE   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  25:  83,  1972;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem,  2:  292  &  606.  1980, 

ERIOCAULON  TORTUOSUM   F.  Muell. 

Additional  bibliography:  T.  B.  Muir,  Muelleria  2:  lAO.  1972; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  17.  1976;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  336  &  606. 
1980. 

ERIOCAULON  TOUMOUENSE   Mold. 

This  taxon  is  now  relegated  to  the  synonymy  of  Mesanthemum 
albidim   H.  Lecomte,  which  see. 

ERIOCAULON  TRANSVAALICUM   N.  E.  Br. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  460.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  200,  205,  222,  224,  226,  233,  240,  245,  402,  404, 
443,  &  606.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  H.  Hess,  Bericht. 
Schweiz.  Bot.  Gesell,  65:  148,  fig,  3,  1955  (Ld). 

ERIOCAULON  TRANSVAALICUM   var,  HANNINGTONII    (N.  E.  Br.)  Meikle 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  460.  1979;  Mold,, 

Phytol,  Mem,  2:  200,  205,  224,  226,  240,  402,  443,  &  606.  1980. 
Katende  encountered  this  plant  in  permanent  swamps,  at  1100  m. 

altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  May. 

Additional  citations:  UGANDA:  Katende  K.1695    (E— 2450519). 

ERIOCAULON  TRILOBATUM   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  235.  1974;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  250  &  606.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Mold,  in  Humbert, 
Fl.  Madag.  36:  [23],  fig.  3  (10—16),  1955  (Ld), 

ERIOCAULON  TRILOBATUM   var,  GLABRESCENS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  84,  1972;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  250  &  606,  1980, 

ERIOCAULON  TRISECTOIDES   Satake 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  25:  84—85.  1972; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  257  &  606.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Satake  in  Kara,  Bull*  Univ. 
Mus,  Univ.  Tokyo  2:  fig,  12,  1971  (Ld—photo  of  type), 

ERIOCAULON  TRISECTUM   Satake 

Synonymy:  Eriocaulon  nantoense   var,  trisectum   (Satake)  Chang, 
Fl,  Taiwan  5:  187,  1978, 

Additional  bibliography:  Huang,  Taiwania  15:  152,  pi,  45,  fig,  3. 
1970;  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  465,  1973;  Chang,  Fl,  Taiwan  5:  [179] 
&  187  (1978)  and  6:  654  &  663,  1980;  Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  304  & 
606,  1980, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  73 

Additional  illustrations:  Huang,  Talwania  15:  152,  pi.  A5, 
fig.  3.  1970. 

Chang  (1978)  avers  that  this  species  is  endemic  to  wet  lowlands 
on  Taiwan.   He  cites  Yamamoto  27309   and  Yamamoto  &  Mori   s.n,    (the 
type  collection).   He  states  that  "According  to  the  original  de- 
scription of  Eriocaulon  trisectum,    the  author  claimed  that  it  was 
close  to  E.   nantoense,   differing  from  it  by  the  glabrous  recep- 
tacle and  deeply  trifid  apices  of  the  staminate  calyx.   However, 
after  examining  the  specimens  of  the  two  species,  it  was  found 
that  there  is  no  difference  between  the  two  except  for  the  glab- 
rous receptacles  of  the  former."  Huang  (1970)  illustrates  the 
pollen  grains  of  E,    trisectum   and  describes  them  as  23 — 24  mu 
wide,  based  on  Hashioka  s,n,   suad  Hibino  &  al,   s,n,    from  Taiwan, 

ERIOCAULON  TRUNCATUM   Hamilt. 

Additional  bibliography:  Craib,  Kew  Bull.  Misc.  Inf.  1912:  421, 
1912;  Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc,  26,  1923;  Worsdell,  Ind.  Lond, 
Suppl.  1:  376.  1941;  Hundley  &  Ko  in  Lace,  List  Trees  Shrubs 
Burma,  ed.  3,  293.  1961;  Huang,  Taiwania  15:  153.  1970;  Soerjani 
in  Vanshney  &  Rz6ska,  Aquat,  Weeds  S.  E.  Asia  64.  1973;  Holm, 
Pancho,  Herberger,  &  Plucknett,  Geogr,  Atlas  World  Weeds  148. 
1979;  Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  460.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  262, 
268,  270,  272,  278,  281,  283,  285,  288,  289,  292,  293,  296,  298, 
301,  304,  307,  315,  353,  401,  &  606,  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  53: 
280,  293,  &  462.  1983. 

Additional  illustrations:  Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc,  26.  1923. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  a  common  annual  herb 
under  6  inches  tall  with  "black"  heads  and  narrow  basal  leaves, 
growing  in  full  exposure  to  the  sun  or  in  partial  shade  on  dry 
ground  and  in  sandy  areas  in  semi-evergreen  forests.  They  have  al- 
so encountered  it  in  shallow  pools  on  mountain  tops,  on  moist 
savannas  over  sandstone,  and  "common  in  moist  grassy  places",  at 
800 — 1300  m.  altitude,  flowering  in  July  and  September,  in  fruit 
in  December,  and  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  January  and  Septem- 
ber.  Congdon  refers  to  it  as  an  herb,  16  cm,  tall,  common  in 
damp  ground  in  Thailand,  with  "white  bracts",  in  both  flower  and 
fruit  in  August, 

Huang  (1970)  describes  the  pollen  grains  of  E,    truncatum   as  34 
mu  wide,  on  the  basis  of  Yamamoto  s.n,    from  Taiwan,   Lecomte  (1912) 
cites  only  Lecomte  S  Finet   s.n.  from  Cambodia,  unnumbered  col- 
lections of  Godefroy,  of  Pierre,  and  of  Thorel  from  Cochinchina, 
and  unnumbered  collections  of  Balansa  and  of  Bon  from  Tonkin, 
Vietnam. 

The  Bernardi  15816,   distributed  as  E,    truncatum,    seems,  rather, 
to  be  E.   cinereum   R,  Br.,  while  Faden  &  Faden  77/194   is  E.   quin- 
guangulare   L. 

Additional  citations:  INDIA:  Karnataka:  Jarrett  s  Saldanha  HFP, 
744    (Ld);  Jarrett,   Saldanha,   s  Ramamoorthy  HFP. 675    (W — 2797026); 
Saldanha  15328    (W~2797025),   SRI  LANKA:  Nooteboom  3385    (E~ 
2686502);  Sohmer  s  Sumithraarachchi   9914    (E— 2581977).   CHINA:  Kl- 
angsu:  Chiao  22344    (It).   THAILAND:  Beusekom,  Phengkglai,   Geesink, 
&  Wongwan  4590   in  part  (E — 2359030).  MALAYA:  Singapore:  J.  Sinclair 


74  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

6366    (M—l^^ini).      TAIWAN:  Boufford,   Wood,   &  Lei  19444    (N) ; 
Congdon  869    (Ac).  GREATER  SUNDA  ISLANDS:  Brunei:  Van  Niel   3474 
(E— 2403463).   Sumatra:  Toroes  4441    (Mi),  4572    (Mi),  5024    (Mi). 
NEW  GUINEA:  Territory  of  New  Guinea:  Pullen   664S(E— 2365381) . 
MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Backer,  Onkruidfl.  1:  Handb. 
Suiker.-Cult.  7:  pi.  187.  1928  (Ld);  Ridl.,  Joum.  Fed,  Mayal 
States  Mus.  10:  155.  1920  (W) . 

ERIOCAULON  TRUNCATUM   var,  DISEPALUM   Fyson 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  85.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  262,  268,  272,  296,  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  TRUNCATUM   var.  MALACCENSE   Hook.  f . 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  34:  495.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  296  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  TRUNCATUM   var.  QUADRICOSTATUM   H.  Lecomte 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  86.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  293  &  606.  1980, 

ERIOCAULON  TUBERIFERUM   Kalkarni  &  Desai 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  18—19.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  262  &  606.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Kulkarni  &  Desai,  Joum.  Bomb. 
Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  67:  134/135,  fig.  1—8.  1970  (Ld)  and  71:  81, 
fig.  1—19.  1974  (Ld). 

ERIOCAULON  TUBIFLORUM   Van  Royen 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  19.  1976;  Van 
Royen,  Alpine  Fl.  N.  Guin.  2:  824—826,  fig.  281  A— F.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  326  &  606.  1980. 

Van  Royen  (1979)  lists  this  species  only  from  the  Lake  Habbema 
area  of  western  New  Guinea,  where  it  inhabits  boggy  alpine  grass- 
lands and  the  edges  of  pools  and  bogs,  at  3225  m.  altitude,  flower- 
ing and  fruiting  in  August.   He  cites  as  the  holotype  Brass  9288 
in  the  New  York  Botanical  Garden  herbarium  and  nothing  else. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Van  Royen,  Alpine 
Fl.  N.  Guin.  2:  824,  fig.  281  A— F.  1979  (Ld). 

ERIOCAULON  TUTIDAE   Satake 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  36:  492.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  301  &  606.  1980, 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Satake,  Joum.  Jap.  Bot.  49: 
181.  1974  (Ld— photo  of  type). 

ERIOCAULON  TUYAMAE   Satake 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  36:  492.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  290  &  606.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Satake,  Journ.  Jap.  Bot.  49: 
239,  fig.  3  &  4.  1974  (Ld— photo  of  type). 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  75 

ERIOCAULON  UBONENSE   H.  Lecomte 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  41.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  286,  289,  293,  &  606.  1980. 

Lecomte  (1912)  cites  for  this  species  only  an  unnumbered  Pierre 
collection  from  Cambodia  and  a  Thorel  collection  from  Laos. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  H.  Lecomte,  Journ.  de  Bot. 
21:  109,  fig.  1.  1908  (W);  Koyama,  Philip.  Journ.  Scl,  84:  pi".  5 
C.  1956  (W). 

ERIOCAULON   ULAEI    Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  36:  492—493.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  142,  404,  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  ULAEI   var.  RADIOSUM   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  36:  493.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  142  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  USSURIENSE   KHrn. 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Komarov  &  Klobukova-Alisova, 
Key  PI.  Far  East.  USSR  [Opred.  Rast.  Dal'nevosk.  Kr.]  1:  340,  pi. 
105.  1931;  Vasinger-Alektorova,  Bull.  Appl.  Bot.  Leningrad  25  (4): 
121.  1931;  Worsdell,  Ind.  Lond.  Suppl.  1:  376.  1941;  Mold.,  Phyto- 
logia 25:  86.  1972;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  198  &  606.  1980. 

Additional  illustrations:  Komarov  &  Klobukova-Alisova,  Key  PI. 
Far  East.  USSR  [Opred.  Rast.  Dal'Nevosk.  Kr,]  1:  pi.  105.  1931; 
Vasinger-Alektorova,  Bull.  Appl.  Bot.  Leningrad  25  (4):  121.  1931. 

ERIOCAULON   VANHEURCKII   Muell.-Arg. 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Fyson,  Journ.  Indian  Bot.  2: 
139,  318,  &  320,  fig.  7  (1921)  and  2:  pi.  41.  1922;  Fyson,  Indian 
Sp.  Erioc.  pi.  41.  1923;  Worsdell,  Ind.  Lond.  Suppl.  1:  376.  1941; 
Anon.,  Kew  Bull.  Gen.  Ind.  111.  1959;  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  236. 
1974;  Bole  &  Almeida,  Journ.  Bomb.  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  74:  226.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  262,  267,  &  606.  1980. 

Additional  &  emended  illustrations:  Fyson,  Journ.  Indian  Bot.  2: 
139,  fig.  7  (1921)  and  2:  pi.  41.  1922;  Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc. 
pi.  41.  1923. 

Santapau  &  Shah  (1969)  record  this  species  from  Salsette  Island, 
India. 

Additional  citations:  INDIA:  Maharashtra:  Vartak  RD,27    (Ld). 
MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Fyson,  Journ.  Indian  Bot.  2:  318.  1921  (W). 

ERIOCAULON  VANHEURCKII   f .  MINIMUM   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  87.  1972;  Bole  & 
Almeida,  Journ.  Bomb.  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  74:  227.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol. 
Mem.  2:  262.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  VAUPESENSE   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  87.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  108  &  606.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Vaupes:  Schultes,  Bakex,  S  Cab- 
rera 18274    (W~2198898~isotype). 


76  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

ERIOCAULON  VITTIFOLIUM   H.  Lecomte 

This  taxon  Is  now  regarded  as  a  synonym  of  E.  latifolium   J,  E, 
Sm.,  which  see. 

ERIOCAULON  VOLKENSII   Engl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Ruhl.,  Wlss.  Ergebn,  Deutsch.  Zentral- 
afr.  Exped.  2  (1):  57 — 58.  1910;  Domln,  Ann.  Jard,  Bot.  Bultenz. 
24  [ser.  2,  9]:  247.  1911;  Fedde  &  Schust.,  Justs  Bot.  Jahresber. 
39  (2):  10.  1913;  Wangerin,  Justs  Bot.  Jahresber.  39  (1):  550. 
1913;  Fedde,  Justs  Bot.  Jahresber.  39  (2):  1387.  1916;  Mold., 
Phytologla  29:  237.  1974;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  224,  226,  230,  & 
606.  1980. 

Wilde  has  encountered  this  plant  growing  in  small,  open,  peaty 
places,  at  4000  m.  altitude.  He  describes  it  as  forming  mats  and 
dense  clumps  and  as  having  hard,  coriaceous,  bright-green  leaves 
and  grayish  inflorescences. 

Additional  citations:  ETHIOPIA:  Wilde  9068   (E — 2261724). 

ERIOCAULON  WALKERI   Hook,  f . 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  41:  461,  1979;  Mold., 

Phytol.  Mem.  2:  268  &  606.  1980. 

Tovmsend  has  found  this  plant  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March, 
Additional  citations:  SRI  LANKA:  Tovmsend  73/261    (Ac). 

ERIOCAULON  WELWITSCHII   Rendle 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  34:  495.  1976;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem,  2:  200,  227,  233,  235,  237,  242,  245,  404,  &  606, 
1980. 

ERIOCAULON  WHANGII   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  26:  42,  1973;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  278  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  WIGHTIANUM  Mart. 

Additional  bibliography:  Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc.  pi.  21  &  22. 
1923;  Worsdell,  Ind,  Lond.  Suppl.  1:  376.  1941;  Hundley  &  Ko  in 
Lace,  List  Trees  Shrubs  Burma,  ed,  3,  293.  1961;  Mold.,  Phytologla 
41:  461.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  262,  268,  270,  272,  274,  275, 
286,  404,  &  606,  1980. 

Additional  illustrations:  Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc.  pi.  21  &  22, 
1923. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI,  3: 
568.  1841  (W);  Mart,  in  Wall.,  PI.  As.  Rar.  3:  29,  1832  (W), 

ERIOCAULON  WIGHTIANUM   var,  HELFERI   Hook,  f . 

Additional  bibliography:  Hundley  &  Ko  in  Lace,  List  Trees  Shrubs 
Bupna,  ed.  3,  293.  1961;  Mold.,  Phytologla  29:  238.  1974;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  274  &  606.  1980, 

ERIOCAULON  WIGHTIANUM   f ,  VIVIPARUM  Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologla  25:  88,  1972;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem,  2:  262  &  606,  1980. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  77 

ERIOCAULON  NJLLDENOVIANVM   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Miq.,  Fl.  Ind.  Bat.  Suppl,  1:  268. 
1860;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  461.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  250, 
252,  268,  273,  274,  278,  283,  286,  289,  293,  296,  307,  311,  315, 
320,  326,  336,  402—404,  &  606.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  253 
(1982)  and  53:  473  &  474.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  among  grasses  in 
ricefields  in  hilly  country  and  in  marshes  at  15 — 1800  m.  alti- 
tude, in  flower  in  August  and  both  in  flower  and  fruit  in  Febru- 
ary, June,  and  October.  They  refer  to  it  as  an  herb  to  35  cm. 
tall,  the  flower-heads  semi-globose,  the  bracts  "powdery-white", 
and  the  seeds  elliptic,  with  hairy  ribs. 

Fosberg,  in  Madagascar,  reports  the  species  "common  in  open  wet 
places  in  dense  forests  of  small  trees  on  rolling  white  sand,  the 
stems  erect"  and  "occasional  in  marshy  seeps  on  gentle  slopes  with 
Sphagnum   [this  collection  exhibits  remarkably  short  leaves  and 
may  actually  represent  K.  sexangulare   L.]".   In  Papua  Pullen  re- 
fers to  it  as  a  "locally  common  erect  tussocky  herb  with  scapes 
rising  to  27  inches  tall,  the  leaf  base  rather  fleshy,  and  the 
flower-heads  white"  and  found  it  growing  in  thin  sand  of  open 
seasonally  wet  grass-sedge  plain  over  clay.   In  Sumatra  it  is  de- 
scribed as  forming  tussocks,  the  inflorescence  emergent  and  whit- 
ish, in  half-shaded  damp  places  by  pools  with  water  to  25  cm.  deep 
over  a  peaty  bottom. 

Miquel  (1860)  records  the  vernacular  name,  "rompot-krah",  for 
this  plant. 

Lecomte  (1912)  cites  for  this  species  only  unnumbered  collec- 
tions of  Lefevre,  of  Pierre,  and  of  Thorel  from  Cochinchlna  and 
of  Alleizette  from  Tonkin,  Vietnam. 

Material  of  E.   willdenovianum   has  been  misidentif led  and  dis- 
tributed in  many  herbaria  as  the  very  similar  E,   sexangulare   L. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  Ahmad  SA.1407   and  Sinclair  4977,   distributed 
as  E.  willdenovianum,    actually  are  E,   sexangulare   L.,  while  Gush- 
ing S  Gushing  356   and  Volkens  406   are  E,    sexangulare   var.  micro- 
nesicum   Mold. 

Additional  citations:  MADAGASCAR:  Fosberg  52535    (W~2922838), 
52555    (W~2922822).   SRI  LANKA:  Bremer  &  Bremer  816    (W— 2877268). 
THAILAND:  Gongdon   989    (Ac);  Koyama,   Phengklai,   O'Gonnor,   &  Niyond- 
bam  15229    (Ac,  N) .  MALAYA:  Singapore:  J.  Sinclair  8732    (W~2937281), 
GREATER  SUNDA  ISLANDS:  Sumatra:  Wilde  S  Wilde-Duyfjes  19126    (E~ 
2940228).   NEW  GUINEA:  Papua:  Pullen  7154    (E~2365374).  MOUNTED 
ILLUSTRATIONS:  Mold,  in  Humbert,  Fl.  Madag.  36:  14  &  15,  fig.  21—27, 
1955  (Ld). 

ERIOCAULON  WILLDENOVIANUM   var.  FERGUSONII   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  461.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  268,  404,  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  WILLDENOVIANUM   f .  VIVIPARUM   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  34:  491,  495,  &  496. 
1976;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  296,  315,  &  606.  1980. 


78  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

ERIOCAULON  WILLIAMSII   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  89.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  74,  83,  &  606.  1980. 

Whitefoord  encountered  this  plant  in  damp  sand  along  paths 
through  secondary  vegetation  in  Belize,  describing  the  leaves  as 
green  and  the  inflorescences  as  gray. 

Additional  citations:  BELIZE:  Whitefoord  2376    (N). 

ERIOCAULON  WOODII   N.  E.  Br. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  34:  496.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  224,  237,  245,  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  WOODII   var.  MINOR   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  89.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.' Mem.  2:  245  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  WOODSONIANVM   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  89.  1972;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  83  &  606.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  an  herb  with  white 
flower-heads  and  have  found  it  growing  in  "wet  areas  with  standing 
water  and  mud",  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  February.  The  Stern  & 
al.   1701   collection  bears  a  label  reading  "voucher  specimen  for 
wood  USw",  obviously  in  error. 

Additional  citations:  PANAMA:  Herrera:  Stern,  Eyde,   &  Ayensu 
1701    (E— 2773097).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Mold,  in  Woodson  &  Schery, 
Ann.  Mo.  Bot,  Gard.  27:  268—269.  1940  (W). 

ERIOCAULON  XENOPODION   T,  Koyama 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  461.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  286  &  606.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  T.  Koyama,  Philip. 
Journ.  Sci.  84:  pi.  4.  1956  (Ld,  W) . 

ERIOCAULON  XERANTHEMUM   Heyne  ex  Mart,  in  Wall.,  PI.  Asiat.  Rar.  3: 
29.  1832. 

Additional  synonymy:  Eriocaulon  xeranthemum  Mart,  apud  Kunth, 
Enum.  PI.  3:  555.  1841. 

Additional  bibliography:  H.  Lecomte,  Notul.  Syst.  1:  192.  1909; 
Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc.  28,  1923;  Worsdell,  Ind.  Lond.  Suppl,  1: 
376.  1941;  Hundley  &  Ko  in  Lace,  List  Trees  Shrubs  Burma,  ed.  '3, 
293.  1961;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  453  &  461—462.  1979;  Mold.,  Phy- 
tol. Mem.  2:  257,  262,  270,  273,  286,  296,  315,  404,  &  606.  1980; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  53:  348  &  469<,  1983 o 

Additional  illustrations:  Fyson,  Indian  Sp.  Erioc,  28,  1923. 

Padhye  reports  that  this  is  a  plant  of  high  altitudes.  Materi- 
al of  it  has  been  misidentif ied  and  distributed  in  some  herbaria 
as  E.  sedgwickii   Fyson. 

Additional  citations:  INDIA:  Maharashtra:  Padhye  9    (Ld).  MOUN- 
TED CLIPPINGS:  Dalz.,  Journ.  Bot,  Kew  Misc,  3:  281.  1851  (W) ;  Mart, 
in  Wall.,  PI,  Asiat,  Rar,  3:  29,  1832  (W), 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  79 

ERIOCAULON  YAOSHANENSE   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  26:  A2.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  279  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  YOSHINOI   Nakai 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  89.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  301  &  606.  1980. 

ERIOCAULON  YUNNANENSE   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  89.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  279  &  606.  1980. 

Forrest  found  this  plant  growing  in  moist  pastures,  in  both 
flower  and  fruit  in  May,  describing  it  as  10 — 20  inches  tall,  with 
grayish-white  flowers. 

Additional  citations:  CHINA:  YUnnan:  Forrest   7878    (Ba),  8454 
(Ba). 

ERIOCAULON  ZAMBESIENSE   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  462.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  212,  222, 
227,  235,  239,  &  606.  1980. 

Wilde  encountered  this  plant,  in  Ethiopia,  along  small  creeks 
and  in  open  places  in  marshy  land  with  muddy  soil  or  in  shallow, 
slowly  streaming  water,  at  1800  m.  altitude,  both  in  flower  and 
fruit  in  February,   describing  it  as  having  white  roots  and  grayish- 
white  inflorescences. 

Additional  citations:  ETHIOPIA:  Wilde  9260   (E— 2265833),  10148 
(E--2256273). 

ERIOCAULON   ZOLLINGERIANUM   KHrn, 

Additional  bibliography:  Stapf,  Ind,  Lond.  3:  90.  1930;  Mold., 
Phytologia  41:  462.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  286,  293,  307, 
315,  326,  &  606.  1980. 

Lecomte  (1912)  cites  for  this  species  only  an  unnumbered  Pierre 
collection  from  Cochinchina,  Vietnam,  and  one  of  Thorel  from  Laos. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  H.  Lecomte,  Fl.  Grfn. 
Indo-chine  7:  17,  fig.  2.  1912  (Ld). 

ERIOCAULON   ZYOTANII    Satake 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  34:  497,  1976;  Mold., 
BJol.  Abstr.  63:  2461.  1977;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  17.  1978; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  301,  310,  &  606.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Satake,  Bull.  Tokyo 
Sci.  Mus.  4:  pi,  11,  fig.  3.  1940  (Ld — photo  of  type). 

LACHNOCAULON   Kunth 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Endl.,  Spl,  2:  12.  1842; 
Meisn.,  PI.  Vase.  Gen.  1:  407  (1842)  and  2:  312.  1843;  Spach,  V^g. 
Phan.  13:  140.  1846;  Pfeiffer,  Nom.  Bot,  2  (1):  5,  6,  &  15.  1874; 
Durand,  Ind.  Gen.  Phan.  454.  1888;  Post  &  Kuntze,  Lexicon  312  & 
623.  1904;  Lotsy,  Vortr.  Bot.  Stammesges.  3  (1):  707,  1911;  J,  C. 
Willis,  Diet.  Flow.  PI,,  ed.  5,  359  (1925),  ed.  6,  Imp,  1,  359 


80  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

(1931)  and  ed,  6,  imp.  2,  359.  1948;  Lawrence,  Taxon.  Vase.  PI., 
Imp.  1,  405  &  800.  1951;  J.  C.  Willis,  Diet.  Flow.  PI.,  ed.  6, 
imp.  3,  359  (1951)  and  ed.  7,  418  &  611.  1966;  Rouleau,  Guide  Ind. 
Kew.  103  &  270.  1970;  Lawrence,  Taxon.  Vase.  PI.  ,  imp.  2,  405  & 
800.  1971;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  292  &  389.  1974;  Thanikai- 
moni,  Inst.  Franc.  Pond.  Trav.  Sect.  Seient.  Techn.  13:  129  &  285. 
1976;  Giulietti,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  6:  63.  1978;  Hocking, 
Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  17  &  18.  1978;  Monteiro-Seanavacca  &  Mazzoni, 
Revist.  Bras.  Bot.  1:  [59].  1978;  Benson,  PI.  Classif.,  ed.  2, 
373.  1979;  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat.  Wetl.  PI.  Southeast, 
U.  S.  503,  518,  &  520—529,  fig.  302—307.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytolo- 
gia  41:  411,  419,  459,  462—467,  &  508  (1979),  42:  41  &  507 
(1979),  and  45:  40  &  507.  1980;  J.  T.  &  R.  Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist 
Vase,  Fl.  2:  197.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  14,  16—19,  22,  25, 
26,  32,  41,  48,  89,  91,  213,  413,  &  606—607.  1980;  Duncan  &  Kor- 
tesz.  Vase.  Fl.  Ga.  36.  1981;  Geesink,  Leeuwenb.,  Ridsdale,  & 
Veldkamp,  Thonn.  Analyt.  Key  11.  1981;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  234, 
236,  261,  &  508  (1982)  and  52:  111  &  112.  1982;  Wunderlin,  Guide 
Vase.  PI.  Cent.  Fla.  125—126.  1982;  Mold.,  Phytologia  52:  506 
(1983)  and  53:  280,  286,  344,  463,  &  504.  1983. 

The  Correll,   Correll,   &  Crutchfield  30952,   distributed  as 
Lachnocaulon   sp.,  actually  is  Eriocaulon  texense   Kljrn.,  while 
Poole  1616   is  Paepalanthus  subtilis   Miq. 

Wunderlin  (1982)  provides  a  very  useful  key  to  the  Florida 
species: 

l.Trichomes  of  apex  of  receptaeular  bracts  opaque  white;  head 
appearing  gray  to  white. 

2.  Leaves  narrowly  linear;  mature  heads  3.5 — 4  mm.  wide;  seeds 

smooth,  lustrous............ ..,.., ..L.  beyrichianum. 

2a.  Leaves  linear;  mature  heads  4 — 7  mm.  wide;  seeds  with 

distinct  longitudinal  lines,  dull L,   anceps. 

la,  Trichomes  of  apex  of  receptaexilar  bracts  translucent;  head 
showing  brown  color  of  bractlets, 

3.  Scapes  with  ascending  hairs;  heads  dull  gray-brown,..., 

L.  minus 

3a.  Scapes  glabrous;  heads  red -brown  or  chocolate-brown.,....,, 
, I-.  engleri . 

LACHNOCAULON  ANCEPS   (Walt.)  Morong 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Pfeiffer,  Nom.  Bot.  2  (1): 
5.  1874;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  292  &  389  (1974)  A. 31:  17, 
1978;  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat.  Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U,  S. 
520,  521,  523,  524,  &  529,  fig.  303.  1979;  Mold,,  Phytologia  41: 
459,  462—464,  &  466.  1979;  Pursh,  Fl.  Amer.  Sept,,  imp.  2,  [ed, 
Ewan],  92,  1979;  J.  T.  &  R.  Kortesz,  Syn.  Checklist  Vase.  Fl,  2: 
197,  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  14,  16—19,  22,  25,  26,  32,  41, 
48,  91,  413,  &  606.  1980;  Duncan  &  Kortesz,  Vase.  Fl,  Ga,  36. 
1981;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  234  &  236  (1982)  and  52:  111—113. 
1982;  Wunderlin,  Guide  Vase.  PI.  Cent.  Fla,  125  &  126,  1982; 
Mold,,  Phytologia  53:  280,  1983, 

Additional  illustrations:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat, 
Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U.  S.  523,  fig.  303.  1979. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  81 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  growing  "in  large 
clumps  in  sand",  "in  clumps  on  savannas",  in  "broad  shallow  road- 
side ditches  with  Carex  longii,   C,    vexans,    and  Juncus  elliottii'\ 
in  "savanna-evergreen  shrub  bog  areas",  in  flatwoods  ditches,  in 
sandy  peat  in  pineland  bogs  and  recently  burned  bogs,  in  sandy- 
peaty  bogs  on  pine-palmetto  flats,  in  seepage  bogs  on  sandy  peat, 
in  exposed  wet  sand  of  seepage  bogs,  in  sandy  peat  of  cypress-gum 
flatwoods,  in  hillside  bogs  on  longleaf  pine-covered  hills,  and 
around  small  lakes,  describing  the  heads  as  grayish,  in  both 
flower  and  fruit  from  April  to  June  and  August, 

Wunderlln  (1982)  refers  to  the  species  as  common  on  the  margins 
of  ponds  and  in  wet  pinelands  throughout  central  Florida,   He 
follows  Krai  in  reducing  L,  floridanum   Small  and  L.  glabrum   Kilrn, 
to  synonymy  under  L.  anceps,      Haynes  refers  to  it  as  "abundant  in 
wet  soil  of  road  embankments"  in  Alabama.  One  plant  of  the 
Thomas  s  Grelen  71890   collection,  cited  below,  exhibits  viviparous 
f ruiting-heads ! 

Material  of  Lachnocaulon  anceps   has  been  misidentif ied  and  dis- 
tributed in  some  herbaria  as  Eriocaulon  cinereum   R,  Br.   On  the 
other  hand,   the  Gregory  &  Eiten  23   and  Krai   20204   &  28694,   dis- 
tributed as  typical  L,  anceps,   actually  represent  its  f.  glabres- 
cens   Mold,,  while  Krai  17855,   17969,   &  18418   are  L,  glabrum   IC8rn, 
Thomas,  Allen,   &  Bot,   403  Class  47817   is  Eriocaulon  cinereum   R.  Br,, 
and  Carroll   1736   is  E.    texense   K8rn, 

Additional  citations:  VIRGINIA:  Greensville  Co,:  Smith  &  Hodg- 
don  PI.   Exsicc.   Gray.   1028    (It,  Mi),   James  City  Co.:  Baldwin  17221 
(Ne — 125572),   Prince  George  Co.:  Fernald,   Long,   S  Smart   5698    (It). 
NORTH  CAROLINA:  Beaufort  Co,:  Wiegand  s  Manning  682    (It).   Bladen 
Co.:  R.   Krai  14672    (Mi),  27185    (Mi),   Brunswick  Co.:  Thomas  S  Bio. 
451   Class  53100    (Ne~13A247),   Carteret  Co.:  Marx  2983    (Ne~124147). 
Columbus  Co,:  Rodgers,  Compton,  Green,   S  Hudson  73501    (Ne — 83566). 
Lenoir  Co.:  Randolph  s  Randolph  785    (It).  Moore  Co.:  Wiegand  & 
Manning  683    (It).   New  Hanover  Co.:  Sieren  288    (Ne — 105944),  1323 
(Ne — 134946).   Onslow  Co.:  Biernacki   400    (N) ;  Randolph  s  Randolph 
947    (It);  Thomas  &  Bio.   451   Class  53061    (Ne — 139201).   Richmond  Co.: 
Wiegand  &  Manning  684    (It),   Scotland  Co,:  Wiegand  &  Manning  685 
(It),   SOUTH  CAROLINA:  Albemarle  Co.:  K.   Hunt  33b    (It),   Chester- 
field Co.:  Radford  12435    (Hi).   Georgetown  Co,:  Godfrey  S  Tryon  51 
(It),   Hampton  Co,:  Wiegand  s  Manning  686    (It),  GEORGIA:  Baker  Co.: 
Thome  4851    (It).   Berrier  Co.:  R.   Krai   24253    (Mi),   Calhoun  Co.: 
Thorne  4571    (It),  4684    (It).   Charlton  Co.:  Wright,   Wright,   Harper, 
&  Pirnie  129    (It).   Clay  Co.:  Thorne  3669    (It).   Colquitt  Co.:  R. 
Krai   24231    (Mi).   Cook  Co.:  R.   Krai   24237    (Mi).  Decatur  Co.: 
Thorne  S  Muenscher  7857    (It);  Thorne,   Muenscher,   £  Smith  3021    (It), 
Dodge  Co.:  R.   Krai   28744    (Mi).   Early  Co.:  Thorne  4070    (It),   Lanier 
Co.:  R.   Krai   24266    (Mi).   Liberty  Co,:  R.   Krai   24211    (Mi),   Lowndes 
Co,:  Breland  s.n.    [13  May  1970]  (Ne~120653);  Rowley  7    (Ne~120632). 
Macon  Co.:  Pyron  &  McVaugh  498    (It).  Miller  Co.:  Thorne  4426    (It). 
Ware  Co.:  R.   Krai  19236    (Mi),   FLORIDA:  Baker  Co.:  MacDaniels  s.n. 
[April  13,  1936]  (It).   Bay  Co.:  R.   Krai   15657    (Mi),  15668    (Mi). 
Bradford  Co.:  Wiegand  s  Manning  687    (It).  Dxrval  Co.:  Curtiss  3021 
(It),  4861    (It);  R.  Krai  18568   (Mi).       [to  be  continued] 


BOOK  REVIEWS 
Alma  L,  Moldenke 


"PLANTS  OF  THE  BIBLE  -  A  Complete  Handbook  to  All  the  Plants  witk 
200  Full-Color  Plates  Taken  in  the  Natural  Habitat"  by 
Michael  Zohary,  223  pp.,  6  color  maps  &  200  plant  photos, 
Cambridge  University  Press,  Cambridge,  London,  &  New  York, 
N.  Y.  10022.   [1982]  1983.   $16.95. 

Publishing  this  short  review  on  this  excellent  publication 
gives  my  husband  and  myself  the  opportunity  to  thank  Professor 
Zohary*  publically  for  the  Hebrew  language  and  Biblical  and  local 
flora  information  which  he  shared  with  us  over  three  decades  ago 
when  we  were  preparing  our  own  book  on  Bible  plants.  He  has  con- 
tinued to  work  in  this  and  other  fields  as  head  of  the  Botany  De- 
partment of  the  Hebrew  University  in  Jerusalem  and  in  his  studies 
of  the  Negev  of  the  past  and  the  present  with  the  hope  of  reacti- 
vating some  of  the  ancient  water  sources.  There  is  agreement 
with  us  on  the  identity  of  most  of  the  plants  involved.   Some 
plants  can  never  be  named  definitely,   English  Bible  translations 
did  not  appear  until  after  the  invention  of  the  printing  press 
but  before  the  naming  phase  in  the  development  of  botany  with 
Linnaeus'  work  of  1753,   The  unnamed  forbidden  fruit  of  the  Garden 
of  Eden  is  mentioned  in  the  chapter  on  apples  and  there  is  no 
chapter  on  apricots.  We  are  not  sure  that  we  can  follow  the 
author  on  this  identification  for  the  reasons  stated  in  our  book. 
His  book  has  excellent  color  photographs  of  the  Biblical  plants  as 
they  grow  today,  ecological  colored  maps  and  descriptions  of 
vegetal  landscapes  of  Biblical  times, 

*  We  regret  to  announce  that  Dr,  Zohary  died  recently.  His  many 
botanical  studies  alone  are  lasting  monuments  to  his  devoted  ser- 
vice to  mankind, 

"AGRICULTURAL  DEVELOPMENT  IN  CHINA,  JAPAN  AND  KOREA"  edited  by 

Chi-ming  Hu  &  Tzong-shlan  Yu,  xiv  &  877  pp,,  221  b/w  tab.  & 
65  fig.,  distributed  for  the  Institute  of  Economica,  Academia 
Sinica  (Taipei,  Taiwan,  Republic  of  China)  by  the  University 
of  Washington  Press,  Seattle,  Washington  98105.  1983,  $40,00. 

The  title  of  this  book  was  the  topic  of  a  conference  held  in 
Taipei  at  the  Academia  Sinica  in  1980,  The  important  lead  article 
is  by  T.  W.  Schultz  on  "The  Economics  of  Agricultural  Productivity 
in  Low  Income  Countries"  and  stresses  many  of  the  points  made  in 
his  Nobel  Laureate  speech  in  1979,  "Differences  in  the  agricultur- 
al achievements  among  Asian  countries  is  instructive,  Japan  has 
over-achieved  in  rice  production:  South  Korea  fairly  well  in  rice: 
Philippines  modernizing  parts:  Taiwan  one  of  the  best:  West  Malay- 
sia in  palm  fruit  remarkable  but  Nigeria  a  failure:  India  far  ahead 

82 


1983  Moldenke,  Book  reviews  83 

with  many  more  skilled  agricultural  scientists  than  mainland 
China.   The  major  unsolved  problem  is  the  tendency  to  over- 
organize  and  over-control  agricultural  research  from  the  top." 
There  are  3  technical  papers  on  Japan,  3  on  Korea,  6  on  mainland 
China  from  the  traditional  tenure  systems  to  that  in  the  Four 
Modernizations,  9  on  Taiwan  which  is  insularly  land-limited,  has 
been  stable  politically,  has  been  having  rapid  industrial  and  eco- 
nomic expansion  while  its  small-sized  farms  have  increased  yields 
but  at  a  slower  pace,  and  finally  2  on  agricultural  comparisons 
among   Japan,  Taiwan  and  South  Korea  and  also  between  mainland 
China  and  Taiwan,   These  papers  have  been  carefully  researched, 
well  documented  and  effectively  presented,  making  this  book  a 
valuable  addition  to  the  libraries  of  agricultural  schools,  uni- 
versities, working  agricultural  and  political  institutes,  etc, 

"IMPATIBNS   OF  AFRICA  -  Morphology,  Pollination  and  Pollinators, 

Ecology,  Phytogeography,  Hybridisation,  Keys  and  a  Systematic 
Treatment  of  All  the  African  Species,  with  a  Note  on  Collec- 
ting and  Cultivation"  by  A,  Grey-Wilson,  ix  &  235  pp.,  52 
color  photos  on  8  unnumb.  pi.,  170  b/w  fig.,  128  geog.  dis- 
trib.  maps  &  7  tab.  A,  A.  Balkema  Publishers,  P.  0.  Box 
1675,  Rotterdam,  Netherlands  and  Merrimac  Book  Service, 
Salem,  New  Hampshire  03079.   1980.  Hfl.  125  or<f27.80  or 
$58.00. 

The  author,  on  the  staff  at  Kew,  covers  effectively  and  in- 
terestingly all  of  the  topics  mentioned  in  the  subtitle  in  a 
highly  informative  and  beautifully  illustrated  format  for  the  109 
species  recognized  by  him.   Even  the  keys  to  the  species  have  the 
distinguishing  characteristics  illustrated.  A  world  distribution 
map  (on  p.  42)  shows  "suggested  evolutionary  migration  routes  of 
Impatiens   distribution  of  linear-fruited  species  and  distribution 
of  fusiform-fruited  species,"  An  appendix  explains  how  to  pre- 
pare herbarium  specimens  because  the  flowers  so  often  have  ended 
up  as  dried  blobs.  Another  appendix  enumerates  the  horticultural 
possibilities  of  these  attractive  flowers  and  easily  cutting- 
proliferating  plants.  What  a  successful  metamorphosis  of  a 
limitedly  available  Ph.D,  dissertation  to  an  easily  available, 
reasonably  priced  book  is  now  available  to  folks  and  institutions 
with  any  or  many  kinds  of  botanical  and/or  horticultural  interest! 

"BOTANICAL  DERMATOLOGY.   Plants  and  Plant  Products  Injurious  to 
the  Skin"  by  John  Mitchell  &  Arthur  Rook,  xiii  &  787  pp.,  5 
b/w  fig.  &  14  tab.  Greengrass,  Vancouver,  Canada  or  Lea  & 
Febiger,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  19106.   1979,   $39.50. 

Very  effective  subject  matter  organization  makes  readily  avail- 
able tons  of  medical,  biochemical,  pharmaceutical  and  botanical 
information  through  cause-effect  relationships.   Irritant,  allergic 
and  cross-sensitivity  contact  dermatitic  situations  can  be  caused 
by  many  kinds  of  plants  due  to  mechanical  injuries  and  to  trauma 


84  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

from  cuts,  occupational  inarks,  thorns,  plant  hairs,  exposure  as 
in  phytophotodermatitis,  etc.  After  each  of  these  and  other 
pathological  descriptions  are  described  possible  causal  organisms 
with  explanations.   The  conditions  are  arranged  (in  left-hand 
coliimns)  so  that  they  can  match  the  plant  organisms  involved  with 
substantiating  literature.   The  plant  species  are  listed  alpha- 
betically under  their  also  alphabetically  listed  genera  and 
families.  Airy  Shaw's  8th  edition  of  Willis'  "Dictionary  of  the 
Flowering  Plants  and  Ferns"  serves  as  the  taxonomic  guide.  This 
book  is  valuable  not  only  to  the  medical  profession  and  its 
trainees  but  also  to  related  biological  sciences  and  their 
trainees. 

"LOOKING  FAR  NORTH  -  The  Harriman  Expedition  to  Alaska  1899"  by 
William  H,  Goetzmann  &  Kay  Sloan,  xxv  &  244  pp,,  62  b/w 
photos,  2  maps  &  2  fig,   Princeton  University  Press,  Prince- 
ton, New  Jersey  08540,   [1982]  1983,   $8,95  paperbound. 

This  is  a  wonderful  report  about  an  even  more  wonderful 
scientific  expedition  hosted  by  the  railroad  magnate-financier- 
philanthropist  Edward  H,  Harriman  (in  response  to  his  physician's 
serious  admonition  to  "rest")  with  10  family  members  and  ser- 
vants, 26  scientists  (including  George  Grinnell,  William  Trelease, 
L,  Agassiz  Fuertes,  John  Muir,  John  Burroughs,  B,  Fernow)  and 
many  assistants,  3  artists,  3  physicians  and  a  nurse,  2  photo- 
graphers, 1  chaplain,  2  stenographers,  and  65  ship's  officers  and 
crew.  First  there  was  the  cross-country  Pullman  train  trip  to 
Seattle  with  stops  for  Interesting  sights  and  sites  and  then  the 
embarking  in  the  luxurious  Elder  for  Skagway  and  even  a  touch 
in  Siberia,  This  expedition  produced  such  valuable  scientific 
contributions  in  the  13  voliomes  of  its  "Reports"  as  descriptions 
and  illustrations  of  hundreds  of  new  plant  and  animal  species, 
charted  waters  and  islands,  and  detailed  glacier  studies.  Since 
Edward  Harriman' s  personal  papers  were  fire-destroyed,  this  book's 
authors'  very  diligent  research  of  other  sources  resulted  in  a 
very  interesting  text  of  the  personal  inter-living  and  scientific 
sights  and  collections  on  the  trip.  The  photographs  are  also 
very  interesting,  even  if  a  little  less  clear  than  in  the  hard 
cover  edition, 

"LUCRARILE  GrXdiNII  BOTANICE  DIN  BUCURESTI"  Acta  Botanica  Horti 

Bucurestiensis  1981-1982,  288  pp,,  69  b/w  photos,  5  maps,  25 
fig,,  23  line  draw,,  26  tab,  Universitatea  din  Bucuresti, 
Gradina  Botanica,  Soseana  Cotrocenl  nr,  32  Cods  76258, 
Bucuresti  15,  Republica  Soclallsta  Romania,  1982, 

This  volume  is  composed  of  27  papers  in  Romanian,  French,  Ger- 
man or  English  on  a  wide  range  of  topics  such  as:  the  rare  trees, 
certain  varieties  of  roses  and  tropical  aquatics  cultivated  In 
this  garden,  chromosome  numbers,  chromatin  ultra-structure,  the 
hundred-year-old  herbarium,  pollen  morphology  in  the  Empetraceae 


1983  Moldenke,  Book  reviews  85 

and  cartography  of  medicinal  flora, 

"A  COLOUR  ATLAS  OF  FLOWERING  TREES  AND  SHRUBS"  by  V.  Csapody  &  I, 
T6th,  311  pp.  &  141  multispecimen  color  pi,  AcadAniai  Kiadci, 
H-1363  Budapest,  P,  0.  Box  24,  Republica  Socialista  Hungarlca, 
1982,   $44.00. 

This  selection  of  608  species  and  varieties  of  arborescent 
plants  cultivated  in  central  Europe  "acquaints  the  reader  with 
those  trees  and  shrubs  that  are  hardy  in  the  open"  and  "gives  in- 
formation on  their  behaviour  in  Hungary  or  in  the  neighbouring 
countries."  The  printing  is  not  up  to  the  quality  now  expected 
from  western  presses,  but  the  accuracy  of  the  paintings  very 
definitely  is.   The  left-hand  page  has  the  names  and  descriptive 
text  for  the  various  colored  paintings  on  the  right-hand  page. 
These  horticultural  species  and  cultivars  are  known  over  much  of 
the  temperate  world,  giving  this  attractive  book  a  wide  interest 
range. 

"ANTARCTIC  WILDLIFE"  photographs  by  Eric  Hosklng  &  text  by  Bryan 
Sage,  160  pp.,  130  color  photos,  12  b/w  photos,  1  map  &  2 
tab.   Facts  on  File,  Inc.,  New  York,  N.  Y,  10016.   1982. 
$22,95, 

Awe-lnspiringly  beautiful  -  must  be  the  verdict  for  this  book, 
for  this  nearly  pristine  area,  for  the  amazing  creatures  that 
live  at  least  part  of  their  annual  life  cycles,  with  birthing  or 
hatching  of  their  young,  under  these  frigid  conditions,  for  the 
superb  photography  and  for  the  informative  descriptive  text.   One 
appendix  lists  in  tabular  form  the  distribution  of  breeding  birds 
of  the  Continental  and  the  Maritime  Antarctic  and  another  does  so 
for  the  Subabtarctic  Islands,   There  is  a  "how  to"  chapter  on 
wildlife  photography  in  this  Antarctic  wonderland.  For  the  bird- 
lover,  for  the  armchair  traveler,  for  those  who  have  been  there 
and  appreciate  recall,  for  those  planning  such  a  visit  and  appre- 
ciate Informed  appreciation,  and  for  both  the  young  and  the  old, 
this  book  will  prove  most  gratifying. 

"NEMATODES  IN  SOIL  ECOSYSTEMS"  edited  by  Diana  W.  Freckman,  xiv  & 
206  pp.,  58  b/w  fig,,  15  tab,  &  1  photo.  University  of  Texas 
Press,  P,  0.  Box  7819,  Austin,  Texas  78712,   1982,   $20.00, 

This  book  has  been  printed  by  photo-offset  from  very  neat  copy. 
Besides  a  foreword,   a  preface  and  a  question-answer  discussion, 
it  consists  of  ten  papers  under  the  headings  of  (1)  Primary  Con- 
sumption, (2)  Decomposition  and  (3)  Sjmthesis  and  Validation  by 
modelling.   It  stresses  the  taking  of  wet-soil  samples  no  less 
than  once  a  month  since  these  tiny  different  creatures  may  have 
from  one  to  eight  generations  a  year.   There  is  a  very  helpful 
figure  of  eight  different  "head"  structures  associated  with  feeding 


86  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

material.   "Nematodes  feed  on  living  protoplasm  and  so  none  are 
known  to  be  saprophagic."  There  are  (1)  facultative  migratory 
and  obligate  sedentary  endo-  and  ectoparasites  of  roots,  (2)  mic-» 
robivores  on  bacteria,  etc.,  (3)  fungivores  on  mycelia,  (4)  omni- 
vores  consuming  various  fungi,  bacteria,  algae,  protozoans  and 
rotifers,  and  (5)  predators  feeding  on  other  nematodes,  enchy- 
traeids,  tardigrades  and  protozoa.  There  is  much  important 
material  contained  within  this  book. 

"BIOLOGICALLY  ACTIVE  SUBSTANCES:  EXPLORATION  AND  EXPLOITATION" 
edited  by  D.  A.  Hems,  xxviii  &  309  pp.,  72  b/w  fig.,  22 
photos  &  46  tab.   John  Wiley  &  Sons,  New  York,  N.  Y.  10158, 
1977. 

These  well  prepared,  printed  and  illustrated  papers  pay  tribute 
to  the  authors'  mentor  and  admired  friend.  Sir  Ernst  Chain,  of 
bacterial  and  mold  protein  and  RNA  fame,  upon  the  occasion  of 
his  70th  birthday.   "Throughout  his  long  scientific  career  Sir 
Ernst  has  shown  a  genius  for  selecting  topics  which  have  not  only 
been  of  scientific  interest  but  also  of  great  practical  value  for 
the  welfare  of  mankind."  Among  the  14  papers  are:  Biosynthesis 
of  B-Lactan  Antibiotics,  Biochemical  Engineering  in  the  Produc- 
tion of  Fungal  Metabolites,  Fusicoccin  Phytotoxins,  Liver  Metabo- 
lism in  Diametes,  and  Metabolic  Approaches  to  Myocardial  Infarc- 
tion, 

"BIRDS  OF  THE  WORLD:  A  CHECKLIST"  by  James  Clements,  xxxviii  & 

562  pp.  &  end-page  colored  major  faunal  regions  maps  of  the 
world.  Facts  on  File,  Inc,  New  York,  N.  Y,  10016,  1981, 
$24.95. 

This  is  a  third  edition,  not  so  mentioned  in  the  title,  but 
so  indicated  in  the  Acknowledgments,   Taxonomically  it  basically 
follows  the  Morony,  Bock  &  Farrand  list  from  the  American  Museum 
of  Natural  History  but  it  adds  most  used  common  names  and  ranges, 
thus  making  it  usable  by  many  more  ornithologists  and  bird 
watchers.   "Of  the  9,198  birds  included  in  this  edition,  Morony 
and  I  concur  on  9,022 Since  birds  pay  no  attention  to  polit- 
ical boundaries,  I  have  tried  to  use  the  geographic  range.  There 
are  brief,  straight-forward  instructions  for  using  this  guide 
and  Interpreting  its  taxonomic  computer  coding  as  "01  01  001"  for 
Order  Struthioformes ,        Family  Struthionidae   (Ostrich),  and 
Struthio  camelus    (Ostrich)  through  "28  79  110"  for  Order 
Passeri formes ,   Family  Corvidae    (Crows  and  Jays),  Corvus  crassi- 
rostris   (Thick-billed  Raven)  for  which  (as  for  each  other)  local- 
ity is  given  as  "Mountains  and  high  plateaus  of  Eritrea,  Ethiopia". 
There  is  lined  space  above  for  individual  date  and  location 
records.  This  work  should  prove  to  be  a  great  asset  to  all  with 
a  serious  interest  in  birds. 


1983  Moldenke,  Book  reviews  87 

"ALPINE  FLORA  OF  KASHMIR  HAMALAYA"  by  Uppeandra  Dhar  &  P.  Kachroo, 
XV  &  280  pp.,  1  color  &  23  b/w  photo.,  6  tab.,  21  fig.  &  115 
geog.  distrib.  maps.   Scientific  Publishers,  Man  Bhawan, 
Jodhpur  342001,  India.   1983.   R8.200  or  $45.00. 

The  contents  of  this  book  are  particularly  well  prepared  and 
well  presented.   Introductory  chapters  deal  with  the  alpine  habit 
and  habitat  generally  and  specifically,  the  area's  geology,  cli- 
mate and  general  vegetation,  its  extinct  and  extant  flora  with 
floristic  analyses,  and  distribution  patterns  of  plant  families 
and  their  genera.   Then  follow  keys  to  the  genera  and  species  with 
publication  data  for  the  names,  simple  descriptive  notes  and  her- 
barium specimen  collection  data.   The  very  useful  and  clear  geo- 
graphical distribution  maps  for  well  over  200  species  cover  either 
the  whole  Himalayan  area  or  the  Eurasian  area  where  pertinent. 
The  earlier  and   more  recent  phytogeographical  literature  is 
given  important  consideration.   The  printing  of  the  text  and  of 
the  photographs  could  have  been  improved  by  more  careful  proof- 
reading for  clarity,  but  the  authors'  contributions  are  of  high 
caliber. 

"FLORA  OF  CONNEMARA  AND  THE  BURREN"  by  D.  A.  Webb  &  Mary  J,  P, 

Scannell,  xlv  &  332  pp,,  4  color  pi,,  25  b/w  photo,  &  4  maps. 
Royal  Dublin  Society  &  Cambridge  University  Press,  Cambridge, 
London  &  New  York,  N.  Y,  10022,   1983,   $69,50. 

In  the  fine  tradition  of  the  previously  published  county  floras 
of  the  British  Isles  but  abiding  by  approximate  borders,  this  ex- 
cellent book  has  introductory  chapters  on  the  8  districts  in- 
volved, geology  and  soil,  climate  and  notes  on  habitats,  vegetation 
since  tne  last  glaciation,  pollen  records  and  history  of  the 
knowledge  of  the  flora  collected  by  professional  botanists  and  by 
amateurs.   The  body  of  the  work  is  arranged  taxonomically  by 
families  with  the  scientific  names  and  authorities,  only  common 
synonyms,  common  English  and  Irish  names  not  used  also  for  other 
plants,  numbered  location  spots  on  the  geographical  maps  as  well 
as  the  place  names,  details  of  the  first  recorded  collection  and 
ecological  notes.   There  are  short  chapters  on  marine  and  fresh- 
water algae,  lichens,  hepatics  and  pteridophytes.   The  format  makes 
this  very  fine  book  easily  usable  either  with  or  without  an  accom- 
panying systematic  flora. 

"LANDSCAPE  ARCHITECTURE  -  A  Manual  of  Site  Planning  and  Design"  - 
Second  Edition  by  John  Ormsbee  Simonds,  ix  &  331  pp.,  214  b/w 
photo.,  303  fig.,  1  map  &  8  tab.  McGraw  Hill  Book  Company, 
New  York,  N,  Y,  10020.   1983.   $37.50. 

The  reader,  careful  student,  or  architectural  building  and  area 
planner  and  contractor  should  "gain  through  this  [outstanding]  book 
a  more  keen  and  telling  awareness  of  our  physical  surroundings,,,, 
useful  knowledge  to  be  applied  in  the  design  of  homes,  schools. 


88  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  1 

recreation  areas,  shojiplng  malls,  trafflcways or  any  other 

project  to  be  fitted  into,  and  planned  in  harmony  with,  the  all- 
embracing  landscape,"   The  author  knows  whereof  he  writes  because 
of  his  long  and  highly  successful  professional  life  as  teacher, 
author  and  landscape  architect.  The  first  edition  of  1961  was  a 
highly  successful  trailblazer  in  its  emphasis  on  adjusting  archi- 
tectural needs  to  the  environment  and  to  human  requirements  for 
efficiency  and  peaceful  working  and  living  conditions. 

"ADVENTURES  WITH  INSECTS"  by  Richard  Headstrom,  221  pp.  &  306  b/w 
fig.  Dover  Publications,  New  York,  N.  Y.  10014.  1982. 
$4.50  paperbound. 

This  "is  an  unabridged  replication  of  the  work  originally  pub- 
lished in  1963  by  J.  B.  Lippincott  Company,  Philadelphia.  The 
listing  of  biological  supply  houses  has  been  brought  up  to  date." 
This  is  a  charming,  easily  read,  absorbingly  interesting  book  to 
put  into  the  hands  of  a  youngster,  a  recent  retiree  interested 
in  his  back  yard,  any  person  who  wants  to  learn  about  the  other 
living  forms  around  him  (or  her)  in  an  easy  fashion,  a  teacher  who 
wants  to  share  wonder  with  little  ones  or  even  with  biology  stu- 
dents who  have  missed  really  seeing  the  "out-of-doors".  The  many 
clear  drawings  in  the  39  chapters  illustrate  how  some  pumping 
stations  operate,  how  some  masons  work,  also  tent-makers,  en- 
gravers, case-makers,  subterranean  dwellers,  etc. 

"IN  THE  SHADOW  OF  MAN"  with  text  by  Jane  Goodall  and  photographs 

by  Hugo  van  Lawlck»  xx  &  297  pp.  &  64  b/w  unnumbered  pi.  with 
84  photos,  1  map  &  22  line  draw.  Houghton  Mifflin  Company, 
Boston,  Massachusetts  02108.  1983.  $9.95  paperbound. 

Much  of  these  wonderful  photographs  and  descriptive  text  we  had 
marvelled  at  over  a  score  of  years  ago  in  National  Geographic 
articles  with  the  added  embellishment  of  full  color  and/or  we  re- 
member the  hardcover  original  edition  by  the  seime  printers  in  1971 
and  the  more  recent  educational  nature  films  prepared  for  television 
Now  we  are  fortunate  to  have  available  this  reprint  with  its  thrill- 
ing,  scientifically  accurate,  pioneering,  intimate  observations  ot 
groups  of  chimpanzees  in  their  normal  living  in  their  native  habi- 
tat in  an  area  now  set  aside  as  the  Gombe  Stream  Research  Centre 
on  Lake  Tanganyika  in  Tanzania.  Dr.  Goodall  pleads  for  proper  care 
for  these  wonderful  animals  when  they  are  captives  in  zoos  or  In 
laboratories  where  confinement  alone  within  small  areas  is  as  stul- 
tifying to  them  as  jailing  in  solitary  confinement  is  to  humans. 


PHYTOLOGIA 

An  international  joiirml  to  expedite  botanical  and  phytoecological  publication 
Vol.  54  October  1983  No.  2 

FIFTIETH  JUBILEE  YEAR 

CONTENTS 

BAILEY,  D.  K.,  /\  «en'  allopatric  segregate  from  and  a  new 

combination  in  Pinus  cembroides  Zucc.  at  its  southern 
limits 89 

LIOGIER,  A.  H.,  Novitates  antillanae.  X 101 

HOLMES,  W.,  Studies  on  Mikania  (Compositae).  IX 115 

TURNER,  B.  L.,  /4  new  Porophyllum  (Asteraceae:  Tageteae)  from 

southcentral  Mexico 119 

•MOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  Notes  on  new  and  noteworthy  plants.  CLXX 121 

MOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  Additional  notes  on  the  Eriocaulaceae .  XC 121 

LOURTEIG,  A.,  Nomenclatura  plantarum  americanarum  II. 

Gesneriaceae 152 

MOLDENKE,  A.  L.,  Book  reviews 157 


riRPAPv 


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303  Parkside  Road 
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A  NEW  ALLOPATHIC  SEGREGATE  FROM  AhfD  A  NE¥  COMBINATION  IN 
PINUS  GEMBROIDES  ZUCC.  AT  ITS  SOUTHERN  LIMITS 

D.  K.  Bailey 

University  of  Colorado  Museum 

Boulder,  Colorado  80309 


INTRODUCTICW 

Plnus  cembroldes  Zucc.  has,  during  the  paist  decade,  been  the 
object  of  considerable  attention,  A  geographical  distribution  map 
for  P.  cembroides  Zucc,  sensu  lato  was  published  earlier  by  Critch- 
field  and  Little  (I966),  Working  northward  from  the  southern  region 
of  the  distribution  in  central  Mexico,  Robert  has  segregated  Pinus 
johannls  (Robert,  1978)  and  later  Pinus  catsirinae  and  Pinus  cembroi- 
des var,  lagunae  (Robert-Passini,  I98I),  P,  catarlnae  Robert-Passinl 
was  based  on  a  collection  from  a  site  studied  eaxlier  by  Bailey  (v. 
Bailey  and  Wendt,  1979)  and  is  clearly  identical  with  the  eajrlier- 
published  Pinus  remota  Bailey  &  Hawksworth  (1979),  It  must  therefore 
be  considered  a  synonym  (v,  Bailey  and  Hawksworth,  I983),  During 
the  same  period  Bailey,  with  principal  collaborators  Hawksworth  and 
Zavaurin,  has  been  working  southward  from  the  northern  region  of  the 
distribution  in  southwestern  U.  S.  A.  and  northern  Mexico,  As  a 
result  of  these  collaborative  studies,  the  earlier  segregates,  Pinus 
cembroides  var.  remota  Little  (I966)  and  Plnus  cembroides  vair,  bi- 
color  Little  (I968),  were  elevated  to  specific  status  as  P,  remota 
f Little)  Bailey  &   Hawksworth  and  P,  discolor  Bailey  &  Hawksworth 
(1979). 

Recent  studies  disclose  an  additional  segregate,  proposed  as 
subsp.  orizabensis,  at  the  extreme  southern  limits  of  P,  cembroides 
s.  lat, ,  and  indicate  a  need  to  elevate  var,  lagunae ,  found  only  in 
a  limited  area  at  the  southern  end  of  the  peninsula  of  Lower  Cali- 
fornia, to  subspecific  rank.  Justifications  additional  to  those 
published  eaxlier  for  the  reduction  to  synonymy  of  P.  catarlnae , 
and  those  now  given  for  the  establishment  of  the  two  taxa  described 
below,  including  full  details  of  chemical  studies,  further  details 
of  needle  morphology,  and  Interpretations,  are  in  draft  form  and 
are  planned  for  early  publication  by  Zavarln,  Snajberk  and  Bailey. 
The  purpose  of  this  report  is  to  propose  names  and  preferable  ranks, 

1,  PINUS  GEMBROIDES  subsp.  ORIZABENSIS  D.  K.  Bailey  subsp.  nov. 

Plnus  cembroides  auct.  pro  parte ,  non  Zucc. 
Pinus  cembroides  Gordon 

Arbor  ab  8  usque  ad   10  m  alta,    sirailis  Pino  cembroldel, 
follis  tamen  praecipue  3»    nonnullls  ^,   raarlsslme  2  per 
fasclculum,   4  -  6  cm  longls;   fasciculi  1.3  usque   2,0  mm 
latlj   pa^inae  dorsales  obscuro-vlrides,   ventrales  glaucaei 
stomata  in  utraque  paglna;   sulci  longitudlnaJ.es  et  irreg- 

89 


90  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

ulcires  in  cortice  arborum  raaturarum  qui  flavo-aurantiacum 
subcorticem  patefaciunt;  fasciculc-bracteae  brevi  tempore 
nigrae  et  tarn  conspicuae  ut  ramunculi  scaberrimi  fiant. 

(Translationt  A  tree  from  8  to  10  m  tall,  similar  to 
Pinus  cembroides,  but  leaves  principally  3.  sometimes  k, 
and  very  rarely  2  per  fascicle,  4  -  6  cm  long;  fascicles 
1,3  up  to  2.0  mm  thick;  dorsal  surfaces  dark  green,  ven- 
tral surfaces  glaucous;  stomata  on  each  surface;  irregu- 
lar longitudinal  furrows  in  the  bairk  of  mature  trees  which 
expose  the  yellowish-orange  inner  bark;  fascicle  bracts 
soon  black  and  sufficiently  conspicuous  as  to  make  the 
small  twigs  rough.) 

TYPEi  ^5EXIG0,  Puebla,  Mpio.  Soltepec,  lat.  19°  Ok'    N, 
long.  97°  ^2'  W,  elev.  2370  m,  along  highway  Mex  140, 
ca.  10  km  southwest  of  San  Salvador  el  Seco,  23  Feb- 
ruary 1983,  D.  K.  Bailey  83-01  (HOLOTYPEi  MEXU;  ISO- 
TYPES:  ARIZ,  GHAPA,  COLO,  E,  ENGB,  INIF,  K,  MO,  NY,  RM, 
TEX,  UG,  US,  UTG). 

DISCOVERY  AND  DISTRIBUTION 

The  segregate  named  and  described  above  was  first  recognized 
by  the  author  as  a  specimen  tree,  No,  P. 372,  in  the  Royal  Botanic 
Gardens  at  Kew  on  27  June  1977t  Now  labelled  P,  cembroides,  it  was 
acquired  in  I9IO  from  H.  Clinton-Baker  of  Bayfordbury,  Herts,  as 
seed  labelled  P,  nelsonii  (D.  R.  Hunt,  private  communication). 
Today  it  is  a  substantial  tree  of  approximately  9  m  height  and  25 
cm  diameter  about  1  m  above  ground  level.  The  original  provenance 
is  unknown.  Study  of  two  branchlets  showed  it  to  have  fascicles 
mainly  of  3  needles.  Thus  of  400  fascicles  examined,  37^  were  of 
3  needles,  24  of  4  and  only  2  of  2,  In  this  respect  it  differed 
markedly  from  the  approximately  400  trees  of  P.  cembroides  s.  str. 
already  studied  from  all  parts  of  the  known  distribution  except 
that  to  the  south  and  east  of  Mexico  City  in  the  states  of  Tlaxcala, 
Puebla  and  Veracruz,  Then  in  March  1979  a  stand  of  pinyon  in  the 
state  of  Puebla  along  highway  Mex  140  some  10  km  southwest  of  San 
Salvador  el  Seco  was  examined  and  a  standard  sample  taken  consist- 
ing of  a  branchlet  from  each  of  10  trees  together  with  such  cone 
material  as  could  be  found.  Wood  cores  were  not  taken  at  that 
time,  but  twig  ends  of  the  10  saimples  were  subsequently  analysed 
for  monoterpene  constituents  (Zavarin  and  Snajberk,  private  commu- 
nication). These  trees,  upon  detailed  needle  and  chemical  study, 
proved  to  be  identical  with  the  specimen  tree  at  Kew  and  estab- 
lished the  status  of  the  latter  as  a  distinct  taixon  rather  than  an 
aberrant  specimen  of  P,  cembroides  s,  str, , 

To  establish  the  taxonomic  significance  of  this  finding  it  was 
necessary  to  make  additional  collections  to  learn  as  accurately  as 
possible  the  distribution  of  pinyons  resembling  the  Kew  tree  and 
those  near  San  Salvador  el  Seco,  Herbaxium  material  was  useful  in 
suggesting  possible  collection  localities,  but  could  not  be 


1983  Bailey,  Pinus  cembroides  91 

studied  in  the  detail  considered  necessary,  nor  could  it  provide 
information  on  tree-to-tree  variation.  It  was  also  necessary  to 
establish  how  near  to  these  localities  the  distribution  of  P. 
cembroides  s,  str.  extends.  At  that  time  the  nearest  10-tree  coll- 
ection was  from  a  site  along  highway  Mex  120  some  7  km  southwest  of 
PinaJ.  de  Amoles  in  Quer^tsuro,  Thus  the  populations  considered  to  be 
P.  cembroides  occurring  between  the  Quer^taro  and  Puebla  collect- 
ions required  sampling  to  ascertain  whether  the  two  taxa  meet  on 
common  sites  with  or  without  intermediate  forms,  or  are  geograph- 
ically separated.  Just  prior  to  making  the  March  1979  collection 
it  was  learned  from  Dr.  Jerzy  Rzedowski  that  a  collection,  taken 
to  be  P.  cembroides,  had  been  made  by  M.-F.  Robert  at  a  locality 
on  the  mountains  east  of  the  city  of  Tehuac^n,  Puebla.  This  local- 
ity, represented  by  a  herbarium  specimen  at. the  Escuela  Nacional  de 
Ciencias  Biol(5gicas  (ENG3),  is  the  southernmost  and  easternmost 
for  any  pinyon  known  at  present.  It  is  represented  by  collection  1^ 
in  Figure  1  which  shows  the  geographical  distribution  of  subsp. 
orizabensis  as  collections  8  through  1^.  Figure  1  also  shows  the 
southeastern  part  of  the  much  more  widespread  distribution  of 
subsp.  cembroides  (=  P.  cembroides  s.  str. )  as  collections  1 
through  7.  Collection  6  wa^  made  at  the  only  known  locality  for 
subsp.  cembroides  in  the  state  of  Veracruz.  This,  the  southernmost 
and  easternmost  locality  known,  Is  isolated  from  the  nearest 
similar  stands  to  the  northwest  by  rather  moist  heavily  vegetated 
country.  To  judge  from  the  vegetation  surrounding  the  pinyons  at 
collection  site  6,  the  climate  must  be  locally  rather  dry  and  warm, 
in  contrast  with  that  at  the  collection  sites  for  subsp.  orizaben- 
sis. The  latter  sites  are  not  only  at  higher  elevations  (some  by  as 
much  as  ^OOm)  but  are  cooler  and  somewhat  more  humid  as  maide  evi- 
dent by  the  presence  of  Tillandsia  sp.  on  the  pinyons. 

Herbarium  material  exists  for  subsp.  orizabensis  from  farther 
west  than  collection  12  in  Tlaxcala,  and  Mart£nez  (19^8)  lists  a 
number  of  such  localities,  but  a  limited  search  for  pinyons  at 
some  of  these  has  failed,  and  it  seem  likely  from  the  general  con- 
dition of  the  land  in  Tlaxcala  that  pinyons  at  many  of  these  local- 
ities no  longer  exist.  Martinez  also  reports  pinyons  in  the  state 
of  Mexico  at  Dexcani  near  Jllotepec.  A  recent  search  in  this  local- 
ity has  been  unsuccessful. 

From  the  14  collections  shown  in  Figure  1  and  described  in  de- 
tail in  Table  1  it  is  concluded  that  a  genuine  gap  exists  between 
the  southeasternmost  representatives  of  subsp.  cembroides  and  the 
northwestemmost  stands  of  subsp.  orizabensis,  and  no  trees  were 
found  in  the  course  of  this  study  which  exhibited  significant  evi- 
dence of  intermedlacy  between  the  two  taxa.  However,  in  order  to 
define  the  gap  as  precisely  as  possible.  It  is  to  be  noted  that 
collection  11  near  Frljol  Colorado  was  made  near  the  southern  end 
of  a  stand  of  subsp.  orizabensis  that  extends  north  northeast  by 
possibly  as  much  as  20  km  toward  Jalaclngo  (v.  Martinez,  1948).  It 
is  also  likely  that  subsp,  cembroides  extends  as  much  as  3  km  east 
southeast  of  collection  6  near  Teximalpa.  It  is  therefore  concluded 


92 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    2 


Longitude,  Wast 

FIGURE  1.  Geographic  distribution  of  Pinus  cembroides  sensu  lato  at  its 
southern  limits.  A  Mt.  Orizaba,   X  village  of  Chlchiquila. 


"1 1 1 r 


"T 1 1 

Pinus  cembroides 
subsp.  orizabensis 

(  O  N9  8  through  13) 


-    Pinus  cembroides 

subsp.   cembroides 

(O  N9  1  through  6  ) 


m  ,   .  ri 


2i)  2  2  2  4  2  6  2  8  3  0  5  2  3  4  36  3  8  4  0  4.2  4.4 

Average  Number  of  Needles  per  Foscicle 
(200  fascicles  sampled  per  Iree) 
FIGURE  2.   Needle-number  distributions. 


19G3 


Btiiley,  Pinus  cembroides 


93 


TABLE  1.  Details  of  collections.  Each  collection  consisted  of  a  branchlet  froa  each 
of  10  different  trees.  Twig  ends  and/or  wood  cores  were  also  collected  at  each  site, 
except  numbers  2  and  7,  from  each  tz:ee  for  chemical  analysis.  Twl?  ends  from  the  Kew 
tree  were  also  taken. 


Collectlnn 

No.CFlg.lJ       Mplo.     State     Lat.(  N)     Long.(*^i<)     Elev.(ni)         Collectors 


1.   VUla  de  Reyes       SLP 
(5  km  iiSU  of 
Cerrltos) 


Plnus  cembroides   subsp.   cembroides 
22°  02*      100°  59' 


2.  San  Felipe 
(3   km  ESE   of 
Puerto  Sandoval) 


Cto 


3«  Pinal  de  Amoles     Qro 
(Along  Kex   l^^O, 
7  km  JW   of  Pinal 
de  Ajsoles) 

'^.  Zlmapin  Hgo 

(3.7  '<3i  N  of  Pto. 
de  la  Estancla) 


21     30       101     05 


21     05         99    '+1 


20     '(•7         99     18 


2320       D,   K.   3aUey  79-0^ 
A  F.   G.   Havksworth 


D.   K.   3alley  31-17 
i  3.  S.   3erger 


3  Mar.   1979 


5  May     1981 


2*^00       D.   K.   3alley  78-3^       16  Kay     1978 
4  F.   G.   Hawksworth 


1360 


2.  J.  Lott 

&  Ton  Wendt  P-93 


14  Dec.   1930 


5. 

Cardonal 

(near  Santuarlo) 

Hgo 

20 

^0 

99 

06 

6. 

Huayacocotla 
(1  kjB  SE  of 
Texlmalpa) 

Ver 

20 

25 

98 

31 

7. 

Zaragoza 

(7  ka  NW  of  Mlna 

las  Cuevas) 

SLP 

21 

59 

100 

38 

2380       D.   K.   Bailey  80-12       10  Mar.    I98O 
i  Tom  Wendt  2^+99 

2200       D.   K.   BaUey  81-18,        8  May     I98I 
3.  E.   Berger  i 
Juan  Velasquez  H. 


2300 


D.   K.  Bailey  s.n. 
i  F.   C.    Hawksworth 


13  Nov.    1975 


8.  Soltcpec  Pue 
(10  kffl  SW   of  San 
Salvador  el  Seco) 

9.  Soltepec  ?ue 
(10  km  SW   of  San 
Salvador  el  Seco) 

10,  Perote  Ver 

(in  malpals,   3  km 
S  of  Totaloo) 


Plnus  cembroides  subsp,   orizabensis 

19°  OU-'        97°  42 


11.  Perote 

(4  km  w™  of 
Frljol  Colorado) 

12.  Atlzayanca  1 
(Santa  Maria 

las  Cuevas) 

13.  Llbres 

(7  km  SSE 
of  Llbres) 

14.  AJalpan 
(15  km  E  of 
Tehuacin) 


Ver 


19     04         97     42 


19     27         97     17 


19     35         97     22 


19     24         97     44 


19     25         97     41 


18     27         97     l** 


2370  D.  K.  Bailey  79-01. 
F,  G.  Hawksworth  4 
D.  Vlens 

2370  D.  K.  Bailey  8O-O6 
Ic  Tom  Uendt  s.n. 


2500       D.   K.  Bailey  80-07 
i  Tom  Wendt  2494 


2630       D.   K.   BaUey  8O-O8 
i  Tom  Uendt  2495 


2540       E,   J.   Lott 

i  Tom  Wendt  P-134 


7  Mar,   1979 


8  Mar.    1980 


9  Mar.   1930 


9  Mar.    1980 


28  Jan.    I982 


2410       D.  K.  BaUey  30-11        10  Mar.   1^ 
i  Tom  Wendt  2493 


2450       D.  K.   BaUey  80-05         7  Mar.   I98O 
i  Tom  We nit  2481 


94  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

that  the  gap  has  a  width  of  about  140  km. 

For  the  record  it  should  be  noted  that  the  heavy  Infestation 
of  the  dwarf  mistletoe,  Arceuthobium  pendens  Hawksworth  &  Wiens, 
on  subsp.  orizabensls  at  collection  site  11  was  sampled,  and 
subsequently  reported  by  Hawksworth  and  Wiens  (I98O)  under  the  host 
name  Pinus  cembroides  Zucc,  the  only  name  available  at  the  time. 
In  contrast  at  the  type  locality  of  the  parasite,  collection  site 
1,  the  infestation  was  very  light,  aiffectlng  only  two  trees  (that 
could  be  found)  of  Pinus  discolor.  No  dwarf  mistletoe  was  found  on 
pinyons  at  the  other  twelve  sites  comprising  this  study.  In 
particular  no  dwaxf  mistletoe  was  found  on  subsp,  cembroides  at 
site  1, 

DISTINGUISHING  GHARACrTERS 

To  distinguish  subsp,  orizabensls  from  subsp.  cembroides  a 
rapid  check  on  needle  number  or  fascicle  size  is  sufficient  sls  is 
demonstrated  by  Figure  2  and  the  detailed  numbers  of  Table  2, 
Collections  7  and  14  are  omitted  from  the  histogram  of  Figure  2, 
Material  of  collection  7  was  destroyed  inadvertently  before  com- 
plete analyses  could  be  performed.  Collection  14  differs  from  the 
remaining  six  collections  of  subsp,  orizabensls  in  ways  leaning 
very  slightly  toward  subsp.  cembroides.  Until  the  general  region 
of  collection  14  can  be  studied  further,   its  relative  isolation 
from  the  other  stands  justifies  its  separate  consideration  as  shown 
in  Table  2,  where  the  needle  numbers  for  the  Kew  tree  are  also 
shown  for  comparison.  It  should  be  noted  that  collection  4  from 


TABLE  2.  Distribution  of  fascicle  sizes  (numbers). 

Percent  of  Fciscicles  with 
Indicated  Number  of  Needles 


Pinus  cembroides 
subsp.  cembroides 

12000  fascicles,  60  trees   .         46    0  02 
Collections  1  through  6     ^^'^^       ^'^'^^    ^'^^ 

Pinus  cembroides 

subsp.  orizabensls 

12000  fascicles,  60  trees     -^   -j,  .      --    ^  .^ 
Collections  8  through  13      '^^       ^  '^       ^^'^^         ^'^ 


Collection  14 

2000  fascicles,  10  trees 


2.35   9'*.80    2.85 


Tree  P. 372,  Royal  Botanic 

Gardens,  Kew  0.50       93.50         6,00 

400  fascicles 


1983  Bailey,  Pinus  cembroides  95 

Zimapin,  the  generally  accepted  type  locality  for  Plnus  cembroides 
Zucc,  Is  atypical  as  well.  It  comes  from  an  exceptionally  low  and 
presumably  dry  location  and  yielded,  In  the  standard  sample  of 
2000  fascicles,  200  fascicles  from  each  of  10  trees,  an  average 
fascicle  size  of  2.07.   Of  the  remaining  five  localities,  the  aver- 
age fascicle  size  varied  from  2.30  to  2.65.  Trees  from  greater  ele- 
vation In  the  Zlmapin  region,  Including  the  type  specimen  Munich 
(eramlned  while  on  loan  to  Kew)  exhibit  a  substantially  higher 
fraction  of  3-needle  fascicles.  The  Inclusion  of  the  Zlmapdn  data 
has  therefore  somewhat  distorted  the  histogram  for  subsp.  cembroi- 
des as  shown  In  Figure  2.  The  collections  of  subsp.  orizabensls, 
studied  In  the  saine  way,  yielded  average  faiscicle  sizes  ranging 
from  3.13  to  3.70.  The  slightly  differing  collection  14  yielded 
3.00.  Collection  13  held  the  very  large   average  of  3.70  and  most 
of  the  5-needle  fascicles  shown  in  Table  2.  The  next  laorgest  aver- 
aige  fascicle  size  was  3.32. 

Other  character  differences  of  varying  usefulness  are; 

Needle  dimensions.  Needles  of  subsp,  orizabensls,  including 
collection  Ik,   are  systematically  somewhat  longer  and  thicker  than 
those  of  subsp.  cembroides,  though  this  is  not  obvious  from  casual 
observation.  Nevertheless  the  needles  of  subsp.  orizabensls  are 
soft  to  the  touch  relative  to  the  stiffer  and  sometimes  more 
curved  needles  of  subsp.  cembroides. 

Number  and  position  of  stomatal  lines.  From  standeirdlzed  sam- 
ples of  five  fascicles  per  tree  it  was  found  that  subsp.  orizaben- 
sls has,  on  average,  slightly  fewer  dorsal  stomatal  lines,  and 
slightly  more  on  the  ventral  surfaces  than  subsp.  cembroides. 
However,  histograms  of  the  distributions  show  considerable  overlap. 

Number  of  resin  ducts.  For  all  practical  purposes  the  needles 
of  both  tajca  contain  two  resin  ducts.  Thus  of  more  than  900  needles 
of  subsp.  cembroides  considered  in  this  study,  all  had  2  resin 
ducts.  However  among  the  1200  needles  of  subsp.  orizabensls,  simi- 
larly considered,  10  needles  were  found  with  3  resin  ducts,  and  one 
needle  was  found  with  4. 

Foliage  color.  The  ventral  surfaces  of  the  needles  of  subsp. 
orizabensls  are  usually  much  more  glaucous  than  those  of  subsp, 
cembroides,  and  the  dorsal  surfaces  axe  a  daxker  more  bluish  green. 
In  this  respect  the  foliage  of  subsp,  orizabensls  more  closely  re- 
sembles that  of  Pinus  discolor  than  that  of  subsp.  cembroides.  The 
latter  has  foliage  which  is  usually  somewhat  yellowish  green. 

Needle  retention  and  resinousness.  Needle  retention  was  found 
to  be  slightly  greater  for  subsp,  cembroides  than  for  subsp,  oriza- 
bensls. The  average  retention  in  yesirs  and  its  range  are  4,2(3  -  6) 
and  3.6(2  -  5)  respectively.  Since  early  loss  of  needles  Is  consider- 
ed to  be  a  means  of  moisture  conservation,  this  could  lead  to  the 
conclusion  that  evapo-trajispiration  Is  a  more  severe  problem  for 
the  stands  of  subsp,  orizabensls,  except  for  collection  14,  at  an 
obviously  rather  wet  locality,  where  the  average  needle  retention 
was  5.0  years.  Lest  this  result  be  Interpreted  solely  as  a  climatic 


96  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

response,  it  must  be  pointed  out  that  the  foliage  of  subsp.  cembroi- 
des  throughout  its  entire  range  is  resinous  and  sticky  to  handle 
thus  permitting  better  moisture  retention,  whereas  that  of  subsp. 
orizabensis  is  comparatively  non-resinous  and  clean  to  work  with. 
Thus  the  difference  in  resinousness  of  needles  of  the  two  taxa  is 
more  useful  as  a  character  distinction  than  needle  retention. 

Bark  of  large  mature  trees.  The  bark  of  subsp,  orizabensls 
resembles  closely  that  of  Pinus  discolor  and  is  in  marked  contrast 
with  that  of  subsp,  cembroides.  Thus  it  exhibits  little  or  no 
transverse  fissuring  with  its  irregular  longitudinal  fissuring. 
The  bark  is  rather  thin  and  shows  yellowish-orange  inner  bark  in 
the  often  broad  fissures.  Between  fissures  the  bark  tends  to  form 
in  thin,  rather  ragged,  concave  layers.  Subsp.  cembroides,  on  the 
other  hand,  often  exhibits  irregulajr  transverse  fissuring  as  well 
as  less  conspicuous  longitudinal  fissuring,  which  results  in  the 
formation  of  coarse  polygonal  plates  in  the  comparatively  thick 
bark  without  the  thin  concave  layers.  The  underbark,  while  yellow- 
ish, is  less  conspicuous  in  the  fissures,  and  often  does  not  show 
at  all. 

Small  twigs  after  shedding  needles  and  fascicle  sheaths.  The 
fascicle  bracts  of  subsp,  orizabensis  are  conspicuous  and  become 
nearly  black  in  a  few  years.  They  tend  to  protrude  thus  giving  the 
twigs  a  rough  appearance  and  feel.  In  the  case  of  subsp,  cembroi- 
des the  fascicle  bracts  are  less  conspicuous  and  somewhat  smaller 
than  those  of  subsp,  orizabensis  and  result  in  comparatively 
smooth  twigs  after  the  passage  of  a  few  years. 

Cones.  Cones  are  very  similar  among  all  of  the  segregates  of 
Pinus  cembroides  s.  lat.  with  the  exception  of  Pinus  remota,  and 
extremely  variable  even  on  the  same  tree,  and  from  year  to  year. 
They  are  therefore  of  little  use  for  distinguishing  characters. 
Nevertheless  it  is  possible  to  say  a  little.  The  cones  of  subsp. 
orizabensis  are  somewhat  larger  (i.e.  longer)  and  harder  than  those 
of  subsp.  cembroides.  The  seeds  of  both  have  thick,  hard  shells 
relative  to  P.  remota,  and  pink  endosperms  as  revealed  by  Robert- 
Passini  (198I)  whose  examples  of  subsp.  cembroides  included, 
unwittingly,  some  examples  of  subsp.  orizabensis.  Despite  several 
similarities,  pointed  out  above,  between  var,  orizabensis  and  Pinus 
discolor,  the  endosperm  of  the  latter,  and  of  Pinus  remota,  is  white, 

Chemical  differences.  The  difference  between  the  two  tajca  in 
the  percentage  of  3-carene  in  wood  from  cores  or  twigs  provides  a 
liuited  character  distinction.  The  percentage  is  small,  usually  1  % 
or  less,  in  subsp,  cembroides,  whereas  it  may  be  an  order  of  mag- 
nitude greater  in  subsp,  orizabensis.  However,  in  the  latter  taxon 
it  is  highly  variable  within  a  stand,  and  some  trees,  or  even  most 
trees  in  some  stands,  exhibit  only  a  little  more  thsui  that  found  in 
subsp.  cembroides,  as  for  example  collection  34  and  the  Kew  tree. 

CHOICE  OF  NAME 

The  name  orizabensis  has  been  chosen  for  two  reeisons.  Firstly 
it  gives  recognition  to  the  position  of  Mt,  Orizaba  (Pico  de  Oriza- 


1983  Bailey,  Pinus  cembroides  97 

ba)  with  respect  to  the  collection  localities  reported  above.  Mt, 
Orizaba  is  indicated  by  a  small  triangle  in  Figure  1.  Secondly  it 
conunemorates  the  first  two  reports  of  what  is  now,  in  the  light 
of  the  geographical  distribution,  clearly  identifiable  ais  subsp. 
orizabensls  on  the  slopes  of  the  mountain.  Though  the  pinyons 
await  rediscovery  on  the  mountain,  the  suffix,  -ens is,  indicating 
place  of  growth,  origin,  or  habitat,  seems  appropriate. 

The  taxon  was  first  recognized  by  Gordon  who  gave  it  the  name 
Pinus  cembroides  Gordon  in  The  Fine turn  (I858),  The  name  is  a  later 
homonym,  having  been  used  earlier  by  Zuccarini  (1832).  Gordon,  for 
reasons  that  are  not  clear,  regarded  Pinus  cembroides  Zucc,  as  a 
synonym  for  Pinus  llaveana  Schlede  ex  Schlechtendal  (I838)  rather 
than  the  reverse.  Thus  Pinus  cembroides  Gordon  represented  to 
Gordon  a  different  taxon.  It  may  be  supposed  that  Gordon's  persist- 
ent emphasis  on  the  distinctness  rested  mainly  on  needles  in 
fascicles  of  3  rather  than  of  2  and  3  on  the  same  tree,  and  on  cone 
si7e.  It  also  rested  on  the  "shorter,  more  glaucous  ,  .  ,  leaves" 
than  those  of  P,  llaveana,  where  "more  glaucous"  is  the  relevant 
character. 

Gordon's  name  was  based  on  material  received  from  Kartweg 
(Gordon,  1846) 

"...  who  found  it  in  the  cold  districts  of  the 
mountain  of  Orizaba,  near  the  village  of  Chlchl- 
qulla,  attaining  a  height  of  30  feet,  at  an  ele- 
vation of  10,000  feet  above  the  sea. 

Leaves  in  threes,  from  an  inch  to  an  inch  and 
a  half  In  length  (on  wild  specimens),  .  ,  ,  Cones 
single  and  sessile,  from  2-|  to  3  inches  in  length  .  , 

Judging  from  locality  and  appearance,  this 
Pine  is  likely  to  prove  hardy  in  England  and  is 
quite  new  to  the  collections  of  this  country," 

This  last  remark  was  prophetic  Indeed  in  view  of  the  success  of  the 
Kew  tree. 

Further  Independent  evidence  that  subsp.  orizabensis,  as  P,  cem- 
broides Gordon,  occurs  or  once  occurred  on  the  flanks  of  Mt,  Oriza- 
ba is  provided  by  Gordon  (I858)  who  states,  in  reference  of  Pinus 
orlzabae  Gordon  (=  Pinus  pseud ostrobus  Llndl.)  that 

"It  was  first  discovered  by  Hartv/eg  on  the 
eastern  declivity  of  the  Mountain  of  Orizaba,  in 
Mexico,  at  the  same  elevation  (10,000  feet)  as 
P,  cembroides,  growing  in  company  with  that  spe- 
cies and  a  bushy  Juniper;  ,  ,  ,  but  not  abundant," 

Unfortunately  the  Hartweg  material  from  "the  cold  districts  of  the 
mountain  of  Orizaba"  ha^  not  come  to  light.  Specimens  of  his  earlier 
collection  of  I839,  No.  440,  from  the  vicinity  of  Zlmap^  and  Gar- 
donal  have  been  exajulned  at  Kew,  This  material,  alluded  to  by  Gor- 
don in  the  heading  of  his  1846  paper,  is  quite  certainly  P.  cembroi- 
des Zucc.  as  stated  by  Bentham  (184o),  It  has  fascicles  of  both 
2  and  3  needles  on  the  same  specimen. 


98  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    5A,   No.    2 

An  unsuccessful  attempt  was  made   to  make  a  collection  for  this 
study  on  the  lower  slopes  of  Mt.    Orizaba,   beginning  at  the  village 
of  Chichiquila,    shown  by  the   small   "x"   on  Figure   1.   Unfortunately 
the  route  found  led  to  the   northwest  instead  of  southwest,   and  did 
not  reach  a  sufficient  elevation  (Chichiquila  itself  is  only  at 
about  6000  feet  or  1830  m)   before  leading  to  the   main  highway,   Mex 
IJ^O,    to  the  west  of  collection  10.   A  route   to  higher  elevations  to 
the  southwest  of  Chichiquila  would  quite  possibly  lead   to  the  trees 
collected  by  Heirtweg,    if  they  still  exist, 

2.  PINUS  GEMBROIDES  subsp.   LACUNAE   ( Robert-Pass ini)  D.  K.   Bailey 

comb,   nov,  Pinus  cembroides  var.   lagunae  Robert-Pass ini, 
Adansonia  ser.  k,   J,   sec.  3,    No.    1:    64,    I98I 

This  pinyon  occurs  only  in  a  small  area  of  the  Sierra  de  Laguna 
to  the  east  of  Todos  Santos,   between  La  Paz  and  Cabo  San  Lucas  at 
the  southern  end  of  the  peninsula  of  Lower  California.   Robert- 
Passini  (I98I)  decided  that  it  differed  at  varietal  rank  from  P, 
cembroides  s,   str.    in  having  thinner  seed  walls  and  more  cotyledons. 
To  justify  raising  the  rank  to  subspecies  the  following  additional 
characters  distinguish  subsp.   lagunae   (based  on  Bailey's  collection 
79-09  of  15  Karch  1979,    10  trees  sampled  each  with  cores)  from 
subsp,    cembroides   (based  on  collections  1   through  6) 

longer  needles,    averages  6,75  vs.  4.51   cm 

thinner  fascicles,    averages  1,19  vs.   1.32  mm 

fewer  stomatal  lines  per  needle, 

averages       5 •91  vs.   7,58 
clLso  longer  cone  peduncles  and  perceptible  prickles 

peduncles  2  to  3  nun  thick,   prickles  ca,   0,5  nun  long 

on  cone-scale  umbos. 

But  the  most  important  and  quantitative  difference  was  the   complete- 
ly different  monoterpene   chemistry  of  subsp,   lagunae   compared  with 
that  of  subsp,    cembroides  and  subsp,    orizabensis.   Subsp,   lagunae   is 
high  in  sabinene  and  terpinolene  as  compared  with  subsp.    cembroides 
and  subsp.    orizabensis,    and  has  many  chemical  similarities  to  Pinus 
discolor.   Both  subsp.   lagunae   and  Pinus  discolor  are  low  in  ot -pinene 
as  compared  with  subsp,    cembroides  and  subsp.    orizabensis, 

ACKNCWLEDGBMENTS 

The  effort  represented  by  this  report  has  depended  on  no  grants 
of  any  kind,   but  much  is  owed  to  many  persons  who  have   cooperated 
with  the  project  in  various  ways   involving  the  contribution  of  time. 
In  particulcir  thanks  are  due   to  the  various  persons  listed,    in  addi- 
tion to  the  author,    in  the   column  of  collectors  in  Table   1,    and  to 
Frederick  Ayer  II  for  both  hospitality  and  transportation  in  Mexico. 
The   contributions   in  effort  by  Tom  Wendt  and  Emily  Lott  must  be   sing- 
led out  particularly,    not  only  for  their  part  in  making  the  collect- 
ions,   but  also  for  making  possible   the  visit  to  Chichiquila.   Thanks 
are  also  due   to  David  Hunt  of  Kaw  first  for  supplying  information 
about  the   "discovery"   tree  and  for  permission  to  collect  the  two 


1983  Bailey,  Pinus  cembroides  99 

branchlets,  and  secondly  for  obtaining  on  loan  from  Munich  the  type 
specimen  of  Pinus  cembroides  Zucc,  and  making  it  available  for 
study  at  Kew.  Prof.  J.  N.  Hough  must  be  thanked  for  assistance  with 
the  Latin  description  of  the  new  taxon.  Dr.  Rupert  Barneby  of  the 
New  York  Botanical  Garden  gave  extremely  valuable  advice  and  criti- 
cism of  an  earlier  version  of  this  account,  much  of  which  is  reflec- 
ted in  the  present  version.  Dr.  Eugene  Zavaorin  of  the  Forest  Products 
Laboratory  of  the  University  of  California  gave  permission  to  report 
in  a  preliminary  and  highly  abridged  form  the  results  of  the  chemi- 
cal analyses  of  the  cores  and  twigs  collected  during  the  project. 
Most  of  all  indebtedness  must  be  acknowledged  to  Dr.  Frank  Hawks- 
worth  of  the  U.  S.  Forest  Service  for  long-continuing  assistance, 
encouragement  and  advice  in  carrying  forward  the  pinyon  project 
during  the  past  decade. 

REFERENCES 

Bailey,  D.  K.  &  F.  G.  Kawksworth.  1979.  Pinyons  of  the  Chihuahuan 
Desert  Region.  Phytologia  kh_\    129  -  133. 

Bailey,  D.  K.  k   F.  G.  Kawksworth.  1983.  Pinaceae  of  the  Chihuahuan 
Desert  Region.  Phytologia  ^i  226  -  23^. 

Bailey,  D.  K.  4  Tom  Wendt.  1979.  New  pinyon  records  for  northern 
Mexico.  Southwest.  Natur.  2^(2) j  389  -  390. 

Bentham,  G.  1839  -  1857.  Plantae  Hartwegianae .  393  pp.,  London 
(No.  '^O,  p.  58,  1840). 

Critchfield,  W.  3.  ^c  i..  L.  Little  Jr.  I966.  Geographic  distribution 
of  the  pines  of  the  world.  97  pp.,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agricul- 
ture Forest  Service.  Misc.  Publ.  991. 

Gordon,  G.  1846.  kZ   Pinus  cembroides  etc.,  J.  Hort.  Soc.  (London) 
It  236  -  237. 

Gordon,  G.  I858.  The  Pinetum,  353  pp.,  Bohn,  London. 

Kawksworth,  F.  G.  h   D.  Wiens.  I98O.  A  new  species  of  Arceuthoblum 
(Viscaceae)  from  Central  Mexico,  Brittonia  22«  348  -  352. 

Little,  E.  L.  Jr.  I966,  A  new  pinyon  variety  from  Texas,  Wrightia 
3i  181  -  187. 

Little,  S.  L.  Jr.  I968.  Two  new  pinyon  varieties  from  Arizona, 
Phytologia  17:  329  -  3^2. 

Martinez,  M.  1948.  Los  pinos  raexicanos  Ed.  2,  361  pp.,  Ediciones 
Botas,  Mexico. 

Robert,  M.-F,  1978.  Un  nouveau  pin  pigncn  mexicain:  Pinus  johannis, 
Adansonia  ser.  2.  18:  365  -  373. 

Robert-Pass ini,  M.-F.  I98I.  Deux  nouveaux  pins  pignons  du  Mexique, 
Bull  Mus.  natn.  Hist,  nat.,  Paris,  4®  ser.,  3,  section  B, 
Adansonia,  no,  li  6I  -  73. 


100 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  2 


Schlechtendal,  A.  I838.  Voriaufige  Nachricht  Uber  die  mexikanischen 
Goniferen,  Linnaea  _12:  486  -  496. 

Zuccarini,  J.  G,  I832.  45.  Pinus  cembroides  Zuccar. ,  Abhand.  Akad. 
Wiss.  Muench.  li  392  -  394. 


NOVITATES  ANTILLANAE.  X 

Alain  H.  Liogier 

Jardin  Botanico,  Administracion  Central 
Universidad  de  Puerto  Rico,  GPO  Box  4984-G 
San  Juan,  PR  00924 


This  new  series  of  additions  to  the  Floras  of  Hispaniola  and 
Puerto  Rico  is  the  result  of  intensive  field  work  in  both  islands 
and  brings  up  to  date  our  knowledge  of  their  vegetation.   After 
publishing  our  last  book:  LIOGIER,  A.  H.  &  L.  F.  MARTORELL,  Flora 
of  Puerto  Rico  and  Adjacent  Islands:  a  Systematic  Synopsis  (Edito- 
rial de  la  Universidad  de  Puerto  Rico,  1982),  several  taxa  have 
been  added  and  new  species  have  to  be  described. 

LORANTHACEAE 

Dendropemon  linearis  Alain,  sp.  nov. 

Rami  usque  30  cm  longi,  in  parte  inferiori  usque  2  mm  crassi, 
teretes  plicato-striati,  brunnei,  juvenili  compressi,  internodiis 
usque  2  cm  longis,  e  basi  ad  apicem  paullo  dilatati;  folia  linearia 
vel  anguste  lineari-lanceolata ,  basi  in  petiolum  brevissimum  vel 
subnullum  angustata,  apice  paulatim  acuminata,  apice  ipso  apicula- 
ta,  2-3.5  cm  longa,  2-4  ram  lata,  nervo  medio  supra  nullo,  subtus 
prominente ,  lateralibus  nullis,  margine  plana  Integra,  in  sicco 
nigrescentia  opaca  coriacea;  inf lorescentiae  solitarii  axillares, 
3-4-florae;  pedunculo  12-15  mm  longo ,  compresso,  apice  versus 
dilatato  et  usque  2  mm  lato;  rachis  plus  minus  compressa;  pedicelli 
2-5  mm  longi;  bractea  et  prophylla  inter  sese  in  cupulam  1  mm  Ion- 
gam  coalita,  superne  libera  triangularia;  calycodium  non  visum; 
baccae  nigrae  obovato-cylindraceae,  8-9  mm  longae. 

DOMINICAN  REPUBLIC:  In  pine  forest,  near  Aceitillar,  Bahoruco 
Mts.,  alt.  approx.  1,000  m,  uncommon,  26  Feb.  1971,  Alain  H.  Lio- 
gier 17912  (Holotypus:  NY). 

The  very  narrow  leaves,  the  few-flowered  inflorescence,  the 
absence  of  calycodium  distinguish  this  species.   Some  forms  of 
Dendropemon  purpureus  (L.)  Krug  &  Urb .  ,  have  narrow  leaves,  but 
this  last  species  has  a  conspicuous  calycodium,  and  the  leaves 
have  a  well-developed  petiole. 

POLYGONACEAE 

Coccoloba  Jimenez ii  Alain,  sp .  nov. 


Frutex  4-5  m  altus,  ramuli  tereti  glabri;  ochreae  cylindra- 
ceae,  coriaceae,  puberulae,  5-7  mm  longae,  apice  breviter  bilo- 

101 


102 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  2 


Dendropemon  linearis  Alain  (A.  H.  Liogier  17912) 


1983  Liogier,  Novitates  antillanae  103 

batae;  foliia  ovata  vel  oblongo-ovata ,  apice  versus  attenuata,  apice 
ipso  leviter  emarginata,  basi  cordata,  2-4.8  cm  longa,  1-2.5  cm 
lata,  subcoriacea  vel  coriacea,  supra  glabra  vel  nervo  medio  basim 
sparse  pilosa,  nervo  medio  supra  vix  prominulo,  subtus  prominente, 
lateralibus  utroque  latere  5-6,  supra  et  subtus  prominulis,  ad  mar- 
ginem  arcuatis  et  anastomosantibus ,  venis  utroque  facie  dense  re- 
ticulatis,  margine  Integra,  plana  vel  leviter  recurvata;  petioli  6- 
8  mm  longi,  puberuli,  1-2  mm  sub  ochreae  apicem  abeuntes;  inflores- 
centiae  terminales  in  ramuli  brevissimi,  1-5  ram  longae ,  rachis  gla- 
ber ,  angulatus;  bracteae  anguste  ovato-triangulares ,  acutae,  1  mm 
longae,  0.4  mm  latae,  glabrae;  ochreolae  membranaceae ,  tubular i- 
campanulatae ,  1  mm  longae,  glabrae;  pedicelli  2-3  mm  longi,  glabri; 
f lores  feminei  solitarii,  glabri,  hypanthium  in  fructo  3  mm  longum, 
lobi  imbricati,  2  mm  longi,  apice  rotundati;  caetera  ignota. 

DOMINICAN  REPUBLIC:   In  thickets,  on  serpentine  rocks.  Sierra 
Prieta,  Villa  Mella,  Distrito  Nacional,  alt.  150  m,  24  March  1974, 
Alain  &  Perfa  Liogier  21450  (Holotypus:  NY;  Isotypi:  SDM,  UPR) ; 
id.,  26  May  1973,  Alain  &  Perfa  Liogier  19276  (NY,  SDM);  id.,  24 
Oct.  1975,  Alain  &  Perfa  Liogier  24125  (NY,  SDM). 

The  ovate,  cordate  leaves,  the  short  inflorescences  distinguish 
this  species.   The  nearest  taxon  seems  to  be  C.    hotteana  Schmidt, 
with  elliptic  or  ovate  to  obovate-elliptic  leaves,  rounded  or 
narrowed  at  base,  the  perianth  lobes  ovate  to  suborbicular ,  the 
fruits  up  to  6  mm  long.   This  species  is  named  in  memory  of  the  late 
Jose  Jesus  Jimenez,  a  prominent  botanist  in  the  Dominican  Republic. 

LEGUMINOSAE-PAPILIONOIDEAE 

Crotalaria  intermedia  Kotschy 

St.  CROIX:  On  roadside,  Bonne  Esperance,  Alain  H.  Liogier  34234 
(UPR).   A  new  record. 

Pueraria  triloba  (L.)  Makino 

DOMINICAN  REPUBLIC:  Vicinity  of  Bonao ,  Alain  &  Perfa  Liogier 
9073-1  (NY,  UPR,  SDM);  new  record  for  Hispaniola.   Native  of  Asia, 
cultivated  and  escaped. 

Sesbania  tomentosa  Hook.  &  Arn. 

PUERTO  RICO:  Gurabo  Station,  introduced  and  becoming  a  weed.   A 
new  record  (det.  Peter  E.  Gibbs) . 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

Chamaesyce  blodgettii  (Engelm.  ex  Hitchc.)  Small 

PUERTO  RICO:  Caja  de  Muertos  Isl.,  R.  0.  Woodbury  &  M.  Cobin  s.n. 
(UPR  7485) ;  on  coastal  limestone,  Guanica,  A.  &  P.  Liogier,  L.  F. 
Martorell  29485  (UPR);  a  new  record  for  Puerto  Rico.   Bermuda,  Baha- 
mas, Florida,  Cuba,  Jamaica,  Virgin  Islands,  Grand  Cayman;  oddly 
enough,  this  species  has  not  yet  been  reported  from  Hispaniola. 


104 


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Vol.  54,  No.  2 


Coccoloba  jlmenezii  Alain  (A.  &  P.  Liogier  21450) 


1983  Liogier,  Novltates  antillanae  105 

Adams  (Flowering   Plants  of  Jamaica,  p.  429.  1972)   cites  this 
species  for  Puerto  Rico  and  the  Virgin  Islands. 

AQUIFOLIACEAE 

Ilex  cassine  L. 

PUERTO  RICO:  Dorado  Beach  forest,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.n.  (UPR  1770) ; 
a  new  record  for  Puerto  Rico.   Southern  United  States,  Bahamas,  Cuba. 

MALVACEAE 

Bastardia  bivalvis  (Cav.)  HBK. 

St.  CROIX:  On  roadside.  Estate  Solitude,  A.  H.  Liogier  3A213 
(UPR).   A  new  record  for  St.  Croix.   Greater  Antilles,  Mexico  to 
Peru  and  Brazil. 

PAS SI FLO RACE AE 

Passif lora  berteriana  Balb.  ex  DC. 

PUERTO  RICO:  in  dry  thickets,  Maruca,  Guanica ,  A.  &  P.  Liogier, 
L.  F.  Martorell  33732  (UPR);  a  new  record  for  Puerto  Rico.   Cuba, 
Hispaniola. 

MYRTACEAE 

THE  GENUS  CALYPTRANTHES  IN  PUERTO  RICO  AND  ADJACENT  ISLANDS. 

In  their  "Botany  of  Porto  Rico  and  the  Virgin  Islands",  N.  L. 
Britton  and  P.  Wilson  list  6  species  of  Calyptranthes;  one  of  them, 
C^.  kiaerskovii  Krug  &  Urban,  is  considered  as  an  endemic  to  Tortola 
and  will  not  be  considered  in  this  study,  being  outside  of  the  area 
covered.   Subsequently,  several  species  have  been  added  to  the  list, 
either  as  species  new  to  science,  or  as  new  records  for  the  area. 
Yet  another  species  has  to  be  added,  bringing  the  total  number  to 
11.   The  following  key  will  help  to  identify  the  different  taxa 
found  in  the  area. 

According  to  R.  McVaugh  (Taxon  17:  377.  1968),  this  genus  probably 
consists  of  about  100  described  species  in  the  West  Indies;  it  is 
well  represented  in  South  America,  mainly  in  southern  Brazil;  it 
needs  a  revision,  and  the  number  of  species  known  to  occur  in  the 
West  Indies  will  probably  be  less  than  actually  listed  in  each  one 
of  the  islands. 

Key  to  the  species  of  Calyptranthes  in  Puerto  Rico  and  Adjacent 
Islands: 

a.  Flowers  sessile  or  subsessile. 

b.  Plants  ferrugineo-tomentose  in  young  parts  and  inflorescences; 
flowers  solitary.  C.  krugii . 

b.  Plants  glabrous;  flowers  3-4.  C^.  dumetorum. 

a.  Flowers  in  paniculate,  or  1-3-f lowered ,  peduncled  inflorescences, 
or  glomerate. 

c.  Flowers  1-3,  sessile  on  2.5-3.5  cm  long  peduncles. 


106  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

d.  Plants  glabrous;  branchlets  2-lined  or  slightly  2-winged, 
not  articulate  at  base. 
e.  Flowers  solitary  on  peduncles  to  3.5  cm  long;  leaves  ovate 
or  oblong-ovate,  rounded  to  obtuse  at  apex,  1.7-2.6  cm 
long.  C^.  peduncularis . 

e.  Flowers  1-3,  peduncles  to  2.5  cm  long;  leaves  rhomboid  or 
oblong,  2-3.5  cm  long,  narrowed  to  cuspidate  at  apex. 

C^.  trif lorum. 
c.  Flowers  in  panicles,  cymes  or  glomerules. 

f.  Leaves  8-11  cm  long,  oblong-elliptic;  flowers  in  glomerules, 

on  peduncles  to  9.5  cm  long.  C.  luquillensis. 

f.  Leaves  to  7.5  cm  long;  flowers  paniculate  or  cymose. 
g.  Leaves  acute  or  obtuse;  inflorescences  few-several- 
flowered  . 
h.  Leaves  oblong-obovate;  cymes  trichotomous . 

C.  thomasiana. 
h.  Leaves  elliptic  or  ovate-elliptic;  panicles  several- 
flowered,  the  flowers  subglomerate ,  nearly  sessile. 

C^.  portoricensis. 
g.  Leaves  acuminate;  panicles  few-  to  many-flowered. 

i.  Leaves  cuspidate-acuminate  at  apex;  twigs  with  appressed 
brown  hairs  when  young, 
j.  Panicles  usually  as  long  as  the  leaves  or  longer, 

pubescent;  fruits  4-5  mm  in  diameter.   C^.  pallens. 
j.  Panicles  usually  shorter  than  the  leaves,  glabrous  or 
nearly  so;  fruits  6-7  mm  in  diameter. 

C.  sintenisii. 
i.  Leaves  obtuse  or  at  most  bluntly  acuminate  at  apex; 
twigs  glabrous.  C^.  zuzygium. 

C.  dumetorum  Alain,  Bull.  Torrey  Bot.  Club  92:  298.  1965. 

In  serpentine  barrens,  Susua,  Puerto  Rico  (Type:  Alain  Liogier 
9870)  ;  Camuy  river,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.n.  ,  sterile  (UPR  2290)  ; 
endemic. 

This  rare  species  has  been  collected  only  twice.   It  is  little 
known',  the  flowers  and  fruits  are  still  unknown. 

C.  krugii  Kiaersk. ,  Bot.  Tids.  17:  248.  1889. 

In  forests  at  middle  and  higher  elevations,  in  the  Luquillo  and 
Guavate  forests,  and  the  Central  mountain  range,  Puerto  Rico; 
endemic . 

A  very  variable  species,  the  shape  and  size  of  the  leaves  varying 
from  rounded  to  obtuse  at  apex,  and  from  2-5.5  cm  long  and  1.3-4.3 
cm  broad,  being  sessile  or  short-petioled;  the  main  characteristic 
is  the  sessile  flowers. 

C.  luquillensis  Alain,  Bull.  Torrey  Bot.  Club  90:  189.  1963. 

Rare  at  middle  and  higher  elevations,  in  the  Luquillo  forest, 
Puerto  Rico;  endemic  (Type:  Holdrldge  61.  NY;  C.  E.  Home,  s.n.  ,  NY; 
R.  0.  Woodbury  5575  (UPR) 

This  striking  species  is  unique  by  its  large  oblong-elliptic 
leaves  and  the  glomerate  flowers  on  long  peduncles. 


1983  Liogier,  Novitates  antillanae  107 

C.  pailens  (Poir.)  Griseb.,  in  Abh.  Gott.  Akad .  7:  215.  1857. 

Eugenia  pallens  Poir.  in  Lam.,  Encycl.  Suppl .  3:  122.  1813. 

Local,  mainly  in  moist  coastal  forests,  ascending  to  800  meters, 
Puerto  Rico;  southern  Florida,  Bahamas,  Greater  Antilles,  Virgin 
Islands,  Cayman  Islands,  Guadeloupe;  also  in  Mexico  and  Guatemala. 

C.  peduncularis  Alain,  Bull.  Torrey  Hot.  Club  90:  189.  1963. 

In  woods,  Maricao  State  Forest,  Puerto  Rico  (Type:  Alain  Liogier 
9220,  NY);  endemic. 
~  A  very  rare  and  little  known  species,  to  be  collected  again. 

C.  portoricensis  Britton,  Bull.  Torrey  Bot.  Club  51:  11.  1924. 

Rare  in  forests,  at  Luquillo  and  Maricao  forests,  from  800  to 
1,200  m  altitude,  Puerto  Rico;  endemic. 

C.  sintenisii  Kiaersk. ,  Bot.  Tids.  17:  250.  1889. 

In  forests,  at  lower  and  middle  elevations,  at  Bayamon  and  in  the 
Luquillo  Mountains,  and  in  moist  coastal  forest  at  Dorado,  Puerto 
Rico;  Hispaniola. 

C^.  thomasiana  Berg.  ,  Linnaea  27:  26.  1855. 

Locally  common  in  mounatins ,  Vieques  and  St.  Thomas  islands; 
Virgin  Islands. 

C.  triflorum  Alain,  Bull.  Torrey  Bot.  Club  90:  189.  1963. 

In  forests  on  serpentine,  Maricao  State  Forest,  Puerto  Rico 
(Type:  Alain  Liogier  9342,  NY;  id..  May  24,  1964,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.n. 
UPR  2316;  id.,  June  1970,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.n. ,  UPR  2315;  id.,  July 
1970,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.n.  ,  UPR  2314) ;  endemic. 

This  species  is  notable  by  its  3-f lowered  inflorescences,  the 
flowers  sessile,  its  cuspidate  flower-bud,  its  small  rhomboid  leaves. 

Calyptranthes  woodburyi  Alain,  sp .  nov. 

Arbor  parva  usque  7  m  alta,  caulis  usque  10  cm  diam,  ramulis  sub- 
teretibus  vel  paullo  compressis,  glabrescentes ,  pilis  simpliclbus 
sparsissimis  muniti  et  glandulosis ,  ad  basim  articulatis;  folia 
elliptica  vel  lanceolato-elliptica ,  4-4.8  cm  long,  1.7-2.1  cm  lata, 
apice  obtusa  vel  rotundata,  basi  versus  in  petiolum  attenuata  vel 
cuneata,  nervo  medio  supra  impresso ,  subtus  prominente,  lateralibus 
et  venis  obsoletis,  glabra,  supra  olivacea  dense  glanduloso-punctata 
subtus  pallidiora  sparse  glanduloso-punctata,  margine  Integra  paullo 
recurvata,  petiolo  2-3  mm  longo ,  supra  applanato;  pedunculi  axilla- 
res,  applanati,  2-3  mm  longi,  1-2-flori,  pedicelli  1-12  mm  longi , 
glanduloso-punctati;  bracteae  triangulares,  1  mm  longae,  glabrae; 
alabastra  ovoideo-fusif ormia,  5  mm  longa,  apiculata,  apiculo  1.5  mm 
longo;  hypanthium  globosum,  2  mm  longum  et  latum,  calyptra  cuspidata 
1.5-2  mm  longa. 

PUERTO  RICO:  Quebrada  Grande,  El  Verde,  Luquillo  Mts.,  Aug.  1, 
1977,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.  n.  (Holotypus:  UPR  2495)  ;  El  Verde,  Luquillo 
Mts.,  July  1961,  R.  0.  Woodbury  5096  (UPR);  El  Verde,  Eona  Dora  River 
area,  June  22,  1960,  R.  0.  Woodbury  3740  (NY);  Guavate,  April  1961, 


108 


PlIYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    2 


niijiiii  mii|iiii  inip 

il4(i!Ay.l,lJilllllllll(h|||||||t||li|i)i|| 
0024 Q^ 


Calyptranthes  woodburyi  Alain  (R^. Woodbury  s.n.) 


1983  Liogier,  Novitates  antillanae  109 

R.  0.  Woodbury  A869  (UPR) ;  id.,  Aug.  2,  1977,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.  n. . 
(UPR  2496)  ;  Carite,  Sept.  1971,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.  n.  (UPR  8818) ; 
Maricao,  Monte  del  Estado,  June  1975  (R.  0.  Woodbury  s.  n.  (UPR 
8822). 

A  species  near  to  C^.  trif lorum  Alain,  described  from  Puerto  Rico; 
the  main  differences  are:  the  sparsely  pilose  twigs,  the  larger  and 
not  cuspidate  leaves,  glandular-punctate  above;  in  this  species,  the 
flowers  are  1-2  on  a  short  peduncle  and  the  pedicel  is  well  devel- 
oped; the  affinity  lies  in  the  cuspidate  calyptra.   Named  in  honor 
of  R.  0.  Woodbury,  the  indefatigable  collector  of  this  species. 

Some  specimens  are  fruiting  and  the  fruit  description  is  as 
follows : 

Fructiferi  pedunculi  usque  3.2  cm  longi ,  glabri,  glandulosi; 
fructi  globosi,  6  mm  diam. ,  glandulosi,  brunnei,  glabri,  apice  hypan- 
thi  margine  coronati. 

C.  zuzygium  (L.)  Sw. ,  Nov.  Gen.  &  Sp .  PI.  79.  1788. 

Myrtus  zuzygium  L. ,  Syst.  Veg.  ed.  10,  2:  1056.  1759. 

Rare  in  moist  forests  on  the  north  coast,  Puerto  Rico;  Florida, 
Bahamas,  Greater  Antilles. 

Myrciaria  myrtifolia  Alain,  sp .  nov. 

Frutex  vel  arbor  parva,  5  m  alta,  caulis  10  cm  diam.;  ramuli  te- 
retes  vel  leviter  applanata,  pubescentes,  rami  grisei  cortice  fisso; 
folia  elliptica  vel  oblongo-elliptica ,  1-2  cm  longa ,  0.5-1  cm  lata, 
apice  obtusa  vel  rotundata  vel  emarginata,  apice  ipso  mucronulata, 
mucrone  brunneo ,  basi  obtusa  vel  rotundata,  nervo  medio  supra  impre- 
sso,  subtus  prominulo,  nervis  lateralibus  obsoletis,  supra  nitida 
subtus  opaca  sparse  punctata,  margine  Integra,  petiolo  2  mm  longo 
supra  applanato  puberulo;  f lores  in  foliorum  superiorum  axillibus 
solitarii,  pedicelli  1.5-2  mm  longi,  leviter  compressi,  puberuli; 
prophylla  ovato-deltoidea ,  1  mm  longa,  margine  ciliata;  hypanthium 
1-1.5  mm  longum  campanulatum,  glaber ,  glandulosum,  calycis  limbus 
1.5-2  mm  longus ,  glaber,  glandulosus,  lobi  rotundati  ciliolati;  pe- 
tala  oblonga  apice  rotundata  2  mm  longa,  extus  pilosula  glandulosa; 
stamina  numerosa;  caetera  ignota. 

PUERTO  RICO:  Mountain  ridge  North  of  Coamo  on  road  14,  May  20, 
1971,  R.  0.  Woodbury  21501  (Holotypus ,  NY);  top  of  Cerro  Cariblanco, 
R.  0.  Woodbury  s.  n.  (UPR  5123)  ;  VIEQUES:  May  24,  1978,  R.  0.  Wood- 
bury s.n.  (UPR  5124)  . 

This  species  is  notable  for  its  small  leaves,  probably  the  small- 
est in  the  genus,  the  absence  of  lateral  nerves  or  reticulation,  the 
puberulous  branches.  I  do  not  know  of  any  similar  plant  in  the  West 
Indies. 

Psidium  calyptranthoides  Alain,  sp .  nov. 

Arbor  parva  glabra,  rami  hornotini  plus  minus  applanati,  brunneo- 
glandulosi,  lenticellosi ,  vetustiores  grisei  cortice  striato  et 
fisso;  folia  2-3  mm  longe  petiolata,  petiolo  supra  canaliculato , 


110 


PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    2 


Myrciaria  myrtifolla  Alain    (R.    0.    Woodbury   21501) 


1983  Liogier,  Novitates  antillanae  111 

basi  articulato  ;  lamina  elliptica  usque  oblongo-elliptica ,  A. 5-7 
cm  longa ,  2.5-4.2  cm  lata,  apice  acuminata  apice  ipso  rotundato, 
basi  in  petiolum  attenuata,  nervo  medio  supra  ad  basim  leviter  ira- 
presso,  subtus  praesertim  ad  basim  prominente,  lateralibus  utroque 
latere  5-7  saepe  obsoletis  ad  marginem  anastomosantibus ,  in  utroque 
facie  glanduloso-punctata ,  margine  Integra  leviter  revoluta ,  gla- 
berrima;  floras  axillares,  pedunculi  filiformes,  in  nodi  oppositi, 
2.5-2.8  cm  longi,  brunneo-glandulosi;  prophylla  subulata ,  1  mm  longa, 
fimbriata,  decidua;  alabastra  pyriformia,  basi  subcylindrica ,  apice 
globosa,  apiculata,  7  mm  longa,  4.5  mm  lata  ad  apicem,  1.5  mm  lata 
ad  basim,  dense  glandulosa;  calyx  in  alabastro  clausum,  ad  anthesim 
irregulariter  adaperiens,  intus  pilosus;  petala  elliptica,  pilosa, 
stamina  numerosa.   Fructus  non  visi. 

PUERTO  RICO:  Monte  del  Estado  Forest,  Maricao,  2800  ft.  altitude, 
July  8,  1970,  R.  0.  Woodbury  20506 (Holotype :  UPR;  Isotype:  NY);  Dos 
Picachos,  Luquillo  Mts. ,  May,  1960,  R.  0.  Woodbury  s.  n.  (UPR  2499) . 

In  this  large  genus,  it  is  still  possible  to  find  undescribed 
species.   The  present  one  resembles  at  first  sight  Calyptrogenia  bi- 
f lora  Alain,  from  Hispaniola;  the  calyx  opening  irregularly  instead 
of  by  a  calyptra  is  so  far  the  main  generic  difference.   Rogers  Mc 
Vaugh  (Taxon  17:  409-410.  1968)  questions  the  validity  of  Calyptro- 
genia.  After  much  experience  in  the  field,  I  am  convinced  this  is 
a  good  genus.   Much  more  material  needs  to  be  collected,  both  in 
flower  or  in  fruit  before  this  problem  can  be  solved.   Calyptrogenia 
so  far  in  found  only  in  Hispaniola. 

PRIMULACEAE 

Anagallis  arvensis  L. 

PUERTO  RICO:  Cerro  Avispa,  Cercadillo,  Cayey ,  A.  &  P.  Liogier,  L. 
F.  Martorell  33862  (UPR);  native  of  western  Europe,  now  widespread 
as  a  weed.   A  new  record  for  Puerto  Rico. 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

Cuscuta  campestris  Yuncker 

St.  CROIX:  in  street,  Christiansted ,  A.  H.  Liogier  34175  (UPR); 
cosmopolitan.   A  new  record  for  St.  Croix. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Cynanchum  grisebachianum  (Schlecht.)  Alain 

St.  JOHN:  In  thickets,  near  Coral  Bay,  A.  H.  Liogier  34241  (UPR); 
Puerto  Rico,  Lesser  Antilles.   A  new  record  for  St.  John. 

RUBIACEAE 

Several  authors  have  recently  decided  that  Oldenlandia  should  be 
included  into  Hedyotis  as  a  synonym.   We  have  to  establish  the 
following  new  combinations  for  the  Flora  of  Hispaniola: 


112 


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Vol.  54,  Noo  2 


Ho.  m 


Psidium  calyptranthoides  Alain  (R.  0  Woodbury  20506) 


1983  Liogier,  Novitates  antillanae  113 

Hedyotls  nigrescens  (Urban  &  Ekman)  Alain,  comb,  nov , 

Oldenlandla  nigrescens  Urban  &  Ekman, Ark.  Bot.  2A  (4):  36.  1931. 
A  narrow  endemic  in  the  mountains  of  the  Dominican  Republic, 

collected  only  once  by  Ekman  (Type:  Ekman  11712) . 

Hedyotis  selleana  (Urban)  Alain,  comb.  nov. 

Uldenlandia  selleana  Urban,  Repert.  Sp.  Nov.  16:  145.  1919. 

This  species  is  endemic  to  Hispaniola,  and  has  been  collected 
many  times,  both  in  the  Dominican  Republic  and  in  Haiti. 

The  genus  Borreria  Meyer  is  also  considered  as  a  synonym  to 
Spermacoce  L.   The  following  species  in  the  Flora  of  Hispaniola 
need  to  be  transferred: 

Spermacoce  densiflora  (DC.)  Alain,  comb.  nov. 

Borreria  densifloTa  DC,  Prodr.  4:  542.  1830. 

Spermacoce  spinosa  L. ,  Sp.  PI.  ed.  2.  148.  1762,  as  name,  not 
as  to  the  plant,  according  to  J.  Steyermark. 

Borreria  spinosa  (L.)  Cham.  &  Schl . ,  Linnaea  3:  340.  1828. 

This  species  is  found  in  Cuba,  Jamaica,  Hispaniola,  the  Lesser 
Antilles  and  continental  tropical  America.   It  is  very  rare  in 
Hispaniola . 

Spermacoce  litoralis  (Urban)  Alain,  comb.  nov. 

Borreria  litoralis  Urban,  Repert.  Sp.  Nov.  20:  352.  1924. 

This  species ,  endemic  to  Hispaniola  is  found  only  on  the  northern 
coast  both  in  Haiti  and  in  the  Dominican  Republic. 

Spermacoce  rosea  (Urban)  Alain,  comb.  nov. 

Borreria  rosea  Urban,  Symb.  Ant.  7:  414.  1912. 

An  endemic  to  the  high  mountains  in  the  Dominican  Republic.  The 
type  specimen  is  from  Constanza  (Tuerckheim  3377) . 

CUCURBITACEAE 

Psiguria  pedata  (L.)  Howard 

St.  CROIX:  In  forest.  Estate  Solitude,  A.  H.  Liogier  34211  (UPR) ; 
Bahamas,  Cuba,  Hispaniola,  Puerto  Rico.   A  new  record  for  St.  Croix. 

POTAMOGETONACEAE 

Potamogeton  illinoensis  Morong 

PUERTO  RICO:  in  water,  floating,  Rio  Dorado,  Toa  Baja,  A.  H.  Lio- 
gier 33773  (UPR);  North  America,  Mexico,  Central  America,  West 
Indies.   A  new  record  for  Puerto  Rico. 

GRAMINEAE 

Aristida  swart ziana  Steud. 

PUERTO  RICO:  In  dry  thickets,  Maruca ,  Guanica ,  A.  &  P.  Liogier, 
L.  F.  Martorell  33630  (det.  S.  Hatch);  Jamaica,  Hispaniola,  Antigua, 


114  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

Barbuda.   A  new  record  for  Puerto  Rico. 

Brachlaria  brizantha  Stapf 

PUERTO  RICO:  A  weed,  at  Gurabo  Station,  A.  &  P.  Liogier  33485 
(UPR) ;  this  species  has  been  introduced  as  an  experimental  fodder 
plant,  and  is  rapidly  becoming  a  weed;  native  of  tropical  Africa. 
"Signal  grass". 

Dichanthium  annulatum  (Forssk.)  Stapf 

St.  CROIX:  On  roadside,  Estate  South  Gate,  A.  H.  Liogier  34185 
(UPR);  native  of  the  Old  World,  introduced  into  the  West  Indies, 
a  weed.   New  record  for  St.  Croix. 

Eragrostis  curvula  (Schrad.)  Nees 

PUERTO  RICO:  a  weed  in  Santurce ,  A.  Liogier  33717  (UPR);  native 
of  South  Africa,  introduced  into  the  tropics  and  subtropics.   A  new 
record  for  Puerto  Rico. 

Rottboellia  exaltata  L.f . 

St.  CROIX:  On  roadside.  Estate  Canaan,  A.  Liogier  34228  (UPR); 
a  native  of  southern  Asia,  introduced  as  a  weed  in  the  West  Indies. 
A  new  record  for  St.  Croix. 

Rhynchelytrum  repens  (Willd.)  Hitchc. 

PUERTO  RICO:  In  grassy  places,  Tortuguero,  Vega  Baja,  A.  H.  &  P. 
Liogier,  L.  F.  Martorell  32992,  33473  (UPR);  Las  Mesas,  Mayaguez, 
A.  H.  Liogier  30694  (UPR) . 

R.  Fosberg  and  M.-H.  Sachet  (Smithsonian  Contr.  Bot.  47:  1-3. 
1981)  separate  the  two  species:  T.  repens  (Willd.)  Hitchc.  and  T. 
rosea  Nees;  they  are  easily  separated  by  the  color  of  the  spike- 
lets,  T^.  repens  having  pale  glumes  and  T^.  rosea  with  pink  glumes, 
among  other  differences.   According  to  the  two  authors  cited,  T^. 
repens  is  much  rarer  than  T.  rosea,  and  is  more  abundant  in  Africa. 

CYPERACEAE 

Bulbostylis  caplllarls  (L.)  Kunth  ssp .  antlllana  (Britt.)  T.  Koyama 

St.  CROIX:  In  sand,  Sandy  Point,  A.  H.  Liogier  34220  (UPR); 
Puerto  Rico,  Lesser  Antilles.   A  new  record  for  St.  Croix. 

BROMELIACEAE 

Tillandsia  ariza-juliae  L.  B.  Smith  &  Jimenez 

PUERTO  RICO:  In  forest,  Maricao  State  Forest,  A.  H.  Liogier  33783 
(UPR)  collected  by  Mr.  Ramon  Cantero;  Hispaniola.   A  new  record  for 
Puerto  Rico. 

MUSACEAE 

Heliconia  subulata  R.  &  P. 

PUERTO  RICO:  In  woods,  Trujillo  Alto,  A.  &  P.  Liogier  33489  (UPR) 
native  of  Guatemala  through  Central  America,  to  Brazil  and  Bolivia. 
A  new  record  for  Puerto  Rico. 


STUDIES  ON  Mikania  ( COMPOSITAE ) -  IX 

W  Holmes 

Biology  Department,  Northwestern  State  University 

Natchitoches,  LA  71457 


Continued  study  of  Mikani^a  has  resulted  in  the  following 
comments  on  Mikania  swart ziana  Griseb  and  the  description  of  one 
new  species  The  present  paper  is  preliminary  to  a  general 
treatment  of  the  genus  for  the  West  Indies 

MIKANIA  SWARTZIANA  Griseb  ,  Fl   Brit.  W   Ind   363   1861. 

This  is  the  first  described  Mi  kania  from  the  West  Indies 
belonging  to  a  closely  related  group  of  slender  twiners  possessing 
thinly  pedicelled  racemose  capi t u  1  escences  The  plant  was 
originally  cited  as  occurring  in  Jamaica  and  Cuba,  but  the  Cuban 
plants  are  currently  referred  to  under  the  later  names  M.  a Iba 
Taylor,  M.  hiorami  i  B.L.Robins.,  and  M.  1  indeni  i  Moore  It  has  also 
been  reported  in  Haiti  by  Moscoso  (1943),  but  this  seems  to  be 
based  on  inaccurate  determination  It  appears  that  M^.  swart  zana  is 
a  very  rare  plant  that  is  endemic  to  Jamaica 

It  has  become  apparent  that  the  original  diagnosis  describes 
not  only  the  Jamaican  plant,  but  certain  Mikania  elements  from 
Cuba  This  is  supported  by  the  mention  of  this  plant  in  Cuba  by 
Grisebach  (1861),  thereby  implying  a  specimen  from  there  was 
utilized  in  preparing  the  original  description  The  matter  is 
further  complicated  in  that  the  type  specimen  of  M.  swartz  iana  is 
composed  of  four  separate  fragments  belonging  to  two  different 
species,  both  from  Jamaica.  The  essence,  then,  is  that  two  or 
possibly  three  different  species  were  utilized  in  preparing  the 
description  of  M  swart ziana  The  description  is  unnecessarily 
broad  and  describes  any  of  the  previously  mentioned  species.  It  is 
therefore  necessary  to  define  the  morphological  limits  of  n 
swart  z  i  ana  to  reflect  its  correct  status  This  can  only  be 
accomplished  by  determining  which  of  the  two  elements  that  compose 
the  type  more  nearly  matches  the  original  description. 

The  largest  fragment  of  the  type  (element  A)  is  on  the  left 
side  of  the  sheet  and  consists  of  a  stem  about  25  cm  long,  three 
poorly  pressed  leaves,  and  a  capi  tulescence  The  leaves  are  ovate, 
5-nervate,  and  darkened  on  drying  The  capi t u 1 escnce  is  composed  of 
rather  dense  racemes  with  the  heads  borne  close  together  The 
exterior  bracts  are  as  long  or  slightly  longer  than  the  pedicel 
The  corolla  is  funnelform  while  the  achene  is  densely  glandular. 
The  remaining  three  fragments  (element  B)  are  the  two  fragments  on 
the  right  side  and  one  on  the  upper  center  of  the  sheet  They  are 
all  the  same  and  consist  of  primarily  cap i t u  1  escenses  with   a   few 

115 


116  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

bractea]  leaves  The  heads  are  more  distantly  spaced  on  the  rachis 
of  the  capi tulescence  The  exterior  bracts  are  much  shorter  than 
the  pedicels  Corollas  are  tubular  and  the  achene  glabrous.  The 
leaves  are  elliptic-oblong,  3-nervate,  and  have  not  darkened  on 
drying 

Jt  is  my  judgment  that  the  salient  characters  of  the  original 
description  correspond  more  closely  with  element  B.  This  is  seen  in 
the  trinervate  leaves,  the  heads  being  more  distantly  spaced,  the 
clavate  (more  tubular)  corolla,  and  the  glabrous  achenes. 
Therefore,  the  portions  of  the  type  specimen  identified  as  element 
B  in  this  paper  are  designated  as  the  lectotype  of  M.  swart ziana . 
Additionally,  this  choice  will  better  preserve  current  usage  that 
describes  M.  swart ziana  as  having  trinervate  leaves  (Adams  1972  and 
Urban  1907)  . 

Lectotype:  Jamaica,  Swart  z  s  n .  (S). 

Additional  specimen  examined:  Jamaica,  Wright  s . n . (EM) . 

The  original  choice  of  the  type  was  unfortunate  since  three 
other  specimens,  apparently  part  of  the  same  collection  (therefore 
Isotypes),  are  housed  at  Stockholm  The  type  appears  to  have  been 
selected  because  It  had  more  material  on  the  sheet.  Two  of  the 
other  specimens  possess  cauline  leaves  and  capi tulescences  of  what 
is  now  M  swart ziana  and  either  would  have  constituted  a  homogenous 
type.  The  third  specimen  of  this  collection  is  essentially 
identical  with  element  A,  other  than  having  two  extraneous  leaves 
of  M.  swart z i ana  attached  to  the  sheet,  but  not  connected  to  the 
major  portion  of  the  specimen.  This  specimen  can  now  be  described 
as  f 0 1  lows : 

MIKANIA  TENELLA  W.Holmes,  sp.  nov. 

Suffrutex  volubills,  follls  ovatis,  4-7.5  cm  longis  et  3-5  cm 
latis,  apice  caudatis  breviter,  basl  rotundis,  marginibus  integris; 
racemls  ca.  10  cm  longis  et  10  cm  latis,  capitulis  ca.  3  mm  longis, 
corollis  1.7-1.8  mm  longis;  dentlbus  limbl  triangulat is ,  ca.  0.3  mm 
longis,  achaenis  ca.  1  mm  longis;  pappl  setls  27-33,  ca.  2  mm 
longi  s ;  scabr idl s . 

Twining  vine;  stems  terete,  striate,  glabrous;  internodes  8-9 
cm  long.  Leaf  blades  ovate,  4-7.5  cm  long,  3-5  cm  wide,  apices 
narrowed  to  short  caudate  tips,  margins  entire,  bases  rounded, 
upper  surfaces  glabrous,  the  nerves  and  veins  obscure,  lower 
surfaces  glabrous,  5-nervate  with  a  pair  of  nerves  originating  very 
near  the  base,  a  second  more  prominent  pair  separating  ca.  1  cm 
above  the  first,  tertiary  velnlets  forming  a  somewhat  obscure 
ret Iculate-areolate  pattern  below;  petioles  flexous,  8-10  mm  long, 
glabrous.  Capi tulescence  a  compound  raceme,  ca.  10  cm  high  and  10 
cm  in  diameter,  the  head  bearing  regions  of  the  branchlets  ca.  1.5 
cm   long,  the  heads  1.5-2  mm  apart,  lower  bracts  similar  to  cauline 


1983  Holmes,  Studies  on  Mikania  117 

leaves,  much  reduced  upwards,  lanceolate,  ca  5  mm  long,  branchlets 
angular,  glabrous,  pedicels  0  8-1  mm  long,  glabrous  Heads  ca  3  mn 
long,  exterior  bracts  subulate,  ca  1  mm  long,  glabrous,  borne  at 
the  base  of  the  pedicel  Phyllaries  el  1  ip t  ic-ova t e  ,  ca  2  mm  long, 
glabrous,  apices  rounded,  obscurely  puberulent  Corolla  ca  17-18 
mm  long,  tube  ca  0  75  mm  long,  throat  funnelform,  ca  0  75  mm 
long,  teeth  triangular,  ca  0  3  long,  sparingly  glandular  Achenes 
(immature)  ca  1  mm  long,  densely  glandular  Pappus  bristles  white, 
ca  2  mm  long,  scabrid,  gradually  thinning  from  base  to  apex  (Fig. 
1)  . 

TYPE   Jamaica,  Swart z  s.n  (S). 

Mikania  t ene 1  la  is  one  of  two  species  of  the  West  Indies  having 
a  racemose  capi tulescence  with  the  exterior  bracts  being  longer  in 
length  than  the  pedicel  The  other  is  the  Cuban  M  a  Iba  Taylor. 
That  species  differs  in  possessing  thicker,  prominently  3-nervate, 
lance-ovate  leaves  with  the  margins  often  being  coarsely  dentate. 
Opposite  petioles  are  connected  by  a  thickened  stipule-like 
enation,  a  trait  absent  in  J^  t enel  la  The  racemose  capi tulescence 
of  M  alba  has  slightly  larger  heads  that  are  more  remotely  spaced 
on  the  branchlets  The  plant  does  not  darken  upon  drying  as  does  M. 
tenel la 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Adams,  C.D.  1972.  Flowering  Plants  of  Jamiaca   Univ.  W.  Ind.  Press, 
p. 770. 

Grisebach,  A.H  R.  1861.  Flora  Brit   V   Ind.   Lovell   Reeve   &   Co. 
London .  p . 363  . 

Moscoso,  R  M   1943.  Catalogus  Floraes  Domingensis.  p. 676. 

Urban,  I.  1907.  Synb  Ant   5:  216-217. 


118 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  2 


Fig.  1.  Mikania  tenella  V  Holmes.  X.  Capi tuJescence   Y 
with  exterior  bract   Z.  Leaves  and  stem. 


Head 


A  NEW  POROPHYLLUM   (ASTERACEAE    :    TAGETEAE) 
FROM  SOUTHCENTRAL  MEXICO 

B.    L.    TURNER 
Dept.   of  Botany,   University  of  Texas,   Austin     78712 


Recent  collections  by  the  present  author  from  the  state  of 
Hidalgo,  Toliman  Canyon,  near  Zimapan,  has  revealed  the  following 
cliff-dwelling    novelty. 

Porophyllum   zimapanum   B.L.    Turner,    sp.    nov. 

A  Porophyl  1  urn  warnocki  i  floribus  glabris,  corollae  tubulis 
faucibusque  aequalibus,  achaeniis  parvioribus  fere  glabris,  pappis 
3-4  mm  longis,  phyllariis  ca.  9  mm  long  apicibus  pubescentibus 
differt. 

Suffruticose  glabrous  perennial  herbs,  30-40  cm  high,  pendant  from 
vertical  bluffs.  Stems  bright  green,  wiry,  4-5  sulcate.  Leaves 
mostly  alternate,  filiform,  3-5  cm  long,  glabrous,  with  1-3 
pustulate  glands,  1-2  mm  long,  the  larger  mostly  positioned  1-4  mm 
below  the  apex  which,  upon  drying,  causes  the  apex  to  recurve. 
Heads  single,  ca.  30-flowered,  on  somewhat  recurved  peduncles,  1-2 
cm  long.  Involucre  cylindric,  ca.  30-flowered,  glabrous  except 
for  the  abruptly  obtuse  apices  of  each  bract  which  bear  a  tuft  of 
soft  puberulent  hairs;  bracts  5,  ca.  9  mm  long,  1.5  mm  wide,  with 
2  rows  of  2-3  linear,  orangish  pustules.  Receptacle  hemispheric, 
glabrous,  ca.  1.5  mm  across.  Corollas  glabrous,  pale  yellow,  ca. 
5.5  mm  long;  tube  2.5-3.0  mm  long,  gradually  merging  into  a 
narrowly  funnel iform  throat,  2.5-3.0  mm  long,  the  lobes  5,  acute, 
0.5-0.7  mm  long.  Achene  body  linear,  ca.  5.5  mm  long,  black,  very 
Sparsely  white-hispid,  especially  above;  pappus  of  ca.  20 
hispidulous   setae  2-4  mm   long. 

TYPE  :  MEXICO.  Hidalgo:  exactly  10.5  mi  W  of  Hotel  Fundicion  (in 
Zimapan)  by  dirt  road  to  the  very  bottom  of  Barranca  Toliman,  then 
downstream  to  just  before  the  barranca  is  at  its  narrowist.  Plant 
found  only  upon  vertical  cliffs.  15  Mar  1983,  B.  L.  Turner  15093 
(holotype    TEX;    isotypes   to   be   distributed). 

Among  the  floral  features  the  most  remarkable  is  the  tufted 
(pubescent)  involucral  bracts,  unknown  among  most  Porophyllums  of 
my  acquaintance.  The  filiform  leaves  are  also  unique  and  differ 
from  those  of  P^  warnocki  i  in  possessing  a  large,  linear, 
pustulate  gland  2-4  mm  below  the  apex,  which  upon  drying  causes 
the  tip  to  recurve  in  the  manner  of  a  shepherd's  cane.  The 
comparable  gland  of  P.  warnocki  i ,  as  noted  by  Johnson  (1969),   is 

119 


120  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    2 

terminal  and  the  leaves  do  not  recurve  dramatically  at  their 
apices.  It  should  also  be  noted  here  that  Johnson  compares  P. 
warnockii  to  P^  filiforme,  a  species  of  northcentral  Mexico  with 
purple  flowers  and  involucres,  a  species  clearly  remote  from  both 
P^  warnockii    and   P^  zimapanum. 

Porophyl  1  urn  zimapanum  is,  however,  clearly  related  to  P. 
warnocki  i.  The  latter  is  known  only  from  the  type  collections 
(Mexico  State,  District  Temascaltepec,  Nanchititla,  along  cliffs, 
Hinton  8469)  and  it  too  has  filiform  leaves  and  is  a  local  bluff- 
dwelling  species.  They  differ  in  a  number  of  characters  including 
both  floral   and   involucral    features  as  follows: 

P.   zimapanum  P.   warnockii 

1.  tube/throat  ratio  1.       tube/throat  ratio 
ca.    1:1  ca.    2:1 

2.  corolla    ca.    5.5   mm    long,  2.      corolla    ca.  7.0   mm    long, 

glabrous  hispidulous 

3.  achene  body  ca.   5.5  mm    long  3.        achene  body  ca.   8.0 

mm  long 

4.  pappus  3-4  mm  long  4.        pappus   6-8  mm  long 

5.  involucre  9  mm  long  5.        involucre   12-14  mm  long 

6.  phyllaries  pubescent  at  apex  6.        phyllaries  glabrous 

Porophyl 1  urn  zimapanum  occurs  sporadically  along  the  spectacular 
Barranca  Tollman,  along  with  several  other  cliff-dwelling  endemics 
including  Eupatorium  karwinskianum  and  Polygala  mi nuti folia  Rose, 
the  latter  being,  in  habit,  remarkably  similar  to  Porophyl 1  urn 
zimapanum. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Johnson,  R.  R.  1969.  Monograph  of  the  plant  genus  Porophyl 1  urn 
(Compositae:Helenieae).  Univ.  Kansas  Scl.  Bull.  47:  225- 
267. 


NOTES  ON  NEW  AND  NOTEWORTHY  PLANTS.  CLXX 
Harold  N,  Moldenke 


PAEPALANTHUS  DUIDAE   var.  PARVIFOLIUS   Mold.,  var,  nov. 

Haec  varietas  a  forma  typica  specie!  foliis  uniformiter 
brevioribus  1.5 — 3  cm.  longis  recedit. 

This  variety  differs  from  the  typical  form  of  the  species  in 
its  leaves  being  uniformly  shorter,  mostly  only  1.5 — 3  cm.  long. 

The  variety  is  based  on  S,   S.    Tillett,   P.    ColvSe,    S  al.    752- 
349   from  an  elevation  of  2750  m.  between  "Estaciones  Ml  y  M2, 
unos  km  al  NNO  del  farallon  del  punto  S  del  tepui,  en  una  zona 
escencialmente  plana,  con  pequenas  depresiones  y  colinas, 
mayormente  de  piedra  arenisca,  escasamente  cubierta  por  una 
vegetacion  de  2 — 3  dm,  con  abundante  agua;  las  pequenas  colinas 
y  sitios  protegidos  en  las  grietas  con  arbustos  hasta  2.5  m. 
Cerro  Matahuaca,  al  NE  de,  y  casi  contigua  con,  Cerro  Duida, 
esta  immediatemente  al  N  de  La  Esmeralda  (Lat.  03**10'  N,  Long. 
65''31'  0),  en  el  Alto  Orinoco,  Territorio  Federal  Amazonas, 
Venezuela",  between  February  2  and  9,  1975,  and  is  deposited  in 
the  Britton  Herbarium  at  the  New  York  Botanical  Garden. 


ADDITIONAL  NOTES  ON  THE  ERIOCAULACEAE ,   XC 
Harold  N.  Moldenke 


LACHNOCAULON  ANCEPS    (Walt.)  Morong 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  70  &  80—81. 
1983. 

Additional  citations:  FLORIDA:  Hillsborough  Co.:  Cochrane, 
Cochrane,    &  Hansen   8846    (Ld,  Ws).   Leon  Co.:  N,   C.  Henderson 
64-252    (Go).   Sarasota  Co.:  Perkins  475    (It).  Volusia  Co.: 
R,   Krai  18449    (Mi).   County  undetermined:  Chapman  s.n.    [Florida) 
(N).  ALABAMA:  Coffee  Co.:  Haynes  7285    (N) .   Covington  Co.: 
R.   Krai   20629    (Mi).   Mobile  Co.:  Thomas,   Allen,    &  Landry  43088 
(Ne— 103266).   Washington  Co.:  R.   Krai    26526    (It!) .   MISSISSIPPI: 
George  Co.:  J.  Taylor  21370    (Ne — 165937).   Pearl  River  Co.:  S, 
Darwin  1435    (Ne — 177268);  F.   H,   Sargent  9218    (Go).   Stone  Co.: 
Thomas,  Allen,   &  Landry  42957    (Ne— 101794).   LOUISIANA:  Beaure- 
gard Par.:  Thomas  S  al.   14556    (Ne~53078),  23981    (Ne— 53079, 
Ne— 62125).   Natchitoches  Par.:  Carroll   1800    (Ne — 181703);  R. 
Krai   16942    (Mi),  20685    (Mi);  Thomas,   Allen,    S  al,    41401    (Ne— 
106222);  Thomas  S  Pias  49237    (Ne— 122341).   Sabine  Par.:  Car- 
roll  1742    (Ne — 181481).   Saint  Tammany  Par.:  R.   D.   Thomas  65311 
(N— 160313,  Ne— 160314);  Thomas  s  al.    40549    (Ne~93203),  49486 

121 


122  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

(Ne— 123530);  Thomas   &  Moreland   65853    (Ne — 159003).   Vernon  Par.: 
R.   D.    Thomas   38123    (Ne— 87156);  Thomas   S  al,   14560    (Ne — 53077); 
Thomas   &  Grelen   71863    (Ne— 175087),  71890    (Ne— 175739).   Washing- 
ton Par.:  R,  D.   Thomas  29196    (Ne — 65746),   TEXAS:  Hardin  Co.: 
Correll,   Correll,  Amerson,    &   Watson   38791    (N,  N) ;  Crockett   560 
(It).   Newton  Co.:  Correll   S  Ogden  25132    (N) .   Tyler  Co.:  Correll 
35836    (N),  37248    (N) .   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Urb.,  Symb.  Ant.  1:  492. 
1900  (W). 

LACHNOCAULON  ANCEPS    f.  GLABRESCENS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  464.  1979; 
Mold.,  Fifth  Summ.  18,  22,  32,  41,  91,  &  606.  1980;  Mold.,  Phyto- 
logia 50:  234  &  236  (1982),  52:  111  &  113  (1982),  and  54:  81. 
1983. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  black  mucky 
soil  in  low  marshy  areas,  in  sandy  peat  of  flatwoods  bogs,  in 
Sarracenia-type  bogs,  and  "in  fine  sandy  soil  of  open  pastures 
with  grass,  small  scattered  pines,  etc.",  in  flower  in  May  and 
both  in  flower  and  fruit  in  July  and  September. 

Material  of  this  form  has  been  mlsidentif ied  and  distributed 
in  some  herbaria  as  typical  L.  anceps    (Walt.)  Mcrong,  L.  minus 
(Chapm.)  Small,  and  Syngonanthus  flavidulus    (Michx.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  citations:  GEORGIA:  Brooks  Co.:  R.   Krai   28694 
(Mi).   FLORIDA:  Hillsborough  Co.:  Lakela   30131    (Ne~53081). 
Manatee  Co.:  Perdue  1765    (Mi);  Tracy   7586    (It),   LOUISIANA: 
Beauregard  Par.:  R.   Krai   20204    (Mi).   Sabine  Par.:  Carroll   1441 
(Ne — 181010).   Vernon  Par.:  Gregory  s  Eiten  23    (Mi). 

LACHNOCAULON  BEYRICHIANUM   Sporleder 

Synonymy:  Lachnocaulon  heyrichianum  "Sporleder  ex  Korn."  a- 
pud  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat.  Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U.S. 
521.  1979.  Eriocaulon  heyrichianum   Sporleder,  in  herb. 

Additional  bibliography:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat. 
Wetl.  PI,  Southeast.  U.  S.  520—522  &  524,  fig.  302.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  463—467  (1979)  and  42:  41.  1979;  J.  T.  & 
R.  Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist  Vase.  Fl.  2:  197.  1980;  Mold.,  Phy- 
tol.  Mem.  2:  16,  18,  19,  22,  25,  413,  &  606.  1980;  Duncan  &  Kartesz, 
Vase.  Fl.  Ga.  36.  1981;  Wunderlln,  Guide  Vase.  Fl.  Cent,  Fla. 
125  &  126.  1982. 

Additional  illustrations:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat, 
Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U.  S,  522,  fig,  302,  1979, 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  at  the  sandy 
edges  of  pocosins,  in  areas  of  longleaf  pine-turkey  oak  sand- 
hills and  their  margins,  in  bulldozed  sandy  areas  in  slash  pine 
savannas,  and  in  bogs  and  their  margins,  in  both  flower  and 
fruit  in  July,  Wunderlin  (1982)  lists  it  from  the  "Margins  of 
ponds  and  wet  prairies.   Occasional;  nearly  throughout  [central 
Florida]",  flowering  there  in  the  summer. 

Additional  citations:  NORTH  CAROLINA:  Bladen  Co.:  DePoe  s 
DePoe   7423    (Ne— 76809) ;  R.   Krai   14657    (Mi),  27194    (Mi,  W— 
2673950),  27199    (Mi).   New  Hanover  Co.:  Godfrey  PI.   Exsicc, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  123 

Gray.    926    (It,  Mi).   GEORGIA:  Baker  Co.:  Thome   &  Ford  2024  (It). 

FLORIDA:  Lake  Co.:  Nash  148    (It).   Polk  Co.:  Schallert   s.n.  [A/ 

30/41]  (It).   Saint  Lucie  Co.:  P.  Krai   18378    (Mi).  Volusia  Co.: 
R.    Krai    20441    (Mi). 

LACHNOCAULON  CUBENSE   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  36:  497.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  89  &  606.  1980, 

LACHNOCAULON  DIGYNUM   KHrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat. 
Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U.  S.  520  &  527—529,  fig.  306.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytologia  41:  465.  1979;  J.  T.  &  R.  Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist 
Vase.  Fl.  2:  197.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  22,  25,  26,  413, 
&  607.  1980. 

Additional  illustrations:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat. 
Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U.  S.  528,  fig,  306.  1979. 

LACHNOCAULON  EKMANNII   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  22  &  23.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  89  &  607.  1980. 

LACHNOCAULON  ENGLERI   Ruhl, 

Additional  synonymy:  Lachnocaulon  emileri   Ruhl,  ex  Hocking, 
Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389,  sphalm.  1974,  Lachnocaulon  engleri   var. 
engleri    [Ruhl.]  ex  J.  T.  &  R.  Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist  Vase.  Fl. 
2:  197.  1980. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389. 
1974;  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat.  Wet.  PI.  Southeast.  U.S. 
520,  524,  526,  &  527,  fig.  305.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  465 
&  466.  1979;  J.  T.  &  R.  Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist  Vase.  Fl.  2:  197. 
1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem,  2:  22,  25,  213,  &  607.  1980;  Mold., 
Phytologia  50:  261.  1982;  Wunderlin,  Guide  Vase.  PI.  Cent.  Fla, 
126,  1982;  Mold,,  Phytologia  53:  344,  1983. 

Additional  illustrations:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat. 
Wetl,  PI.  Southeast.  U.  S.  526,  fig,  305,  1979, 

Wunderli   (1982)  calls  this  plant  "bog-buttons"  and  lists  it 
from  wet  prairies,  "Occasional;  nearly  throughout  [central 
Florida],  where  it  is  said  to  flower  in  the  "Summer". 

Additional  citations:  FLORIDA:  Lake  Co.:  Nash  1184    (It — iso- 
type).  Martin  Co,:  R.   Krai   18235    (Mi).   Okaloosa  Co,:  N.   C. 
Henderson  64-351    (Go).   County  undetermined  Chapman   s.n.  [sandy 
shores  of  the  Gulf]  (N) . 

LACHNOCAULON  ENGLERI   f .  ABLUDENS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  465,  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Men.  2:  22  &  607.  1980. 

LACHNOCAULON  ENGLERI   var.  CAULESCENS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  465.  1979;  J. 
T.  &  R.  Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist  Vase.  Fl,  2:  197,  1980;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem,  2:  22,  25,  413,  &  607,  1980, 


124  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No,  2 

LACHNOCAULON  GLABRUM   K8m, 

Additional  bibliography:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat. 
Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U.  S.  524.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  466, 
1979;J.  T.  £.  R.  Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist  Vase.  Fl.  2:  197.  1980; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  22,  25,  4k3,  &  607.  1980;  Wunderlin, 
Guide  Vase.  PI.  Cent.  Fla.  126.  1982;  Mold.,  Phytologia  52:  112 
(1982),  53:  286  &  463  (1983),  and  54:  81.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  sandy  peat  of 
pineland  savanna  pond  margins  and  in  sandy  peat  of  slash  pine- 
palmetto  flatwoods  bogs.  Krai  reports  that  it  forms  large  circu- 
lar tufts  of  hundreds  of  scapes  in  Sarasota  County,  Florida,   It 
has  been  found  in  both  flower  and  fruit  by  recent  collectors  in 
July  and  August. 

The  Abel   s,n,    [25  March  '72],  distributed  as  L.  glabrum,   actu- 
ally is  Syngonanthus  flavidulus    (Michx.)  Ruhl, 

Additional  citations:  FLORIDA:  Brevard  Co.:  R,   Krai  18418    (Mi), 
Broward  Co.:  D.   Weber  26    (Ne — 173099).   DeSoto  Co,:  R.   Krai   17969 
(Mi).   Palm  Beach  Co.:  Muenscher  &  Muenscher  14057    (It).   Sara- 
sota Co.:  R.   Krai   17855    (Mi). 

LACHNOCAULON  MINUS    (Chapm.)  Small 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 
23:  292  &  389  (1974)  and  A. 31:  17  &  18.  1978;  Monteiro-Scanavacca 
&  Mazzoni,  Revist.  Bras.  Bot,  1:  [59].  1978;  Krai  in  Godfrey  & 
Wooten,  Aquat.  Wetl.  PI.  Southeast,  U.  S.  520,  524,  525,  &  527, 
fig.  304.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  463—467.  1979;  J.  T.  &  R. 
Kartesz,  Syn.  Checklist  Vase.  Fl.  2:  197.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol. 
Mem.  2:  16,  18,  19,  22,  25,  413,  &  607,  1980;  Duncan  &  Kartesz, 
Vase.  Fl.  Ga.  36.  1981;  Mold,,  Phytologia  52:  111  &  112.  1982; 
Wunderlin,  Guide  Vase.  PI.  Cent.  Fla.  125  &  126.  1982, 

Additional  illustrations:  Krai  in  Godfrey  &  Wooten,  Aquat. 
Wetl.  PI.  Southeast.  U.  S.  525,  fig.  304.  1979. 

Wunderlin  (1982)  avers  that  this  species  grows  along  the  mar- 
gins of  ponds  and  wet  prairies,  occasionally,  but  nearly  through- 
out central  Florida,  flowering  there  in  "Summer".   He  calls  it 
"bog-buttons". 

The  Sieren  288,   distributed  as  L.  minus,   actually  is  L.  anceps 
(Walt,)  Morong,  while  Lakela   30131   is  L,  anceps   f,  glabrescens 
Mold. 

Additional  citations:  NORTH  CAROLINA:  Brunswick  Co.:  Bradley 
S  Stevenson  3306    (Mi).   Onslow  Co.:  Randolph  S  Randolph  977    (It). 
SOUTH  CAROLINA:  Berkeley  Co.:  Bozeman  S  Logue  11355    (Ne~53080), 
Jasper  Co,:  Wiegand  &  Manning  688    (It).  GEORGIA:  Baker  Co.: 
Thorne  5047    (It).   Early  Co.:  Thome  4964      (It),  FLORIDA:  Leon 
Co.:  N.   C.  Henderson  64-238    (Go).  Lake  Co,:  Nash  1295    (It). 
Suwannee  Co.:  Wiegand  &  Manning  689    (It).  Volusia  Co.:  Curtiss 
6894    (It).   Walton  Co.:  Curtis   3022      (It,  Mi),  5911    (It). 

LEIOTHRIX   Ruhl, 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Ruhl,  in  Wettstein,  Denk- 
schr.  K.  Akad,  Wiss,  Wien  Math.-nat.  79:  87.  1908;  J.  C,  Willis, 
Diet,  Flow.  PI,,  ed,  5,  376,  1925;  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert,  Spec; 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  125 

Nov.  Beih.  A3:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.]  181.  1927;  J.  C.  Willis,  Diet, 
Flow.  PI.,  ed.  6,  imp.  1,  376  (1931),  ed.  6,  imp.  2,  376  (19A8), 
ed.  6,  imp.  3,  376  (1951),  and  ed.  7,  418,  633,  &  107A.  1966; 
Rouleau,  Guide  Ind.  Kew.  106,  180,  &  270.  1970;  Hocking,  Excerpt. 
Bot.  A. 23:  291,  292,  &  389.  1974;  Galvao  &  Cavalcante,  Bot.  Mus. 
Para.  Goeldi,  ser.  2,  Bot.  1-40  Ind.  3,  14,  &  15.  1975;  Thanikai- 
monl,  Trav.  Sect.  Scient.  Techn,  Inst.  Fran?,  Pond.  13:  132  & 

285.  1976;  C.  D.  Cook  in  Heywood,  Flow.  PI.  World  282.  1978;  Giu- 
lietti,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  6:  63.  1978;  Hocking,  Excerpt. 
Bot.  A. 31:  17  &  18.  1978;  Monteiro-Scanavacca  &  Mazzoni,  Revist, 
Bras.  Bot.  1:  f59]— 64,  fig.  1—12.  1978;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41: 
118  (1978)  and  41:  467—470  &  508.  1979;  Monteiro,  Giulietti, 
Mazzoni,  &  Castro,  Bol,  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7:  [43] — 45,  47 — 49, 
54,  &  59,  fig.  90—100.  1979;  Rizzini,  Trat.  Fitogeog.  Bras.  2: 
206.  1979;  Angely,  S.  Am.  Bot.  Bibl.  2:  671.  1980;  Hocking,  Ex- 
cerpt. Bot.  A. 35:  324.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  45:  36,  40,  &  507. 
1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  116,  122,  134,  145—147,  174,  180, 
401,  404,  405,  419,  424,  425,  427,  428,  444,  446,  607—608,  & 
627.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  73. 
1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  245,  262,  &  508.  1982;  Tillett  & 
Steyerm.,  Ernstia  9:  3.  1982;  Badillo,  Schnee,  &  Rojas,  Ernstia 
14:  [Clav.  Fam.  PI.  Sup.  Venez.,  ed.  6]  213.  1983;  Mold.,  Phyto- 
logia 52:  506  (1983),  53:  460—461  &  504  (1983),  and  54:  66. 
1983. 

LEIOTHRIX  AFFINIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  15.  1976; 
Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  17.  1978;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont, 

286,  1928  (N,  W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  AMAZONICA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  95.  1972;  Galvao 
&  Cavalcante,  Bot.  Mus.  Para  Goeldi,  ser.  2  Bot,,  1-40  Ind,  3  & 
15.  1975;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Steyermark  &  "Wurdack  describe  this  plant  as  having  ascending, 
membranous,  pale-green,  pubescent  leaves,  tawny-brown  involucres, 
and  powdery-white  flowering-heads  "with  grayish  outer  margins" 
and  describe  is  as  frequent  in  swampy  savannas,  at  1940  m.  alti- 
tude, in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  February.   Their  collection  has 
previously  been  cited  erroneously  and  distributed  as  L.  flavescens 
(Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bolivar:  Steyermark  S  Wurdack 
400 (W— 2168508,  W— 2407718). 

LEIOTHRIX  ANGUSTIFOLIA    (K8rn.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  18.  1978; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  467.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.' 
1980. 


126  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

LEIOTHRIX  ARAXaSnSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  185.  1973; 
Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot,  A. 23:  389.  1974;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
145  &  607.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  398.  1928  (W)  &  1:  pi.  195  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  ARECHAVALETAE    (KHrn.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  25.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Men.  2:  180  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  URUGUAY:  Barter  1774  [Herb.  Herter 
95663]  (E— 1098751),  1774b   (E— 1314659). 

LEIOTHRIX  ARETIOIDES   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  96.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &   607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  ARGENTEA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  467.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  ARGYRODERMA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  35:  15  (1976)  and 
37:  25.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Rio  de  Janeiro:  Lua  &  Nogueira 
16    (Fe— 14448). 

LEIOTHRIX  ARGYRODERMA   var.  BREVIPES   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  467—468.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  ARRECTA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  25.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Maguire,  Mendes 
Magalh5es,    S  Maguire  49065    (W— 2435330). 

LEIOTHRIX  ARRECTA   var.  SENAEANA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  97,  1972; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980, 

LEIOTHRIX  BARREIRENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  97.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980, 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont. 
1:  283—284.  1928  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  BECKII    (Szysz.)  Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  97.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  2:  145  &  607.  1980, 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  among  low  vegetation 
In  wet  sites  on  rocky  hills,  at  2300  m,  altitude,  Araujo  &  Maci- 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  127 

el  report  it  "frequent"  or  "very  frequent  in  shaded  places.   It 
has  recently  been  collected  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  August 
and  October, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Rio  de  Janeiro:  Aran  jo  &  Maciel 
4597  [Herb.  FEEMA  20802]  (N) ,  5214  [Herb.  FEEMA  22973]  (N) ;  Maas 
&  Martinelli    3170    (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  BECKII   var.  FALCIFOLIA   Beauverd 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  97.  1972; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Beauverd,  Bull,  Herb. 
Boiss.,  ser.  2,  8:  297.  1908  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  CELIAE   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  97,  1972;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  116  &  607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  CRASSIFOLIA    (Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Steud,,  Syn.  PI,  Glum.  2: 
[Cyp.]  280  &  333.  1855;  Mold.,  P-ytologia  25:  97.  1972;  Giuli- 
etti,  Mazzoni,  &  Castro,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7:  [A3],  45, 
47,  54,  &  59,  fig.  90—94,  1979;  Mold,,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  & 
607,  1980, 

Additional  illustrations:  Giulietti,  Mazzoni,  &  Castro,  Bol. 
Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7:  59,  fig.  90--94.  1979. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach,  Smith, 
&  Ayensu   28777    (W— 2653334);  Irwin,   Maxwell,   S  Wasshausen   20073 
(W— 2598327).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Ess,  Monog.  Erioc.  34, 
1831  (W);  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  572.  1841  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  CURVIFOLIA    (Bong.)  Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  468,  1979; 
Rizzini,  Trat,  Fitogeog,  Bras,  2:  206.  1979;  Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem, 
2:  145,  419,  446,  &  607,  1980, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Irwin,   Santos, 
Souza,   &   FonsiSca   22230    (W— 2582561A) .   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong., 
Ess.  Monog.  Erioc.  27  &  28.  1831  (W,  W) ;  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  574. 
1841  (W,  W). 

LEIOTHRIX  CURVIFOLIA   var.  GLABRESCENS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  35:  15  (1976)  and 
37:  270.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach,  Smith, 
&  Ayensu   28792    (W— 2653332). 

LEIOTHRIX  CURVIFOLIA   var.  LANUGINOSA    (Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  468.  1979; 
Rizzini,  Trat.  Fitogeog.  Bras.  2:  206.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem, 
2:  145  &  607,  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Ess.  Monog. 
Erioc.  27.  1831  (W) ;  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  574,  1841  (W) . 


128  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

LEIOTHRIX  CURVIFOLIA   var.  MICROPHYLLA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  26  &  33.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Anderson,   Stieber, 
S  Kirkbride   36203    (W — 2709590);  Irwin,   Maxwell,   S  Wasshausen 
20074    (W— 2598307).   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl,  Mont.  1: 
296.  1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  CURVIFOLIA   var.  PLANT AGO    (Mart.)  Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  26.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145,  419,  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach  30178 
(W— 2705857);  Hatschbach,   Smith,    S  Ayensu   28797    (W— 2653333);  Ir- 
win,  Maxwell,    S  Wasshausen   20311    (W — 2598442);  L.  B.   Smith  6840 
(W— 2120209).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  KHrn.  in  Mart.,  Fl.  Bras.  3.(1): 
426.  1863  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  CURVIFOLIA   var.  PROLIFICA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  99.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  CURVIFOLIA   var.  SETACEA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  468.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach  30064 
(W— 2705961);  Hatschbach,   Smith,   &  Ayensu  28962    (W— 2653336) ;  Ir- 
win,  Maxwell,    &   Wasshausen  20798    (W — 2598308),  21002    (W— 2705961). 

LEIOTHRIX  CURVIFOLIA   var.  SUBGLAUCESCENS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  99.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1983. 

LEIOTHRIX  CUSCUTOIDES   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  26.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980, 

LEIOTHRIX  DIELSII   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  468.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  6.  607.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  a  small  herb,  to  15  cm. 
tall,  the  inflorescences  v/hite,  and  have  encountered  it  in  restinga, 
flowering  in  October,   The  Maas  S  Carauta   3148   collection,  cited 
below,  is  a  mixture  with  Paepalanthus  tortilis    (Bong.)  Mart. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Rio  de  Janeiro:  Maas  &  Carauta 
3148   in  part  (Ut — 3551128);  Sagadas-V ianna ,  Lau,   Ormond, 
Machline,    &  Laredo  158    (W — 2370791). 

LEIOTHRIX  DIELSII   var.  VILAVELHENSIS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  15.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  129 

LEIOTHRIX  DISTICHOCLADA   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  289.  197A; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980;  Mold,  in  Ilarley  &  Mayo, 
Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  73.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  a  slender  tufted  herb, 
25 — 35  cm.  tall,  the  leaves  more  or  less  erect,  distichously  ar- 
ranged, pale-green,  the  involucral  bractlets  pale-brown  or 
whitish  and  pale-brown  only  at  the  base,  the  flowering-heads 
white,  and  the  florets  "white  or  off-white".   They  have  encounter- 
ed it  in  "disturbed  marshes  below  sandstone  rock  outcrops",  in 
"marshes  in  areas  of  sandstone,  metamorphic  and  quartzite  rock 
outcrops  with  associated  marshes  and  damp  flushes",  among  sand- 
stone rocks  and  in  open  scrub  on  rocky  hillsides,  and  in  campo 
rupestre,  at  500 — 1850  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
February,  March,  and  July. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,   Mayo,   Storr,   San- 
tos,   &  Pinheiro  in  Harley  18760    (W~2936309),  19552    (Ld,  N,  W~ 
2936305),  19585    (Ld,  N,  W~2936288),  19732    (Ld,  N,  W~2936321), 
19901    (Ld,  N,  W~2936311);  Mori   S  Benton  13596    (Ld,  U) ;   Mori, 
King,   Santos,   S  Hage   224S3 (Ld,  W~2854267),  12590    (Ld,  W — 
2854266). 

LEIOTHRIX  DISTICHOCLADA    f .  BRACTEOSA   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  99.  1972;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607,  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  DISTICHOCLADA   var.  GLANDULOSA   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  289.  1974; 

Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Herzog,  Feddes  Repert, 

Spec.  Nov.  20:  88.  1924  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  DISTICHOPHYLLA   Alv.  Sllv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  129—130.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont. 
1:  287—288.  1928  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  DUBIA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  468.  1979;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Irwin,   Fonseca, 
Souza,   Santos,    S  Ranios  27648a    (W — 2861739);  Irwin,   Maxwell,    & 
Wassbausen   20979    (W— 2598448) .   MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv., 
Fl.  Mont.  1:  pi.  193.  1928  (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  DUBIA   var.  VILLOSA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  22.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  ECHINOCEPHALA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  468—469.  1979; 


130  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatscbbach  40914 
(W~2840086). 

LEIOTHRIX  EDWALLII   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  22.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Serr. 
Min.  70.  1908  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  FLAGELLARIS    (Guill.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  130.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  FLAVESCENS    (Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Ruhl.  in  Wettstein,  Denkschr.  K.  Akad. 
Wiss.  Wien  Math.-nat.  79:  87.  1908;  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec, 
Nov.  Beih.  43:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.].181.  1927;  Mold.,  Phytologia 
41:  469.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  116,  122,  134,  145,  146, 
174,  401,  405.  419,  424,  425,  427,  428,  &  607.  1980;  Mold,  in 
Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward  Checklist  Fl,  Bahia  73.  1980;  Tillett  & 
Steyerm.,  Ernstia  9:  3.  1982;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  245  (1982) 
and  54:  66.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  along  sandy  road- 
sides, in  wet  places  with  sandy  soil  in  campo  rupestre,  around 
rocky  exposures,  and  "frequent"  in  wet  soil  of  br e j o ,  at  950 — 
2600  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  February,  March, 
July,  and  August.  They  describe  the  plant  as  a  rosette  herb,  to 
70  cm.  tall,  forming  tussocks  of  pale-green  or  bright-green,  con- 
colorous,  slightly  fleshy,  soft,  ascending,  rather  broad  leaves, 
the  scapes  (peduncles)  yellow-brown,  to  50  cm.  long,  the  inflor- 
escences white  or  brownish-white,  the  outer  involucral  bractlets 
pale-brown  or  "very  pale  brown",  the  inner  ones  whitish,  and  the 
florets  white.  The  leaves  on  Fosberg  43329   are  rather  shorter 
than  usual. 

Harley  and  his  associates  found  the  plant  growing  in  marshes 
"in  areas  of  sandstone,  metamorphic,  and  quartzite  rock  outcrops 
with  associated  marsh  and  damp  flushes",  "in  open  scrub  on  white 
sand  with  damp  areas  and  extensive  sedge  meadows  (brejo)  partly 
burned  over",  and  "in  damp  flushes  on  lower  escarpments  in  a  re- 
gion of  sandstone,  conglomerate,  metamorphic,  and  quartzite  rock 
outcrops  with  associated  scrubby  vegetation  with  damp  flushes, 
grassland,  and  marshes  in  some  areas".   Tessmann  &  Frenzel  found 
it  "em  lugares  pantanosos  de  vez  em  quando",  describing  it  as 
having  the  "flor  branca,  anteras  branca  amarelada".   Other  col- 
lectors have  referred  to  it  as  an  "infrequent  herb  in  wet  sand 
on  sandstone  outcrops  with  a  sterile  white  sand  overlying  black 
sand  with  Ericaceae,   Weinmannia,   and  melastomes  abundant. 

Material  of  this  species  has  been  misidentlf led  and  dis- 
tributed in  some  herbaria  as  Paepalanthus   sp. 

Knuth  (1927)  cites  Connell   s  Quelch  9,   10,   &  327   and  IitfThuTn 
60   from  Roraima,  Venezuela, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  131 

The  Steyerwark  &  Wurdack  400,    distributed  and  previously  cited 
by  me  as  L.   flavescens, actually   is  L.  amazonica   Mold.,  while 
Maguire  &  Fansbawe   32537   is  L.  flavescens   var,  alpina   Mold,  and 
Steyermark   93201    is  L.  umbratilis   Mold. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Araazonas:  Steyermark   58252 
(W— 1901766).   Bolivar:  Steyermark  94503    (W— 25841120) ;  Steyer- 
mark S  Liesner  128132    (Ld).   PERU:  Araazonas:  Luteyn  S  Lebron- 
Luteyn   5525    (N) .   BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Carvalho   S  Gatti   834    (Ld);  Har- 
ley.   Mayo,   Storr,   Santos,    S  Pinheiro  in  Harley  18837    (Ld,  N,  W — 
2936287),  19586    (Ld,  N,  W— 2936307),  19662    (Ld,  N,  W— 2936290) ; 
Irwin,   Harley,   S  Smith   32384    (W— 2709588);  Mori   12957    (Ld,  N) ; 
Mori,   King,   Santos,    &  Hage  12498    (Ld,  W — 2854262),  12510    (Ld, 
W — 2854274).   Dlstrito  Federal:  uSringer,   Filgueiras,   Mendon<;a, 
S  Pereira   7488    (W— 2971677).  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach  41333 
(N),  41526    (Ld),  42869    (Ld,  W— 2931777);  Maguire,   Mendes  Magal- 
haes,   &  Maguire  49248    (W — 2435295).   Parana:  Dombrowski   6892    (Ld); 
Reitz  &  Klein  17467    (W— 2548326) ,  17908    (W— 2548327);  Smith, 
Klein,    S  Hatschbach  14564    (W— 2573032);  Tessmann   S  Frenzel    763 
(Eu — 4763).   Santa  Catarina:  Reitz  4921    (W — 2321365);  Reitz  & 
Klein  5874    (W— 2321244);  Ule  1306    (W— 2699201).   Sao  Paulo: 
Fosberg  43329    (W— 2724068).   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Ess. 
Monog.  Erioc.  28.  1831  (W) ;  Klotzsch  in  Schomb.,  Faun.  Fl.  Brit. 
Gaian.  1064.  1848  (W) ;  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  575.  1841  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  FLAVESCENS   var.  ALPINA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography :Mold. ,  Phytologia  37:  27.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  116,  122,  &  607,  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50: 
245.  1982;  Tillett  &  Steyerm.,  Ernstia  9:  3.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  having  its  leaves 
stiff,  brittle,  lustrous  medium-  to  light-green,  the  peduncles 
lustrous  medium  olive-green,  the  "phyllaries"  lustrous  medium- 
brown,  and  the  flower-heads  chalk-white  to  tan-gray,  the  plants 
to  30  cm.  tall.  They  have  encountered  it  on  open  sandy  banks 
along  rivers  and  "locally  frequent"  on  savannas  ,  as  well  as  in 
dry  sand,  at  1100 — 2750  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
February  and  November. 

The  Maguire  &  Fanshawe  collection,  cited  below,  was  previously 
distributed  as  and  even  cited  by  me  as  typical  L.  flavescens 
(Bong.)  Ruhl.   The  Steyermark,   Huber,    S  Carreno  128165   collection, 
also  cited  below,  is  a  mixture  with  Syngonanthus  acopanensis 
Mold. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Tillett,   ColvSe, 
S  al .   752-355    (Ve) .   Bolivar:  Steyermark,   Esponosa,   McDiarmid,   & 
Brewer-Carias  116061    (Ld) ;  Steyermark,   Huber,    S  Carreno  128165   in 
part  (Ld).   GUYANA:  Maguire  &  Fanshawe   32537    (N,  W~2168883). 

LEIOTHRIX  FLAVESCENS   var.  CHIMANTENSIS   Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  66. 
1983. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  66.  1983, 

Collectors  describe  this  plant  as  having  green  leaves  and  gray 
or  pale-gray  flower-heads.   They  have  found  it  growing  in  sandy 


132  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No,  2 

openings,  in  wet  open  fields,  fonning  small  colonies  in  grass  and 
low  scrub  of  tiallopbyton  cbimantensis,   and  "frequent  in  rocky 
areas  in  Chimantaea  mirabilis   vegetation,  at  altitudes  of  2200 — 
2450  m, ,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  January  and  February, 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bolfvar:  Huber   S  Steyermark   7003    (Ld) , 
7017    (Ld),  7185    (Ld);  Steyermark,   Huber,    S  Carreno  E,   128255    (Ld), 
128382    (Ld— type). 

LEIOTHRIX  FLAVESCENS   var,  GLABRA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  131,  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  145  &  607.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl,  Mont,  1:  291. 
1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  FLAVESCENS   var.  PARVIFOLIA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  289.  1974;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Parani:  Dombrowski    9440    (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  FLEXUOSA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  45.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  607.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  302,  pi,  189,  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) , 

LEIOTHRIC  FLUITANS    (Mart,)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mohteiro-Scanavacca  &  Mazzoni,  Bol,  Bot. 
Univ.  S.  Paulo  4:  105—112,  1976;  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  27—28. 
1977;  Monteiro-Scanavacca  &  Mazzoni,  Revist.  Bras.  Bot.  1:  [59] — 
64,  fig.  1 — 12,  1978;  Monteiro,  Giulietti,  Mazzoni,  &  Castro,  Bol, 
Bot,  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7:  [43],  45,  47,  49,  &  54.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol. 
Mem.  2:  ;46,  607,  &  627.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  262,  1982. 

Additional  illustrations:  Monteiro-Scanavacca  &  Mazzoni,  Revist, 
Bras.  Bot.  1:  61  &  62,  fig.  1—12,  1978, 

Monteiro-Scanavacca  &  Mazzoni  (1978)  have  studied  in  detail  the 
sporogenesis,  development  of  gametophytes,  embryo,  endosperm,  and 
the  wall  of  the  dispersal  unit  of  this  species.   The  microspore 
tetrads  are  of  the  tetrahedral  type.   The  pollen-grains  are  shed  at 
the  two-cell  stage.   The  pendulous,  orthotropous  ovule  is  bitegmic 
and  tenuinucellate,  Megasporogenesis  and  development  of  the  fe- 
male gametophyte  conform  to  the  Polygonum   type.   An  oblique  T-shaped 
tetrad  of  megaspores  is  usual  and  an  endothelium  is  present.  Embryo 
development  follows  the  Asteroid  type.   The  endosperm  is  free  nu- 
cellear   and  becomes  cellular  later.   The  wall  of  the  dispersal 
unit  is  formed  by  the  pericarp  and  the  seed  coat. 

LEIOTHRIX  FLUMINENSIS   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  289—290  (1974) 
and  41:  469.  1979;  Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  146,  419,  &  607.  1980. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  133 

LEIOTHRIX  FLUMWENSIS   var.  PUBERULA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  Al:  A69.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146,  A19,  &  607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  FVLGIDA    Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  469.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  607.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  GLANDULIFERA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  132,  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont. 
1:  294.  1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  GLAUCA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  185.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS  &  CLIPPINGS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  279,  pi.  185.  1928  (Ld,  W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  GOMESII   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  132,  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608,  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv,,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  Fl, 
Mont.  1:  289.  1928  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  GOUNELLEANA   Beauverd 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  132.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Beauverd,  Bull,  Herb.  Boiss., 
ser.  2,  8:  298.  1908  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  GRAMINEA    (Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  28.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Ess.  Monog. 
Erioc.  27.  1831  (W) ;  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  574.  1841  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  HATSCHBACHII   Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  229,  nora.  nud.  & 
27:  349—350,  fig.  1.  1973. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  469.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Illustrations:  Mold.,  Phytologia  27:  350,  fig.  1.  1973. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Mold.,  Phytolo- 
gia 27:  350,  fig.  1.  1973  (Ld — original  drawings). 

LEIOTHRIX  HETEROPHYLLA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  185.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS  &  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  300,  pi.  187.  1928  (Ld,  W) . 


134  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  5A,  No.  2 

LEIOTHRIX  HIRSUTA    (Wikstr.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  469,  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo, 
Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  73.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  an  erect,  tufted,  sun- 
loving  herb,  30 — 50  cm.  tall,  the  leaves  distichous,  erect,  bright- 
er light-  to  mid-green,  boat-shaped  and  keeled  at  the  apices, 
with  soft,  white,  spreading  hairs,  the  heads,  including  the 
bractlets,  pale-cream  or  off-white  to  white,  the  old  involucral 
bractlets  pale-brown,  or  "stems  and  leaves  green,  hairy,  heads 
white.   They  have  found  it  growing  in  tufts  in  restinga  and  open 
restinga,  "infrequent  in  shade  on  damp  ground",   in  damp  sand  in 
open  restinga  in  areas  of  mixed  restinga  with  high  forest,  bushy 
areas,  damp  open  ground,  and  marshes",  in  a  region  of  waterworn 
horizontally  bedded  sandstone  at  the  soil  surface,  with  damp 
sand,  sedge  marsh,  exposed  rock,  and  waterfalls,  the  vegetation 
open  scrub  to  closed  low  woodland  in  the  drier  areas",  in  wet 
ground  on  campo  rupestre,  in  damp  sand  of  shallow  campo  normally 
flooded,  and  in  "open  scrub  on  white  sand  with  damp  areas  and  ex- 
tensive sedge  meadows  (brejo)",  from  sealevel  to  1000  m.  altitude, 
in  both  flower  and  fruit  from  January  to  March,  in  flower  also 
in  September.  Araujo  &  Maciel  refer  to  it  as  a  "frequent  helio- 
phile". 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo,  Storr, 
Santos,    S  Pinheiro  in  Harley  17974    (K) ,  18007    (N) ,  18054    (W — 
2936310),  18828    (Ld,  N) ,  19201    (N) ;  Mori,   King,   Santos,   S  Hage 
12627    (Ld,  W — 2854277);  Mori,   Mattos  Silva,   Kallunki,   Santos,   S 
Pereira   dos  Santos   9664    (N) ,  9695    (N,  N) ;  Santos,   Mori,   S  Mattos 
Silva   3359    (Ld).   Rio  de  Janeiro:  Araujo   S  Maciel    5233    [Herb. 
FEEMA  22970]  (N) ;  Lira   202    [Rocha  140;  Herb.  FEEMA  17468]  (Ld); 
Souza   102    [Herb.  FEEMA  17319]  (Ld) .   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth, 
Enum.  PI.  3:  530  &  532.  1841  (W,  W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  HIRSUTA   var.  BLANCHETIANA    (KHrn.)  Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  469.  1979; 
Mold,,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo, 
Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  73.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  an  herb,  to  12  cm. 
tall,  the  "stems"  [peduncles]  and  leaves  pale-green,  white-hairy 
or  hispid,  the  leaves  suberect,  soft,  pale-green,  to  5  mm.  wide, 
the  heads  white  or  stramineous,  5  mm.  wide,  the  involucral 
bracts  very  pale-brown  or  stramineous,  hairy.   They  have  found  it 
growing  in  restinga  alagado  and  in  "sandy  soil  of  probably  orig- 
inal restinga",  at  10  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
February,  May,  and  October.   Harley  and  his  associates  found 
it  in  damp  sand  on  shallow  campo s  normally  flooded  and  in  "open 
scrub  on  white  sand  with  damp  areas  and  extensive  sedge  meadows 
(brejo)  partly  burned  over"  in  a  general  region  of  "mixed  res- 
tinga on  drier  ground  with  areas  of  normally  wet  sedge  meadows". 
It  has  been  found  from  sealevel  to  950  m.  altitude. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo,   Storr, 
Santos,   S  Pinheiro  in  Harley  18054    (Ld,  N) ,  18822    (Ld,  N) ;  Har- 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  135 

ley,   Renvoize,   Erskine,   Brighton,   &  Pinheiro  in  Harley  16663    (W— r 
16663);   Mattos  Silva   S  Santos  756    (Ld);  Mori,  Mattos  Silva,   s 
Santos  10508    (N) .   Rio  de  Janeiro:  Araujo   S  Maciel    5239    [Herb. 
FEEMA  22961]  (N);  Maas  &  Carauta    3141    (Ld), 

LEIOTHRIX  HIRSUTA   var.  OBTUSA   Alv.  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  23.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont. 
1:  291.  1928  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  HIRSUTA   var,  TONSILIS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  469.  1979; 
Mold.,  Pbytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980, 

LEIOTHRIX  HIRSUTA    f.  VIVIPARA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  290.  1974;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  ITACAMBIRENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  185,  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608,  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl, 
Mont,  1:  307.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  194  (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  LANIFERA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  25:  133,  1973;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  346  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  295. 
1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  LINEARIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  133.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  298. 
1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  LONGIPES   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  185.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv, 
Silv,,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  303—304.  1928  (W)  &  pi,  190  (Ld), 

LEIOTHRIX  LUXURIANS    (K8rn.)  Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  28  &  31,  1977; 
Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  146,  444,  &  608,  1980, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Anderson,   Stieber, 
s  Kirkbride  35480    (W— 2709589)  ;  Hatschhach  30065    (W— 2706044); 
Irwin,  Maxwell,   &  Wasshausen  20168    (W— 2569050A) . 

LEIOTHRIX  MENDESII   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  134.  1973;  Angely, 


136  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G  I  A  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

S.  Am.  Bot.  Bibl.  2:  671.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  1A6  &  608. 
1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  MICHAELII   Alv.  Sllv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  185.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  304.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  191.  1928  (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  MICHAELII   var.  LONGIPILOSA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  134.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  MILHO-VERDENSIS   Alv.  Sllv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  134.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  291— 
292.  1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  MUCRONATA    (Bong.)  Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  28.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980;  Mold,,  Phytologia  53:  460—461. 
1983. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Ess.  Monog, 
Erioc.  28.  1831  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  MUCRONATA   var.  GLABRA   Mold.,  Phytologia  53:  460 — 461. 
1983. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  53:  460—461.  1983. 

The  Steyermark  collection  cited  below,  the  type  collection  of 
this  taxon,  was  previously  incorrectly  distributed  and  cited  as 
Syngonanthus  acopanensis   Mold. 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bolivar:  Steyermark   75926 (W— 2407779— 
type) . 

LEIOTHRIX  NUBIGENA    (Kunth)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  28.  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Steud.,  Syn,  PI, 
Glum.  2  [Gyp,]:  281.  1855  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  OBTUSIFOLIA   Alv,  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  23.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Serr,  Min,  69.  1908  (W) ;  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  pi, 
182.  1928  (Ld,  W) , 

LEIOTHRIX  PEDUNCULOSA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  291.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  146  &  608,  1980. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  137 

LEIOTHRIX  PILULIFERA    (KBrn.)  Ruhl . 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  291  (1974)  and 
45:  36.  1980;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 35:  324.  1980;  Mold.,  Phy- 
tol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  PILULIFERA   var.  HARLEYI   Mold.,  Phytologia  45:  36.  1980. 

Bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 35:  324.  1980;  Mold., 
Phytologia  45:  35.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,   Mayo,   Storr ,   Santos,    & 
Pinheiro  in  Harley  19328    (N — isotype) . 

LEIOTHRIX  POLYSTEMMA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  135.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  293— 
294.  1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX   POLYSTEMMA   var.  ROBUSTA    Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  135,  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  294. 
1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  PROLIFERA    (Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  135.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Ess.  Monog. 
Erloc,  32.  1831  (W) ;  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  577.  1841  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  PROPINQUA    (KHrn.)  Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  28—29.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  RETRORSS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  185.  1973;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980, 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Silv,,  Fl, 
Mont,  1:  299.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  186.  1928  (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  RUFULA    (A.  Sto-Hil.)  Ruhlo 

Additional  synonymy:  Leiothrix  rufula    "L.  C.  Rich,  in  Ualp."  in  herb. 

Additional  bibliography:  Moldo,  Biol,  Abstr,  64:  4787.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  29.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146,  404.  & 
608.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  a  heliophile,  frequent 
in  restinga. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Rio  de  Janeiro:  Aran jo  &  Maciel 
3530    [Herb.  FEEMA  16159]  (Ld) ,  5176    [Herb.  FEEMA  23036]  (N) . 
MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  530.  1841  (W) ;  Mart.', 
Flora  24,  Beibl.  2:  58.  1841  (W) ;  A.  St.-Hil.,  Linnaea  16:  Lit. 
187.  1842  (W);.Walp.,  Ann.  1:  890.  1848  (W) . 


138  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

LEIOTHRIX  RUFULR   var.  BREVIPES   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Biol.  Abstr.  6A:  4787.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  29.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608. 
1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  RUFULA   var.  ELATIOR    (KHrn.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  136.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980.. 

LEIOTHRIX  SCHLECHTENDALII    (KHrn.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  29,  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward 
Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  73.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  having  the  "shoots 
flattened",  leaves  gray,  and  flower-heads  white,  and  have  found  it 
growing  among  sandstone  rocks  and  open  scrub  on  rocky  hillsides, 
in  wet  sandy  soil  among  rocks,  and  on  campo  rupestre,  at  500 — 
1100  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  February,  March, 
and  July. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo,   Storr, 
Santos,   S  Pinheiro  in  Harley  18760    (Ld) ,  18760a    (Ld,  N,  N) ,  18770 
(Ld,  N);  Hatschbach  &  Guimaraes   42352    (Ld,  N,  W — 2931619),  42361 
(Ld);  Mori  S  Benton  13528    (Ld,  N) ;  Mori,   King,   Santos,   &  Hage 
12369    (Ld,  W — 2854244);  Ribeiro,  Mattos  Silva,   S  Hage  25    (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  SCLEROPHYLLA   Alv.  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt,  Bot.  A. 23:  389.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  29.  1977;  Monteiro,  Giulietti,  &  Castro, 
Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7:  [43],  45,  47,  54,  &  59,  fig.  95—100. 
1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Illustrations:  Monteiro,  Giulietti,  &  Castro,  Bol.  Bot,  Univ. 
S.  Paulo  7:  59,  fig.  95—100.  1979. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  L.  B.  Smith  6844 
(W— 2120213).   MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Silv.,  Fl,  Mont,  1:  pi, 
183,  1928  (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  SINUOSA   Giulietti 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  470.  1978;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  SPERGULA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  470.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  SPIRALIS    (Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  29.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  6.  608,  1983. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Ess.  Monog, 
Erloc,  34,  1831  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  STEYERMARKII   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  25:  137,  1973;  Mold,, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  139 

Phytol.  Mem.  2:  116  &  608.  1980. 

The  Koyama   &  Agostini   7515,   distributed  as  L.  steyermarkii , 
actually  is  the  type  collection  of  Syngonanthus  duidae   var,  longi- 
folius   Mold. 

LEIOTHRIX  SUBULATA    Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  137.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl,  Mont.  1:  288. 
1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX   TENUI FOLIA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  137.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  285. 
1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  TINGUENSIS   Herzog 

Additional  synonymy:  Leiothrix  tinguensis   Herzog,  in  herb. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  24.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward 
Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  73.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  wet  sandy 
depressions  in  pine  woods,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  May. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,   Renvoize,   Ersk- 
ine,   Brighton,    S  Pinheiro  in  Harley  16075    (W — 2771329) ;,  Wori  & 
Boom  14147    (Ld,  N) . 

LEIOTHRIX  TRIANGULARIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  186.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  F].  Mont.  1:  305—306.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  192.  1928  (Ld,  W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  TRICHOPUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  137.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  281, 
1928  (W). 

LEIOTHRIX  TRIE IDA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  186,  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  146  &  608.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl, 
1:  277.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  184  (Ld,  W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  TURBINATA   Gleason 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  29.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  116  &  608.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  found  this  plant  growing  on  swampy  savannas, 
at  2200  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  January  and  Feb- 
ruary. 


140  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Maguire,   Wurdack,   & 
Bunting  37031    (W — 2168995),  37196    (W— 2168991);  Maguire,    Wurdack, 

5  Maguire  42114    (W)  Steyermark  &  Delascio  129249    (Ld,  Ld). 
Bolivar:  Steyerinirk,   Huber ,    s  Carreno  E,   128376    (Ld);  Steyermark 

6  Nilsson   593   W— 2400113). 

LEIOTHRIX  UMBRATILIS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  470.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  116,  147,  &  608.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  swampy  savan- 
nas, in  sheltered  spots  at  the  base  of  large  rocks,  and  "in  large 
grass-green  clumps  in  rocky  wet  savannas  dominated  by  Stegolepis 
and  Cottendorfia ,   with  Nieyneria,   Tofieldia,   Xyris,   Abolboda, 
and  Lagenocarpus   also  present,  at  1490 — 2200  m.  altitude,  in 
flower  in  January,  February,  and  May,  and  in  fruit  in  May.  Steyer- 
mark describes  it  as  "terrestrial,  leaves  soft,  membranous,  rich- 
green".   His  no.    93201,   cited  below,  was  previously  regarded  by  me 
as  the  closely  related  L.  flavescens    (Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Maguire,   Wurdack, 
&  Maguire   42353    (W) .   Bolivar:  Maguire  S  Maguire  40419    (W — 
2169049);  Steyermark   93201    (Lw,  N,  W — 2584115);  Steyermark,   Berry, 
Dunsterville,    S  Dunsterville  117345    (Ld);  Steyermark,   Huber,    & 
Carreno  E.   128376    (Ld). 

LEIOTHRIX  UMBRATILIS   var.  BREVIPES   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  470.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  116  &  608.  1980. 

LEIOTHRIX  VIVIPARA    (Bong.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389 
(1974)  and  A. 31:  17  &  18.  1978;  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  30  (1977) 
and  41:  420.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  147  &  608.  1980. 

Hatschbach  encountered  this  plant  in  sandy  areas  of  campo  ru- 
pestre. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach  44686 
(Ld);  Irwin,   Santos,   Souza,   S  Fonseca   23372{\i — 2582550A) . 
MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  577.  1841  (W) . 

LEIOTHRIX  VIVIPARA   var.  ANGUSTA   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  470.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  147  &  608.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Irwin,  Maxwell,   S 
Wasshausen  21005    (W~2598445) . 

LEIOTHRIX  VIVIPARA   var.  LONGIPILOSA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  16.  1976; 
Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  17.  1978;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem,  2: 
147  &  608.  1980. 

MESANTHEMUM   KHrn. 

Additional  synonymy:  Mesanthium   Lotsy,  Vortr.  Bot.  Stammesges.  3 
(1):  707  sphalm.  1911. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  141 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Durand,  Ind.  Gen.  Phan.  454, 
1888;  Post  &  Kuntze,  Lexicon  219,  361,  f,   623.  1904;  Domin,  Ann. 
Jard.  Bot.  Buitenz.  24  [ser.  2,  9]:  247.  1911;  Lotsy,  Vortr. 
Stammesges.  3  (1):  707.  1911;  Thonner,  Flow.  PI.  Afr.  121,  pi.  15. 
1915;  J.  C.  Willis,  Diet.  Flow.  PI.,  ed.  5,  421  (1925)  and  ed.  6, 
421.  1951;  Goudet-Ducellier,  Reserch.  Palynol.   PI.  Hydroph.  [D. 
E.S.  Fac.  Sci.  Univ.  Dij .  ]  1—59.  1967;  Rouleau,  Guide  Ind.  Kew. 
73,  120,  &  270.  1970;  Thanikaimoni,  Trav.  Sect.  Scient.  Techn. 
Inst.  Franp.  Pond.  12  (2):  81.  1973;  Hocking,  Excerpt,  Bot.  A. 23 
389.  1974;  Thanikaimoni,  Trav.  Sect.  Scient.  Techn.  Inst.  Franp. 
Pond,  13:  150  &  285.  1976;  Giulietti,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo"  6 
63.  1978;  Hocking,  Excerpt,  Bot.  A. 31:  17  &  18.  1978;  Mold.,  Phy- 
tologla  41:  421,  424,  470—473,  &  508  (1979),  45:  40  &  508.  1980 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  200,  201,  203,  205—211,  213,  215—217, 
220,  224,  227,  229,  234,  236,  238,  241,  250,  404,  404,  405,  423, 
&  608—609.  1980;  Mold,,  Phytologia  54:  72.  1983. 

MESANTHEMUM  AFRICANUM   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  17.  1976;  Hock- 
ing, Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  17,  1978;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  238, 
241,  &  609.  1980. 

MESANTHEMUM  ALBIDUM   H.  Lecomte 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389. 
1974;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  470—471.  1979;  Mold,,  Phytol.  Mem. 
2:  205,  207,  208,  401,  404,  &  609,  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  54: 
72,  1983. 

MESANTHEMUM  AURATUM   H.  Lecomte 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  471—472.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  206—208,  423,  &  609,  1980. 

MESANTHEMUM  BENNAE   Jacques-F^ix 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  18,  1978; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  472.  1979;  Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  207  & 
609,  1980. 

MESANTHEMUM  ERICI-ROSEBII   T.  Fries 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A, 23:  389. 
1974;  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  25.  1976;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  209, 
220,  224,  236,  &  609,  1980. 

MESANTHEMUM  3AEGERII   Jacques-Felix 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  472.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  208,  213,  &  609.  1980, 

MESANTHEMUM  PRESCOTTIANUM    (Bong,)  K8rn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  472.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  207—210  &  609.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Bong., 
Ess.  Monog.  Erioc.  35.  1831  (W) ;  Kunth,  Enum.  PI,  3:  579.  1841 
(W);  Meikle  &  Baldwin,  Am.  Journ.  Bot,  39:  47,  fig,  9—18,  1952. 
(Ld). 


142  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

MESANTHEMUM  PUBESCENS    (Lam.)  K8rn, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  292.  1974;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  250  &  609.  1980. 

Croat  refers  to  this  plant  as  "diffuse,  flowers  white"  and 
encountered  it  in  marshy  areas,  in  flower  in  January. 

Additional  citations:  MADAGASCAR:  Croat  29999    (E— 2599358). 
MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  569.  1841 
(W);  Mold,  in  Humbert,  Fl.  Madag.  36:  31,  fig.  4  (5—7).  1955 
(Ld). 

MESANTHEMUM  RADICANS    (Benth.)  K8rn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Thonner,  Flow.  PI.  Afr.  121,  pi.  15. 
1915;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389.  1974;  Mold,,  Phytologia 
41:  473.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  200,  201,  205—211,  213, 
215—217,  220,  224,  227,  229,  234,  236,  &  609.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  in  large 
clumps  in  damp  loam  soil  of  swamps  and  marshes  and  "in  flat 
swampy  areas  of  sandy  lake  deposits,  the  vegetation  of  grass 
fields  with  spots  of  dense  forest  with  trees  no  more  than  6  m. 
tall",  at  4900  feet  altitude,  in  flower  in  January  and  both  in 
flower  and  fruit  in  October.   They  describe  it  as  an  herb,  with 
bulbous  roots,  medium-green  leaves,  white  flowers,  and  creamy- 
white  anthers. 

Additional  citations:  LIBERIA:  hinder  44    (E— 2271452).   IVORY 
COAST:  Geerling  &  Bokdam  1962    (E — 2422443).   ZAMBIA:  Richards 
27348    (E— 2094570).   TANZANIA:  Tanganyika:  Balslev  16    (N) . 
MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Thonner,  Flow.  PI.  Afr,  pi,  15.  1915  (Ld). 

MESANTHEMUM  REDUCTUM   H.  Hess 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  142.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  234  &  609,  1980, 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  H.  Hess,  Bericht,  Schweiz, 
Bot.  Gesell.  65:  179,  fig,  1—3,  1955  (Ld), 

MESANTHEMUM  ROSENI   Pax 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  45—46,  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  203,  423,  &  609,  1980, 

MESANTHEMUM  RUBRUM   Mold, 

This  taxon  is  now  considered  to  be  a  synonym  of  M.   auratum 
H,  Lecomte,  which  see, 

MESANTHEMUM  RUTENBERGIANUM   K8rn. 

Additional  citations:  Domin,  Ann,  Jard,  Bot,  Buitenz,  24  [ser, 
2,  9]:  247,  1911;  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  30,  1977;  Hocking,  Ex- 
cerpt, Bot,  A. 31:  17  &  18.  1978;  Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  250  & 
609.  1980. 

Croat  refers  to  this  plant  as  growing  "in  stalk-like  clumps", 
the  "flowers"  white,  and  found  it  to  be  very  localized  in  wet 
open  areas  in  scrubby  forests  and  along  roadsides,  growing  to  1 
m.  tall,  at  1365  m,  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  Janu- 
ary, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  143 

Additional  citations:  MADAGASCAR:  Croat   29568    (E— 2599360) , 
29908    (E— 2599359).   MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Mold,  in  Humbert,  Fl. 
Madag.  36:  31,  fig.  4  (1—4).  1955  (Ld). 

MOLDENKEANTHUS   P.  Morat 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot,  A. 31:  17  5.  18. 
1978;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  473  &  508  (1979)  and  45:  40.  1980; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  4,  250,  &  609.  1980. 

MOLDENKEANTHUS   BOSSERI   P.  Morat 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  17.  1976; 
Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  17.  1978;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
250  &  609.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  P.  Morat,  Adansonia,  ser.  2, 
15:  467,  pi.  2,  1976  (Ld). 

MOLDENKEANTHUS   ITREMENSIS   P.  Morat 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt,  Bot,  A. 31:  17.  1978; 
Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  473.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  250  & 
609.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  P.  Morat,  Adansonia,  ser.  2, 
15:  465,  pi,  1,  1976  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS   Mart. 

Additional  synonymy:  Papaelanthus   Ruhl,  ex  Domln,  Ann,  Jard, 
Bot.  Buitenz,,  24  [ser.  2,  9]:  247  sphalm.  1911,  Paepacantus 
Kunth  ex  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  424  in  syn.  1980.  Peoplanthus 
Tillett  ex  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  429  in  syn,  1980.  Paepacanthus 
Rosa  &  Santos  ex  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  262  in  syn,  1982. 
Poeplanthus   Klrkbr,  ex  Mold,,  Phytologia  50:  263  in  syn,  1982, 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Sweet,  Hort.  Brit,,  ed,  2, 
597,  1830;  Loud.,  Hort.  Brit,,  ed.  1,  37  (1830)  and  ed.  2,  37. 
1832;  G.  Don  In  Loud.,  Hort.  Brit,,  ed.  3,  37.  1839;  G.  Don  in 
Sweet,  Hort.  Brit.,  ed.  3,  719.  1839;  Meisn.,  PI.  Vase,  Gen.  2: 
312.  1843;  Lindl.,  Veg.  Kingd,  ,  ed,  3,  122,  1853;  Pfeiffer,  Nom, 
Bot.  1  (2):  1150,  1874;  Durand,  Ind,  Gen,  Phan,  454,  1888;  Post  & 
Kuntze,  Lexicon  623.  1904;  Durand  &  Jacks,,  Ind.  Kew.  Suppl,  1, 
imp.  1,  483.  1906;  Ruhl,  in  VJettstein,  Denkschr.  K.  Akad.  Wiss. 
Wien  Math.-nat.  79:  87.  1908;  Domin,  Ann.  Jard.  Bot.  Buitenz.  24 
[ser.  2,  9]:  247  &  248.  1911;  Lotsy,  Vortr.  Bot.  Stammesges.  3 
(1):  706  &  707,  fig.  480  (5—8).  1911;  Fedde  &  Schust,,  Justs 
Bot,  Jahresber.  40  (2):  15,  1914;  Thonner,  Flow.  PI.  Afr.  121. 
1915;  Arber,  Bot,  Gaz.  74:  84,  1922;  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert,  Spec, 
Nov.  Beih.  43:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.]  179—182.  1927;  Stapf,  Ind, 
Lond.  6:  565,  1931;  Bedevian,  Illust.  Polyglot.  Diet.  260.  1936; 
Durand  &  Jacks,,  Ind.  Kew,  Suppl.  1,  imp.  2,  483.  1941;  Anon.,  Kew 
Bull.  Gen.  Ind.  Ill  &  209.  1959;  Durand  &  Jacks,,  Ind.  Kew. 
Suppl.  1,  imp.  3,  483.  1959;  Airy  Shaw  in  J.  C,  Willis,  Diet. 
Flow.  PI.,  ed.  7,  251,  385,  418,  656,  821,  &  1074.  1966;  Rou- 
leau, Guide  Ind,  Kew,  44,  66,  105,  138,  &  270.  1970;  Hocking, 
Excerpt.  Bot,  A. 23:  290—292,  388,  &  389.  1974;  Napp-Zinn,  Anat, 
Blatt,  A  (1):  168  &  360.  1974;  Galvao  &  Cavalcante,  Bol.  Mus. 


144  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

Para.  Goeldi,  ser,  2  Bet,  1-40  Ind,:  15,  1975;  Arekal  &  Ramaswamy, 
Proc.  63rd  Ind,  Cong,  3  (6):  85.  1976;  Thanikaimoni,  Trav.  Sect, 
Scient,  Techn.  Inst,  Franc,  Pond.  13:  172,  285,  &  332.  1976;  La- 
torre,  Ortega,  &  Inca,  Cienc.  Naturaleza  18:  3'&  62.  1977;  Anon,, 
Rcy,  Bot,  Card.  Kew  Lib.  Curr.  Awaren.  8:  33  (1978)  and  9:  23  & 
33.  1978;  Bodley,  Lab.  Anthrop.  Wash.  Univ.  Rep.  Invest.  55:  23. 
1978;  C.  D.  Cooke  in  Heywood,  Flow.  PI.  World  281  &  282,  fig.  3. 
1978;  Giulietti,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  6:  [61]— 65,  1978; 
Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 31:  16—18  (1978)  and  A. 33:  89.  1979; 
Klein,  Sellowia  31:  132.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  422,  467, 
473—485,  &  509  (1979),  42:  29—36,  44,  205,  207,  208,  &  509 
(1979),  and  43:  196—197  &  508.  1979;  Monteiro,  Giulietti,  Mazzoni, 
&  Castro,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7:  [43]— 48,  52,  &  57,  fig. 
45 — 69.  1979;  011gaard  &  Balslev,  Rep.  Bot.  Inst,  Univ.  Aarhus  4: 
40  &  97.  1979;  Rizzini,  Trat.  Fitogeog.  Bras,  2:  141,  206,  208, 
292,  293,  314,  &  341,  fig,  49.  1979;  Angely,  S.  Am.  Bot,  Bibl. 
2:  666,  669—672,  674,  675,  678,  &  679,  1980;  Hocking,  Excerpt, 
Bot.  A.35:  324.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  44:  215,  384,  470—476, 
&  509,  pi.  1—4  (1980)  and  45:  38,  40,  270,  &  296.  1980;  Mold,  in 
Parley  &  Mayo,  Toward  Checklist  Fl,  Bahia  73—76.  1980;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  65,  74,  76,  81,  90,  92,  96,  104,  109,  110,  116— 
118,   122,  124—126,  ,  129,  134,  149—160,  172,  175,  178,  183, 
207—209,  216,  220,  227,  229,  250,  301,  357,  368,  369,  397, 
398,  400—404,  424—429,  432,  442,  443,  445,  462,  609—620,  627, 
&  628.  1980;  F.  C.  Seymour,  Phytol.  Mem.  1:  85  &  311,  1980; 
Cleef,  Dissert,  Bot.  61:  160/161,  1981;  Cronq.,  Integ,  Syst, 
Classif,  1118.  1981;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 36:  22  &  23.  1981; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  49:  293,  380—381,  &  510.  1981;  Cronq,  in  S,  P, 
Parker,  Synop,  Classif.  Liv.  Organisms  1:  472.  1982;  Hensold, 
Abst.  Bot.  Soc.  Am.  Syst.  Sect.  1982:  96.  1982;  Hocking,  Excerpt. 
Bot.  A. 39:  101.  1982;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  242,  245—248,  262— 
264,  270,  506,  509,  &  510  (1982),  51:  244—245  &  501  (1982),  and 
52:  19  &  119.  1982;  Reis  &  Lipp,  New  PI.  Sources  Drugs  22.  1982; 
Tillett  &  Steyerm.,  Ernstia  9:  3.  1982;  Badillo,  Schnee,  &  Rojas, 
Ernstia  14:  [Clav.  Fam.  PI.  Sup.  Venez.,  ed.  6]  213.  1983; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  52:  414  &  508  (1983),  53:264,  270,  328,  347, 
348,  &  367  (1983),  and  54:  66—67  &  80.  1983. 

It  may  be  noted  here  that  Bodley  (1978)  writes  the  name  of 
the  Order  in  which  this  genus  belongs  "ERIOCAULES" .      Cronquist 
(1981)  comments  that  "There  is  no  obvious  reason  why  the  Erio- 
caulaceae   might  not  have  been  derived  directly  from  the  Xyrida- 
ceae   or  from  some  similar  common  ancestor  with  6  functional  sta- 
mens . " 

Latorre  and  his  associates  (1977)  cite  their  nos.    5683 — 5685 
as  unidentified  species  of  Paepalanthus , 

The  Cuatrecasas  S  Idrobo   27053   and  011gaard  S  Balslev  8460, 
distributed  as  Paepalanthus   sp.,  actually  are  Eriocaulon  micro- 
cephalum   H.B.K.,  while  Frenzel'738   is  E,   sellowianum   Kunth, 
Frenzel   763   is  Leiothrix  flavescens    (Bong.)  Ruhl.,  Raynal-Rogues 
21497   is  Syngonanthus  caulescens    (Pcir,)  Ruhl.,  Granville  2611 
is  S.  gracilis   var.  glabriusculus   Ruhl,,  Heringer  &  al,   4313   is 
S,  helminthorrhizus   var,  glandulosus   Mold,,  Rosa,   Murca   Pires, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  1A5 

s  Rodrigues  894   is  5.  humjboidtii  var.  glandulosus   Gleason,  Black 

5  Klein   54-17351    is  S,  umbellatus    (Lam.)  Ruhl.,  Black   51-11027   te 
S.   xeranthemoides    (Bong.)  Ruhl.,  and  Custodio  Filho   611    is  a 
sedge. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACANTHOLIMON   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  18.  1976; 
Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A.31:  17.  1978;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  149 

6  609.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACANTHOPHYLLUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389 
(1974)  and  A.31:  18.  1978;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  474.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  149  &  609.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward 
Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  73.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  an  "area  of 
dry  grassland  on  quartzite  and  fine  white  talc  soils  and  some 
sandstone  rock  exposures"  and  on  campo  rupestre,  at  1000 — 1500  m. 
altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March  and  July. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo,   Storr, 
Santos,    S  Pinbeiro  in  Harley   20000    (Ld,  N) ;  Mori,   King f   Santos,    S 
Hage  12516    (Ld,  W— 2854272). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACCRESCENS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389. 
1974;  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  187.  1973;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
150  &  609.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  96—98,  pi.  62  &  63  [a].  1928  (Ld,  Ld,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACCRESCENS   var.  GLABRESCENS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  144.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  98, 
1928  (W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACTINOCEPHALOIDES   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  18.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  135—136.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  84.  1928  (Ld,'  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACULEATUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  28,  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &   609.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  pi.  179.  1928  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACUMINATUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  31.  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 


146  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol,  54,  No.  2 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACUMINATUS   var.  LONGIPILOSUS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  25:  1A5,  1973; 
Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  150  &  609,  1980, 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACUTALIS   Alv,  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  31,  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem,  2:  150  &  609,  1980, 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Silv,,  Fl, 
Mont.  1:  258—259,  1928  (W)  &  pi,  170  [bis],  1928  (Ld,  W), 

PAEPALANTHUS  ACUTIPILUS   Alv,  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  31,  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem,  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTEATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv,,  Fl,  Mont,  1:  173—175,  1928  (W)  &  pi.  112.  1928  (Ld,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  AEQUALIS    (Veil.)  J,  F.  Macbr, 

Additional  bibliography:  Pfeiffer,  Norn,  Bot,  1  (2):  1150.  1874; 
Ruhl,  in  Wettstein,  Denkschr,  K,  Akad,  Wiss,  Wien  Math,-nat,  79: 
87,  1908;  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  31,  1977;  Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem,  1: 
150  &  609,  1980, 

Ruhland  (1908) cites  an  unnumbered  Wacket  collection  from  Sao 
Paulo,  Brazil, 

The  Brade  6584  and  Widgren  s.n,  [1845],  distributed  as  and 
previously  cited  by  me  as  P.  aequalis,  seem  actually  to  be  P. 
cachambuensis   Alv.  Silv, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Mosen  4450    (N) , 

PAEPALANTHUS  AEREUS   Alv,  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  187,  1973;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  150  &  609,  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  161—162,  1928  (W)  &  pi.  102  (Ld,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ALBESCENS   Alv,  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  187,  1973;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem,  2:  150  &  609,  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv,,  Fl, 
Mont,  1:  229—230.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  152.  1928  (Ld,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ALBICEPS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  47.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150,  424,  &  609,  1980, 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv,,  F] , 
Mont,  1:  172—173,  1928  (V)  &  pi.   111.  1928  (Ld,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ALBO-TOMENTOSUS   Herzog 

Additional  synonymy:  Syngonantbus  alho-tomentosus   Herzog  ex 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  442  in  syn.  1980. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  474.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150,  442,  &  609.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  having  pilose  leaves 


i 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  147 

and  cream-colored  inflorescences,  but  Brito  &  Vinha  assert  that 
the  "flowers"  were  actually  "yellow".   Collectors  have  found  it 
growing  on  natural  campos,  in  flower  in  September  and  both  in 
flower  and  fruit  in  August. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Brito  &  Vinha   108    (Ld); 
Mori,   Mattos  Silva,   &  Santos  10484    (N) ;  Santos,   Mori,    &  Hattos 
Silva    3352    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ALBO-VAGINATUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Synonymy:  Paepalantbus  alhovaginatus   Alv.  Silv,  apud  Worsdell, 
Ind.  Lond.  Suppl.  2:  ].82.  1941. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  474.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150,  424,  &  609.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  on  wet  sandy 
campo ,  in  flower  in  December. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Parani:  Dombrowski   S  Neto  327 
(Ld);  Dusen   15586    (Mi,  Ws);  Hatscbbach   32963    (Ba) ,  42657  (Ld); 
JOnsson  1031a    (Mi,  Ws) ,  1096a    (Mi,  Ws).   MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS: 
Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  pi.  155.  1928  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ALBO-VILLOSUS   Alv.  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  32.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS: 
Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  33—34.  1928  (W)  &  pi,  15  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ALLEMANII    C  Diogo 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  474.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem,  2:  150  &  609.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo, 
Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  73.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  species  as  a  fleshy-stemmed, 
erect  herb,  to  about  25  cm,  tall,  with  "the  peduncles  about  as 
long  again",  the  leaves  soft,  rather  bright-green,  squarrose, 
and  the  inflorescence  heads  ashy-gray.   They  have  found  it  growing 
in  the  water  in  a  region  of  open  scrub  on  white  sand  with  damp 
areas  and  extensive  sedge  meadows  (brejo)  partly  burned  over,  as 
well  as  in  wet  places  on  campo  rupestre,  at  950 — 1000  m.  alti- 
tude, in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  February  and  July. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo,   Storjr   , 
Santos,   &  Pinheiro  in  Harley  18830    (Ld,  N) ;  Mori,  King,  Santos, 
&  Hage  12347    (Ld,  W~2854245),  12630    (Ld,  W— 2854276). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ALMASENSIS   Mold.,  Phytologia  45:  470 — 472,  pi.  1, 
1980. 
Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  45:  470—472,  pi.  1.  1980; 

Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

Illustrations:  Mold.,  Phytologia  45:  471,  pi.  1.  1980, 
Citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo,   Storr,   Santosr   s 

Pinheiro   in  Harley  19768    (Ld — isotype,  N — isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ALPINUS   K8m, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  475,  1979; 


148  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  109,  397,  &  609.  1980. 

Killip  describes  this  plant  as  cespitose,  with  smooth 
leaves,  and  encountered  it  on  paramos,  at  3300 — 3500  m.  altitude, 
in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March.   His  collection,  cited  below, 
has  previously  been  confused  with  p.  andiccla   KHrn.  and  P. 
planifolius   var.  alpestris   KBrn.   On  the  other  hand,  the  Cuatre- 
casas,   Lopez  Figueiras,    S  Rodriguez   28990,   distributed  as  P.  al- 
pinus,    actually  is  P.  andicola   var,  villosus   Mold^  and  Dwyer  & 
Idrobo  8180   is  P.  columbiensis   Ruhl. 

Additional  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Cundinamarca:  Cleef  3041    (W — 
2850655);  Killip  34148    (N,  W~1770975). 

PAEPALANTHVS  ALSINOIDES   C.  Wright 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  37:  32.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  90,  92,  397,  398,  424,  &  609.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHVS  ALSINOIDES   var.  MINIMUS   Jennings 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  37:  32.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  90,  92,  &  609.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  ISLA  DE  PINGS:  Killip  45388    (Mi). 

PAEPALANTHVS  AMOENVS    (Bong.)  KBrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  388. 
1974;  Mold.,  Phytologla  37:  32.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150, 
398,  425,  &  609.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  1.2  m.  tall  and  have 
found  it  growing  on  periodically  burned  campo  rupestre,  in  flower 
in  March. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goi^s:  HAinger  17689    (N) ; 
Mendonca   77    (N) . 

PAEPALANTHVS  AMOENVS   var.  CVRRALENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  25:  147.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHVS  AMOENVS   f.  PROLIFER   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  25:  147.  1973; 
Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  388.  1974;  Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem.  2: 
150  &  609.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHVS  ANDICOLA   KBrn, 

Additional  bibliography:  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov, 
Beih.  43:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.]  179.  1927;  Mold.,  Phytologla  35: 
19.  1976;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  109,  116,  398,  &  609.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  species  as  an  herb,  growing  in 
cushion-like  tufts  or  clumps,  the  leaf  rosettes  to  20  cm.  in  di- 
ameter, with  thick  underground  stems,  the  peduncles  somewhat 
flattened,  the  florets  white  or  gray,  and  the  bracts  brown 
with  white  margins.   They  have  found  it  growing  in  wet  soil,  on 
roadside  banks  and  grassy  paramos,  and  rocky  subparamo  grass- 
land, at  1500 — 3750  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
March,  May,  July,  August,  October,  and  November,  in  flower  also 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  149 

in  June  and  September,   Luteyn  refers  to  it  as  "common"  in  Boyaci, 
while  Fosberg  &  Schultes  found  it  "common  on  small  gently  sloping 
paramos  with  brushy  ravines,  Espeletia  corymbosa   and  E.  grandi- 
flora   abundant'.'   Knuth  (1927)  cites  Funck   &  Schlim  811   and  Jahn 
19   from  Trujillo,  Venezuela. 

Most  of  the  collections  cited  below  were  originally  distribu- 
ted as  and  even,  in  many  cases,  previously  cited  by  me  as  P. 
columbiensis   Ruhl.,  a  closely  related  taxon.  f'laterial  has  also 
been  misidentif ied  and  distributed  in  some  herbaria  as  Xyris   sp. 
The  Killip  34148,   distributed  as  and  previously  cited  by  me  as 
P.  andicola,   actually  seems  to  be  P.  alpinus   KHrn,,  while  flur- 
bidge   75/408   and  Core   997   are  P.  andicola   var.  villosus   Mold, 
and  Fosberg  19174   is  P.  meridensis   Klotzsch. 

Additional  &  emended  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Boyaca:  Luteyn,   Le- 
br6n-Luteyn,    S  Pabdn  E.    7685    (N).   Cauca:  Pennell    6910    (N,  W — 
11A3727).   Cundinamarca:  Cuatrecasas  9514    (N) ;  Cuatrecasas  s 
Jaramillo  11969    (N,  W— 1850838);  Fosberg  S  Schultes  19217    (Ld, 
N,  W--2108127);  Killip  34047    (N,  S,  W--1770913);  Kfiie  5101    (Cp, 
W— 22535A8);  R.   E.   Schultes  4058    (N,  W— 1995809) .   Norte  de  San- 
tander:  Garcia-Barriga   s  Jaramillo  Mejia  19931    (W — 2957934), 
Santander:  Cuatrecasas  &  Garcia-Barriga   9878    (N,  W — 1798456), 
Valle:  Cuatrecasas  17841    (N,  W--2916693).  VENEZUELA:  Merida: 
Bernardi   6066    (N) ;  Castellano  s  Monasterio  120   (N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ANDICOLA   var,  VILLOSUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  19.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  109,  116,  &  609.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  forming  tufts,  the 
basal  rosettes  to  20  cm.  in  diameter,  the  leaves  light-green, 
the  flower-heads  white,  and  the  florets  "whitish-black"  or  gray. 
They  have  found  it  growing  in  wet  soil,  in  rocky  subparamo 
grassland,  and  in  paramo  vegetation  with  Espeletia   and  Puya,  at 
2000 — 3530  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  from  December 
to  June,  in  flower  also  in  May  and  November.   Luteyn  and  his  as- 
sociates refer  to  it  as  "common". 

Material  has  been  misidentif ied  and  distributed  in  some  her- 
baria as  P.  alpinus   KHrn,  typical  P,  andicola   KHrn,  and  P. 
columbiensis   Ruhl. 

Additional  &  emended  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Cauca:  Core  997 
(N).   Cundinamarca:  Burbidge   75/408    (N) ;  Cuatrecasas,   Idrobo, 
Jaramillo,    &  Mora   25624    (W — 2342186);  Garcia-Barriga   18034    (N) ; 
Luteyn,  Dumont,    &  LebrSn-Luteyn  4720    (N) .   VENEZUELA:  Merida: 
Ldpez  Figueiras  S  Rodriguez  C.    9074    (W — 2932347).   Trujillo: 
Cuatrecasas,   Lopez  Figueiras,   S  Rodriguez  28990    (W — 2907715), 

PAEPALANTHUS  APACARENSIS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  148,  1973;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  117  &  609.  1980;  Mold,,  Phytologia  54:  66.  1983, 

PAEPALANTHUS  APACARENSIS   var.  HUMILIS   Mold,,  Phytologia  54:  66, 
1983, 
Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  66,  1983. 


150  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  5A,  No.  2 

Collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  on  open  sandy  river- 
banks  . 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bolivar:  Steijenaarkf   Huber,   s  Carreno  E. 
127990    (Ld),  128164    (Ld— type). 

PAEPALRNTHUS  APPLANATUS   Rulil. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  32.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARBORESCENS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  187.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  6.  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  205—206.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  135  (Ld,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARCHERI   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  26  &  33.  1977; 
Angely,  S.  Am.  Bot.  Bibl.  2:  666.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
150  &  609.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARENICOLA   Alv.  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  475  (1979) 
and  42:  35.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  ADDITIONAL  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv., 
Fl.  Mont.  1:  pi,  90.  1928  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARETIOIDES   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  475.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach  40838 
(W— 2850778). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARGENTEUS    (Bong.)  KHrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  30.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980;  Mold,,  Phytologia  49: 
293,  1981;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 39:  101.  1982;  Mold,,  Phy- 
tologia 52:  270.  1983, 

The  Maguire,  Maguire,   &  Murcfa  Pires  44744^   previously  cited  as 
typical  P.  argenteus ,    is  actually  the  type  collection  of  its 
var,  viridis   Mold, 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARGENTEUS   var,  VIRIDJS   Mold.,  Phytologia  49:  293. 
1981. 

Bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  20:  357  (1970)  and  49:  293, 
1981;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 39:  101.  1982. 

Citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Maguire,  Maguire,   S  Mur^a 
Pires  44744    (Ld — type,  N — isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARGILLICOLA   Alv,  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  33,  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem,  2:  150  &  609,  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  a  frequent  heliophile 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  151 

with  white  flower -heads,  and  have  found  it  growing  in  open  or 
shrubby  restinga,  in  flower  in  April  and  May. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Rio  de  Janeiro:  Araujo  &  Maciel 
3029    [Herb.  FEEMA  14860]  (Ld),  4427    [Herb.  FEEMA  19713]  (N) . 
MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  108— 
110.  1928  (W)  &  pi.  67  (Ld,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARGILLICOLA   var .  PILOSUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  297.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  609.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARGYROLINON   KHm. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  33.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARGYPOPUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  35:  30.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150,  424,  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont,  1:  pi.  7.  1928  (Ld,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARGYROPUS   var.  BREVIFOLIUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  149.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  22, 
1928  (W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARGYROPUS   var.  PUBESCENS   Alv.  Sdlv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  149.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl, 
Mont.  1:  22.  1928  (W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARJSTATUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  149—150.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117  &  610,  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  a  prostrate  herb, 
rooting  at  the  nodes,  with  white  heads,  "formando  pequeflos 
cojines",  and  have  found  it  growing  on  white  sand  savannas  and 
in  open,  rocky,  sandstone  areas  bordering  wet  savannas,  at  100 — 
1300  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  April,  May,  August, 
and  December. 

Material  of  this  taxon  has  been  misldentif ied  and  distributed 
in  some  herbaria  as  p.    subtilis   Miq. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Davidse,   Ruber,   S 
Tillett  16947    (Ld);  O.  Ruber   2462    (Ve) ,  2473    (Ld);  Ruber,    Til- 
lett,   &  Davidse  3707    (Ld).   Bolivar:  Steyermark  &  Pruski  121066 
(Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ARMERIA   Mart, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  297.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610,  1980. 

[to  be  continued] 


NOMENCLATURA  PLANTARUM  AMERICANARUM 

II.  GE5NERIACEAE 

A.  Lourteig 

1,  Gesnera  areplo  Digitalis  folio  tomentose 

Sous  ce  protologue,  publi^  dans  son  Catalogue  (Nova  Plantarum  Arne- 
ricanarum  Genera  p.  17.  1703),  le  Pfere  Charles  PLUMIER  a  fait  dans  ses 
Manuscrits,  une  longue  description  accompagnfie  d'une  planche  que  BURMANN 
public  dans  Plantarum  Americanarum  p.  126,  tab.  134.  1757,  avec  una  diag- 
nose et  une  courte  description.  Entre  ces  deux  publications  LINNE  (Spec. 
Plant,  ed,  1.  612(2)  1753  )  dficrit  Gesneria  tomentosa  citant  SLOANE  et 
PLUMIER.  Dans  Spec.  Plant,  ed.  2,  LINNE  elimine  le  protologue  de  SLOANE 
qu'il  introduit  dans  la  synonymie  de  Gesneria  humilis  L. 

En  1837  HOOKER  dScrit  Rhytidophyllum  auriculatuw  in  Botan.  Hagaz.64: 
tab,  3562,  bastfe  sur  une  plante  cultiv^e  "de  semeffces  du  Br6sil",  mais 
lui-rafime  met  un  doute  sur  cette  prov6n«nce,  pensant  que  I'origine  r^elle 
doit  6tre  "West  Indies"  (Antilles). 

A.  P.  de  CANDOLLE,  en  1839  dans  le  Prodrotnus,  dans  sa  revision  des 
Besneriacfies  realise  que  la  plante  de  PLUMIER  appartient  au  genre  Rhyti- 
dophyllum  et  d6crit  Rhytidophyllum  Plumerianum  et  cite  le  protologue  de 
PLUMIER  (1703),  la  publication  de  BURMANN,  et  un  materiel  de  Santo  Domin- 
go "v.  s.  a  cl.  Bertero". 

En  1865  HAN5TEIN  dficrit  Rhytidophyllum  leucomalion  in  Linnaea  34:312 
bas^e  sur  une  collection  de  Hispaniola  (Santo  Domingo)  Miragoan,  leg.  Jae- 
ger 297;  il  cite  Gesneria  qrandis  Fischer  ex  Herb. Petropolis  in  synonymie. 

URBAN  dans  sa  revision  de  la  famille  pour  les  Antilles,  Synb.  Antil. 
2:  1901  et  _8:  1921  en  ce  qui  concerne  les  especes  qui  nous  intSressent: 

1)  conserve  Rhytidophyllum  leucomalion  Handstein,  l.c._2:  383; 

2)  conserve  Rhytidophyllum  auriculatum  Hooker,  mais  il  Stablie  3  varifitfis 
dans  cette  esp&ce: 

a)  qenuinum  I.e.  2:    384;  b)  stipulare  I.e.  ;  c)  Plumerianum  I.e.  385 
bas6  sur  Rh.  Plumerianum  DC,  indiquant  comma  synonymes  Gesneria  tomentosa 
L.  axel,  synon.  Sloane  et  Gesneria  qrandis  Sprengel  quant  S  la  plants  de 
Hispaniola;  cite  Plumier,  Bertero  953  et  Eggers  1749  b  et  2001;  et  d)  an- 
qustatum  I.e.  385  basfie  sur  un  spficimen  Picarda  541. 

Revenant  aux  Manuscrits  du  Pfere  PLUMIER,  il  a  dfierit  longuement  Ges- 
nera amplo  Digitalis  folio  tomentoso  qu*il  illustre  par  I'habitus  et  les 
analyses  florales.  Dana  son  troisi&me  paragraphe,  il  termine  sa  descrip- 
tion indiquant  selon  son  habitude  I'ficologie  et  le  nom  du  lieu  de  rScolte. 
Mais,  dans  ce  cas,  apres  ces  informations  il  donne  une  brfeve  description 
d'une  plante  tres  semblable,  indiquant  cependant  leurs  differences  dans 
la  pubescence  (ce  qui  est  fondamental)  at  I'endroit  ou  il  I'a  observes: 


"  Tota  planta  tomento  candicante  obtegitur,  plurimaque  reperitur  in 
via  qua  a  Petit  Goive  tenditur  ad  Leoganam  iuxta  saxosum  locum  qui  vulgo 


Nomencl.  PI.  Amer.  I»Gramineae,Phytologia  53  (4). 1983. 

152 


1983      Lourteig,  Noraenclatura  plantarum  americanarum       153 

dicitur  Lb  Tapion  du  ^'etit  Goive.  Alia  praeter  hanc  datur  species  huic 
prorsus  similis,  v/illosa  equidem  sed  nullatenus  tomentosa,  hanc  ultimam 
reperi  iuxta  Portum  Pacis  insulae  eiusdem  Sandominicanae  et  per  vnria 
loca  Insulae  Tortuosae.  Variis  mensibus  florentem  utramque  observavi". 
que  I'on  peut  traduire  ainsi: 

Toute  la  plante  recouverte  d'un  tomentum  blanchatre,  plusieurs 
trouwfies  dans  le  Chemin  qui  mfene  3  Petit  Goive  prfes  de  Leogana  a  cotfi 
de  cet  endroit  rocheux  que  les  gens  appellent  le  Tapion  du  Petit  Goive. 
Une  autre,  outre  celle-ci,  trfes  semblable,  villuuse  surement  mais  en 
aucune  manifire  tomenteuse,  j'ai  trouvfi  cette  dnrniftrn  prSs  du  Port  de 
Paix  dans  I'lle  Sandominicana  et  dans  divyers  endroits  de  I'lle  Tortuo- 
sa.  J'ai  observ6  les  deux  en  fleur  pendant  plusieurs  nois, 

Les  caractftres  morphologiques  des  especes  de  Rhytidophyllum  sont 
en  g^nSral  semblables,  mais  c'est  au  niveau  de  la  demiologiB  do  leurs 
feuilles  (surfaces  et  trichomes)  que  nous  devons  trouver  leurs  diffe- 
rences. Force  est  de  reconnaltre  que,  dans  les  descriptions  de  ces  ca- 
racteres,  I'anarchie  rBgnc;  il  est  trSs  difficile  de  pouvoir  les  inter- 
preter, i  plus  forte  raison  comparer  des  dascri^tions  isol^ea  du  19e. 
siecle  faites  dans  trois  pays. 

HOOKER  a  ^crit:  ....  "very  wrinkled  and  bullate  above  and  downy 
doep  green,  beneath  paler  and  more  downy,  beautifully  reticulate" 

De  CANBOLLE,  sans  aucun  doute  a  fait  sa  description  sur  le  speci- 
men da  Bertero  car  il  donne  une  tres  bonne  description  de  la  pubescen- 
ce, " supra  pilis  subclavellatis  in  medio  areolarum  subcongeatis 

Bcabris,  subtCiB  petiolis  pedunculisque  hirsutis," 

HANDSTEIN  dScrit  la  pubescence  de  sa  plante:  "....  niveo  densiasi- 
mo  arachnoideo-contexto  vestitum", 

II  est  Evident  que  PLUMIER  a  dScrit  une  plante  S  pubescence  blan- 
ch3tre  densement  tomenteuse  qui  est  I'objet  de  son  icone,  et,  qui  a  ob- 
serve une  autre  qui  n'a  pas  cette  pubescence. 

De  CANDOLLE  a  conserve  I'espfece  de  HOOKER  inalgr6  sb  creation  de  Rhy- 
tidophylluin  Pluwerianum   tenant  compte,  probablement,  de  la  diff^rente 
relation  longusur  des  inflorescences  /  longueur  des  feuilles.  A  cette  6- 
poque  il  n'existait  qu'une  collection  pour  chaque  esp&ce.  Actutllement 
nous  en  possedons  davantage.. 

D'aprSs  I'examen  des  specimens,  je  peux  constater:  1°)  la  variation 
du  rapport  L  infloresc./  L  feuilles;  2")  la  presence  ou  I'absence  d'au- 
ricules  h   I'insertion  des  pfitioles.  Ex.  Eggers  3946  Rh^.  stipulare  Urban 
cite  par  lui— mSme  et  determine  ultfirieurement  Rh.  auriculatum  Hooker  par 
5K0G,  represBnte  par  3  feuilles  d'herbier  dans  la  collection  de  Paris, 
montre  des  grandes  auricules  sur  2  feuilles  et  aucune  sur  I'autre.  Eggers 
2001  cite  par  URBAN  sous  variSte  Plumerianuw  et  determine  par  SKOG  Rh. 
auriculatum  montre  une  inflorescence  qui  depasse  longuement  le  feuillage. 


154  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

Dans  Rhytidophyllum  leucomallon  les  inflorescences  sont  en  gfin6ral 
plus  longues  que  les  feuilles;  nSannoins  dans  quelques  cnllections  elles 
dSpassent  sensiblement  le  feuillage:  ainsi  Eggers  3395  dn  Haiti,  citS 
par  URBAN  et  detemiinfi  par  LEEUWENBERG  comme  cette  espece  et  repr^sentfi 
h   Paris  par  4  feuilles  d'herbier,  montre  des  inflorescences  nettement 
plus  longues,  h   peine  plus  longues  (dSjS  en  fruit)  et  une  (encore  jeune) 
qui  n'arrive  pas  a  la  moitifi  de  la  longuer  de  la  feuille,  Les  limbes 
foliaires  sont  decurrentsle  long  du  pfitiole.  URBAN  faisait  dfijS  noter 
que  I'icone  de  PLUMIER  ne  correspondait  pas  a  la  description  de  de  CAN- 
DOLLE:  "0B5.  Icon  Plumeriana  cum  typo  Candolleano  ob  folia  basi  obtusa 
aequilatera  nee  inaequilateraliter  emarginata  non  bene  quadrato"  (Symb. 
Antil.  2'.    385). 

Le  type  de  Rh,  Plumerianum  DC  conservfi  a  Genfeve  n'a  pas  de  pubes  - 

cence  tomenteuae  arachnoids  blanchStre  sur  les  feuilles  (5tudi6  par  P. 

LOWRY  Si  ma  demande  et  comparfi  a  d'autres  specimens  de  G  et  P  ).  Le  type 

de  R_,  auricula  turn  Hooker  n'a  pas  non  plus  ce  type  de  pubescence  (Studifi 
par  L.  5K06,  en  prfit  de  K  8  US). 

Ainsi  je  peux  dire  que  I'espBce  que  PLUMIER  a  illustrfie  est  Rh.leu- 
conallum  HandStein,  de  Petit  Goive  et  la  seconde,  vraisemblablement,  Rh. 
auricula turn  Hooker,  de  Portus  Pacis  et  Insula  Tortuosa. 

En  rSsumfi: 

1,  Rhytidophyllum  leocoroallon  Handstein,  Linnaea  3£:  312.  1865  Type  Jae- 
ger 297. 

Gesnera  amplo  Digitalis  folio  tomentoso  Plumier,Nov.  PI.  Araer.  Gen. 17. 

1703  at  MS.;  PI.  Amer.  Edit.  Bunnann  126,  tab.  134.  1757. 

Rh,  PlumerianuB)  DC,Prodromus  7:  524.  1839  quoad  syn.  Plumier. 

Rh.  auriculatum  Hooker  f.  var.  Plumerianum  (DC)  Urban,  Symb.  Antil.  2: 

385.  1901;  8.:  648.1921, 

Gesneria  leucomallon  (Handstein)  Kuntze,  Revisio  2.;  473.  1891. 

Gesneria  qrandia  Fischer  ex  herb.  Petropblis,  nomen. 

Specimens;  Santo  Domingo:  Eggers  3395  G,P.  Poiteau  ex  herb,  Poiret  P.  S.d, 
d.  Jacquemont  a.  1827  P.  Nectoux  P.  Ex  herb.  Vaillant  P. 

2.  Rhytidophylluin  auriculatum  Hooker,  Bot.  Mag.  64_j  tab.  3562,  1837  Type: 
"Santo  Domingo",  cult.  incl.  var.  qenuinum  Urban,  atipulare  tirban  et 
probablement  anqustatum  (type  non  vu), 

Rh,  H.Lumerianuw  DC,  l.c,  excl,  cit.  Plumier. 

Specimens:  Santo  Domingo:  Eggers  2001  G,  P;  Sintenis  3946  G,P;  6637  P. 
Bertero  395  G;  Poiteau  G,P;  Richard  Pj  Fuertesll02  P;  TiJrckheim  2961  G, 
P. 


1983      Lourteig,  Nomenclatura  plantarum  americanarum       155 
2.  Bellonia  frutescerr  folio  Melissae  aspero 

PLUMIER  cr6a  le  genre  Bellonia  dficrit  dans  son  Nova  Plantarum  A^  - 
mericanarum.  Genera  p.  19-20,  tab.  31.  1703,  dfidifi  S  'etrun  Bolionius, 
mSdecin  qui  publia  des  travaux  sur  lee  Conifferes,  les  Oiseaux,  las 
PoisBons  et  lUgriculture;  mort  en  1564.  Une  seule  eep^ce  appartenant  h 
ca  genre,  elle  fut  dficrite  dans  tous  ses  details  et  illustrfie  par  une 
grande  branche  (en  partie  colorifie  h  I'aquarelle)  fleurie,  avec  quel  - 
ques  fruits  immatures  et  qui  ne  montre  pas  d'fipinea,  Cette  icone  a  6t6 
reproduite  par  BURMANN,  I.e.  p.  35-36,  tab.  47. 

LINNE  publia  Bellonia  aspera,  5p*c  .Plant,  ed.  1.  172  (1) .1753 
basfie  sur  le  protologue  da  PLUMER  de  1703;  dans  sa  2e.  Edition  il  a— 
joute  la  citation  de  la  planche  gravfie  de  BURMANN. 

SWARTZ  publia  Bellonia  spinosa  Prodromua  72.  1788,  dScrivant  una 
plante  qui  sa  caracterise  par  la  prfisence  d'fipines. 

URBAN  a  eutoujours  des  doutes  sur  I'existance  de  cas  deux  espfeces. 
En  Symb.  Antil.  _2:  367,1901  aprfes  avoir  traits  Bellonia  aspera  L.  il 
signale  les  differences  entre  cette  espece  et  B. spinosa  Swartz :  taille 
des  flaurs,  branches  inermes,  inflorescences  lat^rales  et  terminalea 
"corymboses".  En  ^920,  Repart.Sp.  Nov.  Beihefte  5;  46.  1920  il  s'inter- 
roge  si  cette  espece  ne  serait  pas  la  mfime  que  celle  de  LINNE,  si,  sur 
la  planche,  le  de^sin  das  6pines  avait  6t6   n6glig§  et  il  note  que  I'es- 
pdce  "est  inconnue  des  botanistes  d'aujourd'hui".  L'annfie  suivante,  in 
Symb.  Antil.  _6:  645,  il  revient  sur  la  question  aprSs  avoir  traits  las 
deux  esp&CBB.  II  considfere  que  "  les  espfices  Spineuse  ou  inerme,  trfes 
difffirentes  par  leur  port,  les  feuilles,  les  fleurs  et  les  fruits,  sont 
a  peine  voisines". 

L'illustration  de  PLUMIER  montre  des  inflorescences  cyweuses  ii   deux 
quatre,  plusieurs  fleurs  voire  une  fleur  solitaire  et  non  des  corymbes; 
la  gravure  publifie  par  BURMANN  montre  des  insertions  un  peu  nfigligtfas  ). 
Dans  les  collections  de  I'herbier  du  Musfium,  la  grande  majority  des  spe- 
cimens porte  des  Spines,  le  nombre  des  fleurs  est  de  1  ou  2  par  inflo  - 
rascence.  La  mftma  observation  a  pu  6tre  faite  par  M.  L,  5K0G  dans  I'her- 
bier National  des  Etats  Unis.  La  taille  des  feuilles  est  presque  tou jours 
plus  petite  que  sur  le  dessin  da  PLUMIER, Bien  que  nous  ayons  la  certitu- 
de que  PLUMIER  dessina,  en  gSnfiral,  plus  grand  qua  nature,  il  est  Svident 
que  la  plante  qu'il  a  illustrfie.provenant  sans  doute  d'un  milieu  humide, 
etajt  d'une  taille  exceptionnelle^M.  SKGG.aprfes  avoir  cultivfi  les  deux 
especes  dans  une  3errB,a  eu  la  tree  grande  amabilitS  de  me  communiquer 
loB  rSsultata  do  son  experience;  cas  cultures  ont  donnfi  des  plantes  tout 
5  fait  semblables.Les  diffSrences  invoquSes  pendant  si  longtemps  ne  peu- 
vent  itre  que  les  consequences  du  milieu  ecologique  sur  les  plantes, qui, 
done,  appartiennent  h   une  seule  espece. 


156  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    5A,   No.    2 

En   rfisumfi: 

Bellonia  aspera  Linnaeus,  Spec.  Plant,  ed,  1.  172  (1).  1753;  ed.  2.  244. 
(1).1762.  Lamarck,  Encyc.  Mfiibhod.  1:  397.  17B5.  ^rban,  Symb.  Antil.  2: 
267.  1901;  Repert.  Spec.  Nov.  Beihefte  5_:  46.  1920;  Symb.  Antil.  8_:645. 
1921. Type:  la  planche  de  Burmann,  I.e. 

Bellonia  frutescens  folio  Melissae  aspero  Plutnier,  Nova  PI.  Amer  .  Gen. 
19  -  20,  tab.  31  et  MS;  PI.  Amer.  Edit.  Burmann  35  -  36,  tab.  47.1756. 
Belonia  spinosa  Swartz,  Prodromus  72.  1788. 

ReBerciements 

Je  remercie  sincferemfent  mes  confreres:  M.  L.  5K0G  pour  aes  commen* 
taires  sur  le  type  de  RJn.  auriculatum  Hooker  qu'il  avait  en  prSt  de  1' 
Herbier  de  Kew  ainsi  que  pour  ses  informations  sur  ses  cultures  de  Bel- 
lonia aspera  L. ;  M.  Peter  LOWRY  pour  I'fitude  du  type  de  Rh.  Plumerianum 
DC  qu'il  a  faite  a  ma  demande  pendant  sa  visite  a  I'Herbier  de  Genfcve; 

Madame  Suzanne  JOVET  AST  pour  la  traduction  precise  du  texte  de  Plu  - 
mier  et  la  lecture  de  ce  manuscrit. 


Musfium  l^ational  d'Histoire  Naturelle, 
Paris  75005.  France. 


BOOK  REVIEWS 
Alma  L,  Moldenke 


"SCIENCE:  ITS  HISTORY  AND  DEVELOPMENT  AMONG  THE  WORLD'S  CULTURES" 
by  Colin  A.  Ronan,  543  pp.,  249  b/w  photo.,  2  inaps,  1  tab.  & 
66  figi   Facts  on  File,  Inc.,  New  York,  N.  Y.  10016.   1982. 
$29.95. 

"The  [definitely  achieved]  aim  of  this  book  [is]  to  take  an 
overview  of  the  development  of  science  and  scientific  thought  the 
world  over  from  early  times  until  now".   With  emphasis  on  concep- 
tual changes  rather  than  technological  ones,  the  reading  yields 
"an  exciting  adventure,  partly  because  the  thrill  of  discovery  is 
exciting  and  partly  because  the  story  will  carry  us  into  stimu- 
lating times  remote  from  our  own."  There  are  chapters  on  the  ori- 
gin of  science,  Greek,  Chinese,  Indian,  Arabian,  Roman,  and  medi- 
eval through  modern  science.  I-Iany  excellent  illustrations  are  on 
clustered  pages  but  with  their  location  indicated  with  the  perti- 
nent text. 


"KNOTT'S  HANDBOOK  FOR  VEGETABLE  GROWERS  -  Second  Edition"  by  Oscar 
A.  Lorenz  &  Donald  N.  Maynard,  ix  &  390  pp.,  44  b/w  draw., 
12  fig.  &  183  tab.  Wiley-Interscience  of  John  Wiley  &  Sons, 
New  York,  N.  Y.  10158.   1980.   $18.95  paperbound  spiral. 

This  much  used  handbook  was  first  published  in  1956  J  reappeared 
as  a  "revised  printing"  by  Dr.  Knott  in  1962.   Now  under  a  differ- 
ent authorship  it  still  remains  the  valuable  Knott's  "Handbook" 
with  needful  information  updated  "because  of  technological  ad- 
vances, government  regulations  and  a  constantly  changing  industry, 
....Every  effort  has  been  made  to  include  practical  and  current 
information."  It  is  a  storehouse  of  well  organized  information  for 
growers,  home  gardeners,  fieldmen,  extension  and  research  x^orkers, 
agriculture,  nutrition,  applied  botany,  and  biology  students. 
First  the  vegetables  are  listed  systematically  and  by  scientific 
name  and  then  by  their  common  names  in  eight  foreign  languages. 
Some  of  the  main  topics  covered  are:  planting,  fertilization,  ir- 
rigation, pest  and  weed  control,  harvesting  and  storage. 

"A  NEW  LOOK  AT  THE  DINOSAURS"  by  Alan  Charig,  160  pp.,  20  color 
photo.,  63  b/w  photo.,  8  maps,  125  draw.  &  36  tab.  &  charts. 
Facts  on  File,  Inc.,  New  York,  N.  Y.  10016.   1983.   $15.95. 

This  excellent  book,  planned  for  interested  educated  general 
readership,  was  first  published  in  England  where  the  well-known 
author  is  connected  with  the  British  Museum  (Natural  History)  and 
from  where  most  of  the  copious,  fine,  illustrative  materials  came. 

157 


158  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  5A,  No.  2 

May  this  book  be  successful  in  the  U,  S.  market!   This  is  wished 
so  that  it  may  counterbalance  many  inaccuracies  illustrated  in 
our  gaudy  books  designed  especially  for  young  boys  and  their 
teachers  in  the  early  school  years.   There  are  chapters  on  how 
dinosaurs  were  fossilized,  where  they  have  been  found,  pros  and 
cons  of  what  these  remains  tell  of  the  lives  of  these  certainly 
highly  successful  creatures  that  dominated  much  of  this  earth 
from  200  million  to  65  million  years  ago  and  then  died  off  rela- 
tively suddenly.  Why?  Read! 

The  author  limits  the  term  "dinosaur"  to  those  Saurichia   and 
Ornithischia   of  archisaur  stock  whose  femurs  are  knobbed  and 
carry  the  body  aloft  at  about  right  angles  as  in  birds  and  mam- 
mals and  not  as  in  most  other  reptilians  and  amphibians. 


"INSECT  PHYSIOLOGY"  by  W.  Mordwe,  G,  J.  Goldsworthy,  J.  Brady  & 

W.  M.  Blaney,  viii  &  180  pp.,  70  b/w  fig.  &  2  tab.  John 

Wiley  &  Sons,  New  York,  N.  Y.  10158,   [1980]  1981.  $18,95 
paperbound, 

"Insects  are  of  incalculable  importance  to  mano  They  are  our 
major  rivals  for  domination  of  this  planet,  and  yet  paradoxical- 
ly they  are  also  vital  to  our  survival  on  it The  insect's 

homeostatic  problems,  which  are  inevitably  its  physiological 
problems,  are  the  subject  of  this  [interestingly  presented] 
book."  There  are  chapters  on  energy  metabolism,  transporting 
tissues,  development,  sensory  systems,  movement  and  behavior 
emphasizing  experiments  and  observations  on  the  biochemical  and 
cellular  levels  as  they  direct  whole  body  reactions  set  by  the 
limits  of  their  small  size,  their  poikilothermy  and  their  rigid 
impermeable  exoskeleton  to  their  environment.   This  text  is  an 
excellent  one  for  an  upper  undergraduate  course  and  important 
reading  for  more  advanced  students,  teachers,  and  entomological 
workers. 

"TEXAS  WEATHER"  by  George  W.  Bomar,  vii  &  265  pp.,  54  b/w  photo., 
72  fig,  40  maps  &  32  tab.   University  of  Texas  Press,  Austin 
P.  0.  Box  7819,  Texas  78712.   1983.   $22.50  clothbound  & 
$9.95  paperbound. 

This  interesting  book  describes  "graphically,  pictorially  and 
numerically. ... .those  weather  events  that  distinguish  Texas  as  a 
land  of  climatic  disparity. .... .explains  why  such  diversity  ex- 
ists  ..and  furnishes  fundamental  [clear]  knowledge  with  which 

readers  can  analyze  and  estimate  nature's  threat  and  thereby  as- 
certain the  course  of  action  to  be  taken  to  preserve  life  and 
possessions."  With  its  well  illustrated  chapters  on  fronts, 
floods,  hurricanes,  thunderstorms,  tornadoes,  heat  waves,  drought, 
snow,  ice,  and  wind  this  book  is  actually  a  popular,  accurate 
meteorology  text  with  its  examples  taken  from  the  Texas  scene 
that  has  more  weather  extremes  than  any  other  U,  S.  state. 


1983  Moldenke,  Book  reviews  159 

"THE  FACTS  ON  FILE  DICTIONARY  OF  BIOLOGY"  edited  by  Elizabeth 

Tootill,  282  pp.,  32  b/w  fig.  &  5  tab.   Facts  on  File,  New 
York,  N.  Y.  10016.   1982.   $5c95  paperbound. 

This  dictionary  of  3,100  biologically  related  terms  that  are 
clearly  defined  and  provided  with  ample  cross-referencing  and 
helpful  illustrations  was  first  published  in  the  United  Kingdom  a 
year  earlier.   It  should  serve  effectively  on  routine  biology  lab 
book  shelves,  in  public  and  school  libraries  for  advanced  students, 
in  high  schools,  in  community  colleges  and  laboratory  techniques' 
schools,  and  for  the  non-biology  major  university  students. 


"STOMATAL  PHYSIOLOGY"  edited  by  P.  G.  Jarvis  &  T.  A.  Mansfield, 
Society  for  Experimental  Biology  Seminar  Series  8,  viii  & 
29A  pp.,  95  b/w  fig.,  20  tab.  &  39  photo.   Cambridge  Univer- 
sity Press,  Cambridge,  U.  K.  and  New  York,  N.  Y.  10022.  1981. 
$A9.50  clothbound  &  $19.95  paperbound. 

Herein  are  41  carefully  prepared  papers,  mostly  from  the  Uni- 
ted Kingdom  but  also  1  each  from  the  U.S.,  Australia,  and  Ger- 
many, that  present  a  research  progress  report  on  such  topics  as 
ionic  relations,  anions,  fluorescence,  humidity  responses,  con- 
trol of  transpiration  and  photosynthesis,  and  responses  to 
water-stressed  plants,  pollutants  and  pathogenic  organisms.  Some 
more  years  of  similarly  careful  studies  will  be  needed  before 
broader  conclusions  can  be  drawn:  nevertheless  these  reports 
should  be  of  interest  to  many  kinds  of  botany  students,  re- 
searchers, teachers  and  cytologists.   There  are  2  outstanding 
scanning  electron  micrographs  of  Vicia   faba   leaves  with  col- 
lapsed epidermal  and  guard  cells  exposed  to  SO  as  an  air  pollu- 
tant and  of  turgid  cells  in  clean  air. 

"THE  SHROUD  OF  TURIN  -  The  Burial  Cloth  of  Jesus  Christ",  revised 
edition  by  Ian  Wilson,  iii  &  320  pp.,  64  b/w  photo.,  18 
fig.  &  2  maps  on  40  unnumbered  pages.   Houghton  Mifflin, 
Inc.,  Boston,  Massachusetts  02108.   1983.   $15.95  hardcover 
and  Image  Books  for  Doubleday  &  Company,  Inc.,  Garden  City 
11530,  New  York,   1979.   $4.95  paperbound. 

"All  that  is  asked  of  the  reader  is  that  he  approach  [the  evi- 
dences of  the  textile  experts,  forensic  scientists,  physicists, 
photographers,  criminologists,  hematologists,  historians,  theo- 
logians and  think  about  the  unprovables] . . . .step  by  step  with  an 
open  mind".   Appendix  E  lists  49  plant  species  whose  pollen 
grains  from  the  shroud  have  been  identified  by  Dr.  Max  Frei  as 
those  of  Mediterranean  and  Irano-Turanian  areas.   Questions  come 
to  mind  that  cannot  be  answered  with  certainty.   The  book  pro- 
vides interesting,  historical  reading  and  tantalizing  conjectures. 
It  is  effectively  illustrated. 


160  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  2 

"THE  HUMAN  BODY"  edited  by  David  Heidenstam,  Ann  Kramer,  Ruth 

Midley  &  Susan  Sturrock  for  the  Diagram  Group,  544  pp.,  540 
b/w  fig.  or  diag.,  95  tab.,  15  photo,,  &  5  maps.   Facts  on 
File  Inc.,  New  York,  N,  Y.  10016.   1980.   $24.95. 

This  publication  is  successfully  and  effectively  "designed  to 
provide  clear,  straightforward  and  unbiased  explanations  of  every 
aspect  of  the  body's  functioning -vcare  and  development."  It  is  a 
combination  and  adaptation  of  the  Diagram  Group's  "Man's  Body" 
1976,  "Woman's  Body"  1977  and  "Child's  Body"  1977,  The  "well 
over  2,000  illustrations,  charts  and  diagrams"  are  in  clear  out- 
line and  basically  simple  and  with  direct  language  that  make  our 
innards  and  exteriors  much  easier  to  visualize  actively  and  pas- 
sively in  health  and  in  illness.   The  forthright  figures  are  much 
more  comprehensible  than  partial  or  overdetailed  ones  in  other 
books  with  the  same  general  purpose,  A  few  words  are  misspelled 
and  in  one  case  "stomach"  is  misused  for  "abdomen"  or  "belly", 

"AN  INTRODUCTION  TO  PLANT  TAXONOMY"  Second  Edition  by  C,  Jeffrey, 
ix  &  154  pp,,  6  b/w  photo,,  19  fig.  &  7  tab.   Cambridge 
University  Press,  Cambridge  &  London,  U.  K.  &  New  York, 
N.  Y.  10022.   1982.   $24.95  clothbound  &  $12.50  paperbound. 

This  updated  edition,  with  its  expanded  treatment  of  culti- 
vated plant  nomenclature,  its  outline  classification  of  plants 
and  its  emphasis  on  the  integrative  and  primal  role  of  taxonomy 
to  the  whole  field  of  botany,  is  welcomed.   It  is  still  intro- 
duced in  non-technical  terms  so  that  it  can  be  very  helpful  to 
amateur  plant  collectors,  nature  viewers  and  serious  horticultur- 
ists as  well  as  to  college,  university  and  botanical  garden 
students  taking  plant  classification  courses.   For  such  courses 
an  auxiliary  set  of  this  book  could  be  particularly  helpful 
starting  with  the  very  first  two  chapters  for  the  very  first 
assignment,  along  with  pages  129  and  130  on  the  contemporary 
taxonomis  t , 

"A  CHEMICAL  FEAST"  by  W.  Harding  le  Riche,  ix  &  204  pp,,  1  b/w 
fig,  &  32  tab.  Facts  on  File  Publications,  New  York,  N. 
Y.  10016.  1982.  $13,95, 

The  purpose  of  this  common  sense  book  is  to  counteract  panic 
tendencies.   "At  present  there  are  far  greater  risks  in  our 
lives  than  those  inherent  in  our  food  and  there  are  far  more 
serious  dangers  in  bacterial  and  viral  food  poisoning  than  there 
are  in  chemical  additives,  intentional  or  incidental."  Among 
others,  there  are  chapters  on  malnutrition  in  North  America, 
natural  poisons  in  food,  water,  food  additives,  parasites, 
hypoglycemia  and  allergy,   "Certainly  we  must  continue  to  put 
pressure  on  government  and  industry  to  police  the  substances 
they  are  introducing  into  the  environment,"  This  book  has  im- 
portant messages  for  almost  everyone. 


^         PHYTOLOGIA 

An  international  journal  to  expedite  botanical  and  phytoecological  publication 
Vol.  54  October  1983  No.  3 

FIFTIETH  JUBILEE  YEAR 

CONTENTS 

■YE,  N.,  Studies  on  the  seedling  types  of  dicotyledonous 

plants  (Magnoliophyta,  Magnoliopsida) 161 

-YE,  N.,  Descriptions  of  various  seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 190 

MOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  Additional  notes  on  the  Eriocaulaceae .  XCI 219 


LIBRARY 

NOV  1  1  1983 

lMcV\/  YORK 
BOTANICAL  GARDEN 


Published  by  Harold  N.  Moldenke  and  Alma  L.  Moldenke 

303  Parkside  Road 

Plainfield,  New  Jersey  07060 

U.S.A. 

Price  of  this  number  $3.00;  for  this  volume  $14.00  in  advance  or  $15.00  after 

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in  the  mails  must  be  made  immediately  after  receipt  of  the  next  following 

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received  after  a  volume  is  closed. 


STUDIES  ON  THE  SEEDIJNG  TYPES  OF  DICOTYLEDONOUS  PLANTS 
(MAGNOLIOPHYTA,  MAGNOLIOPSIDA) 

Ye  Nenggan 

Department  of  Plant  Protection,  Guizhou  Agricultural  College 

Guiyang,  Guizhou  Province 

People's  Republic  of  China 

and 

Department  of  Botany,  University  of  Maryland 
College  Park,  MD  20742,  U.S.A. 

ABSTRACT 

Seedlings  of  dicotyledonous  plants  can  be  divided  into  17 
distinct  types  based  on  morphological  and  functional  features  of 
the  seedling.  The  most  primitive  type  of  dicotyledonous  seedling  is 
that  characterized  by  the  genus  Polvalthia  (Annonaceae),  herein 
termed  the  "Polyalthia  type",  as  its  seedling  morphology  is  similar 
to  that  found  in  the  seedlings  of  Cvcas  and  Ginkgo  (Pinophyta),  and 
perhaps  similar  to  those  of  the  seed  ferns  (Pteridospermopsida). 
The  "Magnolia  type"  is  evolutionarily  more  advanced.  From  the 
Magnolia  type,  several  different  evolutionary  lines  of  seedling 
development  arose,  with  the  Magnolia  type  evolving  into  different 
seedling  types  throughout  the  Magnoliopsida.  Minor  specialized 
seedling  types  evolved  within  several  of  the  major  lines.  However, 
a  number  of  evolutionary  "dead  ends"  arose  from  the  Polyalthia  type 
which  are  restricted  to  families  of  flowering  plants  belonging  to 
the  Magnoliidae.  Neoteny  has  likely  played  a  major  role  in  the 
developmental  evolution  of  seed  plant  seedlings  from  progymnosperm 
seedling.  The  origin  of  the  Polyalthia  type  from  the  Pinophyta 
(especially  the  seed  ferns  or  Pteridospermopsida)  can  be  explained 
using  neoteny  hypotheses.  Using  the  most  recent  phylogenetic  scheme 
for  the  Magnoliopsida  proposed  by  Cronquist,  the  known  seedling 
types  for  each  family  are  noted. 

IWrR(X)UCnON  llng,    noting   in  particular  the 

relationships  between  the  em- 
Early  in  the  sixteenth  cen-  bryo  and  the  resulting  seed- 
tury,  botanists  began  to  study  ling.  These  early  workers  were 
the  seedlings  of  vascular  struck  with  the  diversity  of 
plants.  Over  the  next  two  seedlings  found  among  the  flo- 
centuries,  studies  characteriz-  wering  plants,  and  particularly 
ed  the  morphological  and  bio-  so  among  the  dicotylendous  mem- 
logical  features  of  the  seed-  bers  (Magnoliophyta,  Magnoliop- 


The  present  paper  was  largely  prepared  in  China.  An  opportun- 
itv  to  visit  the  United  States  from  September  1982  to  September 
1983  allowed  me  to  complete  my  studies  and  prepare  my  remarks  for 
publication.  This  was  done  at  the  Department  of  Botany,  University 
of  Maryland,  College  Park,  MD.  I  wish  to  thank  Dr.  James  A.  Duke, 
Germplasm  Resource  Laboratory,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture, 
Beltsville,  MD,  for  his  comments,  and  Dr.  James  L.  Reveal  of  the 
University  of  Maryland,  for  assisting  me  in  preparing  this  paper 
for  publication.  This  is  Scientific  Article  A3558,  Contribution  No. 
6633  of  the  Maryland  Agriculture  Experiment  Station. 

161 


162 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    5A,    No.    3 


sida).  As  studies  continued 
into  the  nineteenth  century, 
more  exacting  details  were 
learned  and  the  diversity  of 
seedling  types  documented. 
Soon,  systems  of  seedling  clas- 
sification were  proposed  (Klebs 
1885). 

During    the    course    of    the 
present  century,   numerous  stud- 
ies  have   been   conducted   on 
seedlings,    with  the  majority 
concentrating  on  dicotyledonous 
plants  (e.g.,    Bokdom   1977;    Bur- 
ger,    1972;    Duke    1965,     1969 
Grushvitskyi  1963;  Muller  1978 
Vasilezenko  I960;  Vogel  1980 
Zhou    1955).    Only    one    (Vogel 
1980)    has   attempted  to  provide 
a  detailed  scheme  of  classifi- 
cation for  dicotyledonous  seed- 
lings. 

THE  BASES  FOR  THE  CLASSIFICA- 
TION OF  SEEDLING  TYPES 

Seedling  features  critical 
to  their  classification  may  be 
found  as  the  seed  germinates 
and  seedling  growns.  These  fea- 
tures are  mainly  expressed  mor- 
phologically, but  can  be  in- 
fluenced by  their  environment 
or  ecological  requirements.  In 
the  following  section,  germin- 
al, morphological  and  ecologi- 
cal factors  relating  to  the 
classification  of  mainly  di- 
cotyledonous seedlings  are  re- 
viewed. 

I.  Germination  Features 

Seedlings  are  typically  di- 
vided into  two  types,  epigeal 
and  hypogeal.  In  epigeal 
plants,  the  cotyledons  withdraw 
from  the  seed  coat  and  are 
carried  above  the  soil  level  by 
an  elongating  hypocotyl.  At 
this  time  the  cotyledons  are 
exposed  to  light  and  become 
photosynthetic.  In  hypogeal 
plants  the  cotyledons  do  not 
withdraw  from  the  seed  coat, 
and  as  the  hypocotyl  does  not 
elongate,  the  cotyledons  remain 


below  soil  level  and  do  not 
become  photosynthetic.  Actual- 
ly, the  distinction  is  not  so 
simple.  There  is  a  great  deal 
of  diversity  in  each  type,  and 
some  seedlings  cannot  be  easily 
characterized  by  either  condi- 
tion (e.g.,  Rhizophora,  the 
mangrove  seedling). 

II.  Morphological  Features 

Seedling  morphology  is  crit- 
ical to  any  scheme  of  classifi- 
cation of  seedling  types.  None- 
theless, mere  morphology  is,  in 
and  of  itself,  not  the  only 
characters  that  can  be  used. 
Physiological  functions  often 
can  determine  morphology  of 
seedling  structures.  Photosyn- 
thetic cotyledons  are  generally 
thin,  while  cotyledons  with  a 
primary  storage  function  tend 
to  be  thick  and  massive.  The 
elongation  of  the  hypocotyl  — 
an  important  morphological  cha- 
racter —  while  a  genetic  fea- 
ture of  the  species,  in  some 
cases,  is  related  to  ecologic- 
ally factors  associated  with 
the  habitat  (see  below).  If  the 
epicotyl  does  not  elongate,  the 
first  true  leaves  of  the  seed- 
ling are  arranged  in  a  rosette. 
Some  cotyledons  are  morphologi- 
cally similar  to  mature  leaves, 
but  this  is  the  exception.  Most 
cotyledons  are  simple  and  lack 
the  elaborate  venation  patterns 
or  lobing  features  of  mature 
leaves.  Still,  some  cotyledons 
may  be  lobed  while  the  mature 
leaves  are  entire. 

The  embryo  is  the  originator 
of  the  seedling.  If  the  embryo 
occupies  the  whole  seed  and  is 
without  endosperm  or  perisperm, 
the  seed  is  said  to  be  exalbum- 
inous.  If  the  embryo  does  not 
occupy  the  whole  of  the  seed 
because  of  the  presence  of 
endosperm  or  perisperm,  the 
seed  is  said  to  be  albuminous. 
The  presence  or  absence  of 
these  nutritive  substances  can 
determine  the  function  of  coty- 


1983 


Ye,  Seedling  types 


163 


ledon  of  the  seedling  and  thus 
classification  of  the  seedling 
into  specific  types.  Further- 
more, the  size  of  the  embryo 
influences  the  seedling  type. 
Large  seeds  often  have  thick, 
food  storing  cotyledons  or  hy- 
pocotyls,  or  have  massive  a- 
mounts  of  endosperm.  Such 
plants  often  belong  to  the 
hypogeal   types. 

The  endosperm  or  perisperm 
are  technically  not  part  of  the 
seedling.  Yet  their  presence 
affects  the  function  of  the 
parts  of  the  seedling.  In  exal- 
buminous  seeds,  the  cotyledons 
do  not  have  any  absorptive 
function.  Exalbuminous  seeds 
that  are  photosynthetic  are 
always  epigeal,  while  those 
that  have  a  storage  function 
are  always  hypogeal.  In  albumi- 
nous seeds,  on  the  other  hand, 
the  cotyledons  always  have  an 
absorptive  function  no  matter 
if  they  are  epigeal  or  hypo- 
geal. In  albuminous  seeds  which 
are  epigeal,  however,  the  coty- 
ledons will  be  photosynthetic 
once  they  are  exposed  to  light, 
while  the  cotyledons  of  a  hypo- 
geal seedling  remains  absorp- 
tive. 

The  fruit  wall  and  testa  are 
not  part  of  the  seedling,  but 
whether  or  not  the  fruit  wall 
or  testa  persists  around  the 
cotyledons  is  a  character  that 
can  be  used  in  the  classifica- 
tion of  seedling  types. 

III.  Ecological  Features 

The  ecological  conditions  of 
a  given  habitat  can  determine 
the  general  kinds  of  seedlings 
present.  On  the  floors  of  trop- 
ical rain  forests  where  the 
rays  of  the  sun  rarely  penetr- 
ate, the  epigeal  types  of  seed- 
lings with  their  photosynthetic 
requires  are  scarce.  Here  the 
hypogeal  types  whose  cotyledons 
have  the  storage  function  are 
common.  In  the  grasslands,   how- 


ever, epigeal  seedlings  types 
are  often  the  only  kinds  found. 
Some  ecological  setting  have 
unusual  seedlings.  The  seacoast 
mangrove  forests  are  character- 
ized by  a  special  viviparied 
seedling  type,  whereas  parasi- 
tic plants,  such  as  Cuscuta, 
have  a  simplistic  seedling  type 
unique  to  many  parasitic 
plants. 

The  above  characteristics 
are  not  equally  important.  Some 
may  be  important  for  only  a 
single  seedling  type.  Great 
stress  has  been  placed  on  the 
function  of  the  morphological 
features  in  this  system  of 
seedling  classification.  The 
morphology  and  function  of  a 
plant  are  not  isolated  but 
coincide  with  each  other.  In 
short,  function  determines  mor- 
phology and  morphology  embodies 
function. 

A  CLASSIFICATION  SCHEME  FOR  THE 
SEEDLINGS  OF  MAGNOLIOPSIDA 

The  proposed  new  classifica- 
tion of  dicotyledonous  seed- 
lings is  based  on  my  research 
in  the  field  and  laboratory 
using  many  species  native  to 
the  People's  Republic  of  China, 
as  well  as  those  which  have 
been  introduced  into  my  native 
country.  In  addition,  I  have 
consulted  a  large  body  of  li- 
terature (see  the  literature 
cited  section  below)  which  has 
concentrated  on  the  study  of 
seedling  types  in  both  the 
temperate  and  tropical  regions 
of  the  world.  I  have  concen- 
trated mainly  on  the  works 
published  in  English,  German 
and  Russian  as  well  as  a  few 
studies  published  to  date  in 
Chinese. 

The  following  system  tends 
to  stress  functional  features 
and  not  merely  morphological 
ones.  The  proposed  system  is 
somewhat  similar  to  that  pub- 
lished by  Vogel  (1980).  In  the 


164 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


appendix,  I  have  attempted  to 
show  the  areas  of  agreement  and 
disagreement  in  the  two  systems 
by  providing  a  summary  of  the 
seedling  types  in  those  fami- 
lies of  dicotyledonous  plants 
recognized  by  Cronquist  (1981). 
Vogel  tended  to  stress  seedling 
development  stages  and  their 
respective  morphologies.  This 
works  well  when  one  has  seeds 
in  hand  and  is  able  to  follow 
the  development  of  the  seed- 
ling. With  the  growing  need  to 
identify  seedlings,  especially 
for  agricultural  purposes,  it 
is  equally  important  to  be  able 
to  recognize  seedlings  "in  the 
field".  Therefore,  I  have  given 
less  emphasis  to  developmental 
stages  than  Vogel. In  my  opin- 
ion, knowledge  of  the  general 
habitat  can  often  allow  one  to 
determine  the  functions  associ- 
ated with  the  various  structur- 
es of  the  seedling.  Thus,  the 
combination  of  function  and 
morphology  makes  for  excellent 
"field"  characters  in  classify- 
ing types  of  seedlings. 

Some  efforts,  such  as  that 
by  Muller  (1978)  who  wrote  keys 
to  individual  species,  work 
well  for  geographically  limited 
regions  of  the  world  —  especi- 
ally the  temperate  portions  of 
the  world.  In  the  tropics, 
however,  such  an  effort  is  at 
yet  imncc3j.ble  although  Duke 
(196i,  1969)  and  Burger  (1972) 
have  presented  studies  showing 
the  kinds  of  efforts  that  can 
be  made  for  certain  groups  of 
tropical   species. 

My  effort  is  to  provide  a 
set  of  general  features  which 
may  be  used  to  define  groups  of 
seedlings.  At  this  stage,  this 
will  be  an  aid  in  the  study  of 
the  phylogeny  of  the  Magnoliop- 
sida.  In  time,  I  hope,  this 
system  of  seedling  classifica- 
tion will  become  more  sophisti- 
cated and  will  be  able  to  more 
exactly  define  evolutionary 
units  within  the  dicotyledonous 


plants.  Finally,  with  time,  it 
is  hoped  that  a  system  of  clas- 
sifj cation  can  be  developed  for 
all  dicotyledonous  plants  no 
matter  the  species  or  where,  in 
the  world,   the  plant  is  found. 

A  total  of  17  seedling  types 
are  recognized  in  the  present 
paper.  Vogel  (1980)  recognized 
a  total  of  16  seedling  types, 
with  a  number  of  subdivisions 
within  some  types.  Our  defini- 
tions of  seedling  types  do  not 
always  overlap  and  a  summary 
table  of  our  similarities  and 
differences  is  presented  below. 

1.  Polyalthia  Type  (fig.  1) 
The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
copious  endosperm  and  the  em- 
bryo is  very  small.  During 
germination  the  cotyledonary 
petioles  elongate  first;  they 
push  out  the  radicle,  hypocotyl 
and  plumule  from  the  testa.  The 
radicle  emerges  and  develops 
into  a  sturdy  root  system, 
while  the  hypocotyl  fails  to 
elongate  and  remains  subterra- 
nean. The  cotyledons  have  an 
absorptive  function,  remain 
embedded  in  the  testa,  and 
absorb  the  nutrients  from  the 
endosperm.  Both  the  fruit  wall 
and  the  testa,  or  only  the 
testa,  remain  persistent  around 
the  cotyledons.  The  fruit  wall 
and  the  testa  are  shed  with  the 
cotyledons.  The  epicotyl  and 
plumule  grow  upward  and  elon- 
gate into  a  shoot.  Leaves  may 
be  spirally  arranged,  or  the 
first  two  may  be  opposite.  All 
leaves  may  be  fully  developed 
at  the  seedling  stage,  or  the 
lowest  ones  may  be  scale-like. 

The  Polyalthia  type  of  seed- 
ling is  characteristic  of  a 
portion  of  the  Annonaceae,  and 
is  the  only  known  type  in  the 
Myristicaceae,  both  members  of 
the  Magnoliales.  It  is  found, 
with  the  Magnolia  type,  in  the 
Aristolochiaceae.  Paeoniaceae 
only  has  this  type  of  seedling. 
The  Polyalthia  type  is  rare  in 


1983 


Ye,    Seedling  types 


165 


the  more  advanced  families, 
being  otherwise  found  only  in 
Euphorbiaceae. 

2.  Euryale  Type  (fig.  2) 

The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
copious  endopserm  and  the  em- 
bryo is  very  small.  During 
germination  the  epicotyl  elon- 
gates and  the  plumule  develops 
and  breaks  out  of  the  testa  at 
the  apex  of  the  seed.  The  coty- 
ledons, however,  reniain  in  the 
testa  where  they  serve  as  a 
haustorium  which  absorbs  the 
nutrients  from  the  endosperm. 
The  cataphylla  are  lanceolate 
or  sagittate.  There  is  a  trans- 
ition from  the  narrow  cataphyl- 
la to  true  leaves  which  takean 
orbicular  form.  The  radicle  and 
hypocotyl  are  abortive,  and  at 
the  apex  of  the  epicotyl  are 
enormous  adventive  roots  which 
form  the  root  system  of  the 
seedling. 

The  Euryale  type  is  typical 
of  hydric  species.  It  likely 
evolved  from  the  Polyalthia 
type.  This  type  is  rare  and 
specialized,  being  recorded  so 
far  only  from  the  Nymphaeaceae. 

3.  Mezzetiopsis  Type  (fig.  3) 
The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
copious  endosperm  and  the  em- 
bryo is  small.  During  germina- 
tion the  radicle  is  pushed  out 
from  the  testa  and  grows  down- 
ward developing  the  root  sys- 
tem. The  hypocotyl  elongates 
and  is  either  curved  in  a  loop 
above  the  ground  or  is  erect 
and  carries  the  cotyledons, 
enclosed  in  the  testa,  above 
the  soil.  The  cotyledons  have 
an  haustorial  function  and  ab- 
sorb the  nutrients  from  the 
endosperm.  The  cotyledons  re- 
main in  the  testa  and  attached 
to  the  top  of  the  hypocotyl, 
and  thereby  block  the  develop- 
ment of  the  epicotyl  and  plum- 
ule. In  this  condition  the 
seedling  enters  a  resting  stage 
during  which  the  nutrients  of 
the   endosperm,  are   transfered 


into  the  hypocotyl  whicl-i  becom- 
es rather  sturdy.  The  cotyle- 
dons and  testa  are  shed  toget- 
her and  then  the  plumule  deve- 
lops into  a  shoot.  Only  rarely 
does  the  plumule  start  to  deve- 
lop before  the  cotyledons  and 
testa  are  lost. 

This  type  of  seedling  is 
common  in  Annonaceae.  It  is 
otherwise  infrequent  and  rather 
scattered  (e.g.  Menispermaceae, 
Euphorbiaceae,  Rubiaceae)  in 
the  Magnoliopsida. 

M.  Magnolia  Type  (fig.  4) 
The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
copious  endosperm  and  the  em- 
bryo is  small.  The  cotyledons 
have  both  the  absorptive  and 
photosynthetic  functions.  Dur- 
ing germination  the  radicle 
breaks  out  of  the  testa  and 
grows  downward  developing  into 
the  root  system.  At  the  same 
time  the  hypocotyl  elongates 
and  brings  the  cotyledons  to  a 
position  above  the  soil  level. 
At  first,  while  the  cotyledons 
are  still  underground,  they 
have  an  absorptive  function 
taking  nutrients  from  the  endo- 
sperm. However,  upon  reaching 
the  soil  level,  the  cotyledons 
withdraw  from  the  testa,  un- 
fold, expand,  and  when  exposed 
to  light  take  on  a  photosynthe- 
tic function.  The  epicotyl  and 
plumule  develop  into  a  shoot. 
In  most  instances,  the  first 
few  leaves  are  well  developed 
and  spirally  arranged.  Occa- 
sionally the  first  two  leaves 
are  opposite. 

The  Magnolia  type  is  the 
most  common  in  the  Magnoliop- 
sida. More  than  half  of  the 
dicotyledonous  plant  families 
have  this  type  of  seedling,  at 
least  in  part.  The  Magnolia 
type  is  the  only  type  found  in 
such  less  advanced  families  as 
Magnoliaceae,  Illiciaceae,  De- 
generaceae  and  Monimiaceae. 
Likewise,  it  is  the  only  type 
is  such  more  advanced   families 


166 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  5A,  No.  3 


Fig.  1.  Polyalthia  type 

Polyalthia  cerasoides  (Roxb.) 

Benth.  et  Hook,  f .  ex  Bedd. 

(Aniionaceae) 


Fig.   3.  I4ezzettiopsis  type 

Mezzettiopsis  creaghii  Ridl . 
(Annonaceae) 


Fig.  2.  Eurale  type 

Eurale  ferox  Salisb, 
(Nymphaeaceae) 


Fig.  4.  Magnolia  type 

Magnolia  denudata  Desr. 
(Magnoliaceae) 


1983 


Ye,    Seedling   types 


167 


as  Convolulaceae,  Scrophulari- 
aceae,  Gesneriaceae,  Campanul- 
aceae,  Caprifoliaceae  and  Dip- 
sacaceae. 

5.  Peperomia  Type  (fig.  5) 

The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
copious  endosperm  and  the  em- 
bryo is  very  small.  During 
germination  the  cotyledonary 
petioles  elongate  and  push  the 
hypocotyl  and  radicle  from  the 
testa.  The  radicle  grows  down- 
ward and  forms  a  tap  root.  The 
hypocotyl  does  not  elongate  but 
remains  subterranean.  One  of 
the  cotyledonary  petioles  con- 
tinues to  elongate,  withdraws 
the  cotyledonary  blade  from  the 
testa,  grows  upwardly  and  ex- 
poses the  blade  to  light  where- 
upon it  assumes  a  photosynthe- 
tic  function.  The  other  cotyle- 
don reniains  in  the  testa  below 
the  soil  level  and  absorbs  the 
nutrients   from  the  endosperm. 

The  Peperomia  type  has  only 
been  recorded  from  species  of 
Peperomia  (Piperaceae). 

6.  Cyclamen  Type  (fig.  6) 

The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
abundant  endosperm  and  the  em- 
bryo is  small.  During  germina- 
tion the  radicle  breaks  out  of 
the  testa  first,  grows  downward 
and  forms  a  taproot.  The  hypo- 
cotyl does  not  elongate  but 
remains  subterranean  where  it 
becomes  swollen  and  tuberlike 
taking  on  a  food  storing  func- 
tion. The  cotyledons  do  not 
develop  well,  are  generally 
scale-like,  and  m.ay  even  abort. 
The  epicotyl  often  does  not 
develop  and  even  it  will  abort. 
The  plumule  produces  only  a 
single  leaf  with  a  long  petiole 
during  the  seedling  stage.  When 
subsequent  leaves  do  emerge, 
the  internodes  do  not  elongate 
and  the  leaves  are  often  ar- 
ranged   in  a  rosette. 

The  Cyclamen  type  is  known 
only  in  herbaceous  dicotyledon- 
ous   plants    of    temperate    and 


cold  regions.  To  date,  it  has 
been  found  in  Anemone  (Ranun- 
culaceae),  Corvdalis  (Fumari- 
aceae),  and  Cyclamen  (Primul- 
aceae) . 

It  should  be  noted  that  the 
reports  of  a  "monocotyledonous" 
embryo  for  Cyclamen  (Cronquist 
198I)  are  without  foundation 
(see   Vogel    I98O). 

7.  Sterculia  type  (fig.  7) 

The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
copious  endosperm  and  a  large, 
thin  embryo.  During  germination 
the  radicle  emerges  first  and 
grows  downward  forming  the  root 
system'.  The  hypocotyl  elongates 
and  extends  the  cotyledons  a- 
bove  the  soil  level.  At  first 
the  endosperm  surrounds  the 
cotyledons  and  the  cotyledons 
are  absorptive,  but  as  the 
cotyledons  separate,  the  endo- 
sperm adhers  to  the  undersur- 
face  of  each  of  the  cotyledon 
blades  forming  a  compound 
structure  which  does  not  separ- 
ate until  shedding.  Once  the 
cotyledons  are  exposed  to 
light,  they  have  a  photosynthe- 
tic  function.  The  epicotyl  and 
the  plumule  develop  into  a 
shoot.  The  first  two  leaves  are 
always  opposite,  and  the  subse- 
quent leaves  are  spirally  ar- 
ranged . 

The  Sterculia  type  is  rare 
and  has  been  recorded  only  in 
Sterculia  (Sterculiaceae).  This 
type  is  probably  a  specializa- 
tion of  the  Mezzettiopsis  type. 

8.  Cinnamoimim  Type  (fig.  8) 
The  mature  seed  is  exalbuminous 
and  the  embryo  is  large  and 
occupies  the  whole  of  the  seed. 
During  germination  the  radicle 
emerges  first,  grows  downward 
and  develops  a  sturdy  taproot 
system.  The  hypocotyl  does  not 
elongate  and  remains  subterran- 
ean. Only  rarely  does  it  elon- 
gate and  carry  the  cotyledons 
above  the  soil  level.  The  mas- 
sive cotyledons  are  enclosed  in 


168 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  Ho.  3 


Fig .  5 .  Pepercmia  type 

Peperomia  peruviana  Dahlst. 
(Piperaceae) 
(after  Hill  1906) 


Fig.  6.  Cyclamen  type 

a.  Anemone  nemerosa  L. 
(Ranunculaceae) 
b.  Cyclamen  persicum  Mill. 
(Primulaceae  -  after  Csapody  1968) 


Fig .  7 .  Sterculia  type 

Sterculia  lanceolata  Cav. 
(Sterculiaceae) 


Fig.  8.  Cinnanonum  type 


Cirmamomum  camphora  (L.)  Presl 
(Lauraceae) 


1983 


Ye,    Seedling   types 


169 


the  testa  and  have  a  food  stor- 
age function.  The  epicotyl  and 
plumule  emerge  opposite  the 
root  and  gradually  develop  into 
a  shoot.  At  first  only  spirally 
arranged,  scale-like  leaves  are 
seen.  Gradually,  these  give  way 
to  normal  leaf  development. 

The  Cinnamomum  type  is  com- 
mon among  families  of  woody 
Magnoliopsida  with  exalbuminous 
seeds  bearing  large  embryos  and 
m.assive  cotyledons.  Seedlings 
of  this  type  may  be  seen  in 
Lauraceae,  Fagaceae,  Jugland- 
aceae,  Bombacaceae,  Connarac- 
eae,  Mimosaceae,  Caesalpiniac- 
eae,  Rosaceae,  Combretaceae, 
Sapindaceae,  Burseraceae,  Ana- 
cardiaceae,  Simaroubaceae,  and 
Bignoniaceae.  In  a  strict  sense 
only  Lauraceae  belongs  to  the 
CinnamoTium  type.  As  noted  below 
in  the  discussion  of  the  Chi- 
monanthus  type,  the  seedlings 
of  the  others  families  referred 
to  the  Cinnamomum  type  (which 
diagnostically  cannot  be  dis- 
tinguished from  those  in  the 
Lauraceae)  probably  evolved 
secondarily  from  the  Chimonan- 
thus  type. 

9.  Ceratophyllum  Type  (fig.  9) 
This  type  of  seedling  is  a 
specialized  hydric  form.  Its 
essential  characteristics  are 
the  aborted  radicle,  the  poorly 
developed  (or  even  aborted) 
hypocotyl,  and  the  exalbuminous 
seeds.   There  are  two  subtypes. 

9a.   Ceratophyllun  Subtype  (fig. 

9a) 
The  mature  seed  is  exalbuminous 
and  has  a  small  but  well  deve- 
loped embryo  (Ceratophyllaceae) 
or  one  that  is  scarcely  differ- 
entiated into  parts  (Urticul- 
aria).  During  germination  the 
cotyledons  break  out  of  the 
testa,  grow  upward,  and  while 
still  under  the  water,  take 
only  a  photosynthetic  function 
when  exposed  to  light.  The 
plumule  develops  into  a  shoot. 
Its  leaves  are  linear,  with  the 


first  pair  always  inserted  into 
the  node  of  the  cotyledons;  the 
remaining  leaves  are  whorled. 
The  radicle  is  aborted,  and  no 
adventitious  roots  are  formed. 

The  Ceratophyllum  type  is 
reported  only  in  Ceratophyllac- 
eae and  in  the  genus  Urticular- 
ia  (Lentibulariaceae). 

9b.  Nelumbo  Subtype,  (fig.  9b) 
The  mature  seed  is  exalbuminous 
and  a  large,  even  edible  em- 
bryo. During  germination  the 
epicotyl  and  plumule  break  out 
and  form  a  shoot.  The  shoot's 
first  leaves,  which  have  long 
petioles,  are  simple  and  pass 
gradually  into  normally  deve- 
loped leaves.  The  cotyledons 
have  a  food  storage  function, 
are  massive,  and  are  adnate  to 
each  other  at  the  base.  The 
radicle  and  hypocotyl  both  a- 
bort  and  at  the  node  of  the 
stem,  many  adventitious  roots 
are  formed. 

The  Nelumbo  subtype  is  known 
only  in  Nelumbo  (Nelumbonac- 
eae) . 

These  subtypes  are  special- 
ized seedling  types  and  are  not 
evolutionarily  significant.  It 
is  important  to  note,  however, 
that  the  seedling  development 
of  Nelumbonaceae  is  different 
from  that  found  in  the  closely 
related  Nymphaeaceae  where  Ne- 
lumbo and  its  related  genera 
are  sometimes  referred. 

10.  Chimonanthus  Type  (fig.  10) 
The  mature  seed  is  exalbuminous 
but  with  embryo  is  of  various 
sizes.  During  germiantion  the 
radicle  breaks  out  of  the  tes- 
ta, grows  downward  and  develops 
into  a  root  system.  The  elonga- 
ting hypocotyl  withdraws  the 
cotyledons  from  the  testa  and 
lifts  them  above  the  soil 
level.  Subsequently,  the  coty- 
ledons unfold  ana  assume  a 
photosynthetic  function.  The 
epicotyl  may  or  may  not  deve- 


170 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  5A,  No.  3 


Fig.  9.  Ceratophyllum  type 


b.  Nelun±)0  subtype 

Nelumbo  nucifera  Gaertn. 
(Ne lumbonaceae ) 


a.  Ceratophyllijm  subtype 

Ceratophyllum  demersum  L. 
(Ceratophy 1 laceae) 


Fig.  10.  ChiniDnanthus  type 

Chimonanthus  praecox  (L.)  Link 
(Calycanthaceae) 


Fig.  11.  Sophora  type 

Sophora  japonica  L. 
(Fabaceae) 


1983 


Ye,    Seedling   types 


171 


lop.  The  plumule  develops  into 
a  shoot  and  its  first  leaves 
generally  are  well  developed 
and  arranged  spirally  or  oppo- 
site. 

The  Chirnonanthus  type,  named 
for  the  genus  Chirnonanthus  of 
the  Calycanthaceae,  is  essenti- 
ally the  same  as  the  Macaranga 
type  proposed  by  Vogel.  Unfort- 
unately, he  placed  both  albume- 
nous  and  exalbuminous  members 
in  his  type.  The  Chimonanthus 
type  does  resemble  the  Magnolia 
type,  where  Vogel  placed  of  his 
Macaranga  type  families,  but 
the  Chimonanthus  is  here  defin- 
ed as  those  families  in  which 
the  seeds  are  always  exalbumin- 
ous. 

This  is  a  common  seedling 
type  in  both  herbaceous  and 
woody  members  of  Magnoliopsida 
being  found  with  equal  frequen- 
cy in  the  more  primitive  and 
more  advance  families.  Like  the 
Magnolia  type^  this  seedling 
type  is  exceedingly  common  and 
widespread  in  the  Magnoliop- 
sida. The  Chimonanthus  type 
likely  gave  rise  to  the  derriv- 
ed  Cinnamomum  type  as  noted 
above.  The  two  differ  in  that 
the  Chimonanthus  type  seedlings 
are  epigeal  with  thin,  photo- 
synthetic  cotyledons,  while  the 
seedlings  of  the  Cinnamomum 
type  are  hypogeal  with  massive, 
non-photosynthetic  cotyledons. 
An  examination  of  recent  phylo- 
genetic  systems  of  classifica- 
tion for  the  Magnoliopsida  (Be- 
dell &  Reveal  1983)  shows  that 
these  two  conditions  occur  in 
overlapping  families.  It  is 
likely  that  in  most  of  the 
advanced  dicotyledonous  farriil- 
ies,  the  Cinnamomum  type  secon- 
darily evolved  from  the  Chimon- 
anthus type. 

11.  Sophora  Type  (fig.  11) 
The  mature  seed  is  exalbuminous 
and  the  embryo  is  fairly  large. 
During  germination   the   radicle 
breaks    out    of    the    testa    and 


grows  downward  forming  a  sturdy 
taproot.  The  cotyledons  are 
fleshy  and  even  massive  due  to 
their  food  storing  function, 
yet  the  hypocotyl  elongates  and 
brings  the  cotyledons  to  or 
above  the  soil  level.  Once 
exposed  to  light,  the  cotyle- 
dons assume  a  photosynthetic 
function.  Shortly  thereafter, 
the  cotyledons  are  shed.  When 
the  epicotyl  and  plumule  deve- 
lop into  a  shoot,  its  first  two 
leaves  are  always  opposite 
while  the  subsequent  leaves  are 
arranged  spirally  or  are  oppo- 
site. 

The  Sophora  type  is  derived 
from  the  Chimonanthus  type, 
differing  only  in  the  massive 
nature  of  the  cotyledons.  This 
seedling  type  is  found  in  the 
Rosaceae,  Fabaceae,  Diptero- 
carpaceae,  Anacardiaceae  Meli- 
aceae  among  other  families. 

12.  Ternstroemia  Type  (fig.  12) 
The  mature  seed  is  exalbuminous 
and  a  large  embryo.  During 
germination  the  seed  splits 
along  the  margin  and  the  hypo- 
cotyl emerges.  The  radicle 
grows  downward  and  develops 
into  a  root  system.  The  erect 
hypocotyl  is  fusiform  and  has  a 
food  storage  function.  The  two 
cotyledons  are  either  small  and 
scale-like  or  lacking  entirely. 
When  the  plumule  develops  into 
a  shoot,  the  first  leaves  are 
always  scale-like,  but  the  next 
ones  are  fully  developed.  The 
leaves  are  spirally  arranged  or 
the  lower  two  may  be  opposite. 

The  Ternstromia  type  is  der- 
rived  from  the  Chimonanthus 
type,  differing  in  its  reduced 
or  abortive  cotyledons  and 
swollen  hypocotyl.  This  type  is 
known  only  from  the  Lecythid- 
aceae  and  the  Ternstromiaceae 
(included  in  the  Theaceae  by 
Cronquist  1981). 

13.  Garcinia  Type  (fig.  13) 
The  mature  seed  is  exalbuminous 


172 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  3 


Fig.  12.  Temstroemia  type 


Fig .  13 .  Gar cinia  type 


Terns tromia  elongata  (Korth.)  Koord   Garcinia  oligantha  Merr. 
(Theaceae  -  after  Vogel  1980)  (Clusiaceae) 


Fig.  14.  Rhizophora  type 
a.  Rhizophora  subtype  b.  Sechium  subtype 

Bruguiera  sexangula  (Lour.)  Poir.       Sechium  edule  Sw. 


(Rhizophoraceae ) 


(Cucurbitaceae ) 


1983 


Ye,    Seedling  types 


173 


and  the  embryo  is  mostly  large. 
During  germination  either  the 
radicle  breaks  out  of  the  testa 
and  grows  downward  and  develops 
into  a  sturdy  root  system,  or 
the  primary  root  does  not  deve- 
lop fully  or  fails  to  develop 
altogether.  If  the  primary  root 
fails,  an  accessory  root  can 
develop  at  the  junction  between 
the  epicotyl  and  the  hypocotyl 
which  will  replace  the  primary 
root.  The  hypocotyl  is  a  mas- 
sive, swol len  body  with  a  food 
storing  function.  It  completely 
fills  the  testa  which  remains 
persistent  until  long  after 
germination.  The  cotyledons  are 
rudimentary  or  absent  due  to 
abortion.  The  epicotyl  and  plu- 
mule develop  into  a  seedling 
shoot.  Its  first  leaves  are 
always  scale-like  and  spirally 
arranged  or  opposite.  Such 
first  leaves  gradually  pass 
into  normal  leaves. 

The  Garcinia  type  of  seed- 
ling is  rare.  It  has  been  re- 
ported only  in  the  tropical 
genus  Garcinia  (Clusiaceae)  and 
in  Barringtonia  (Lecythidac- 
eae) . 

14.  Rhizophora  Type  (fig.  14) 
The  essential  characteristics 
of  this  type  is  the  vivipary 
which  is  the  result  of  special- 
ized ecological  conditions.  Two 
subtypes  can  be  distinguished. 

14a.   Rhizophora  Subtype  (fig. 

14a) 
The  mature  seed  is  albuminous 
and  the  embryo  often  large  and 
green.  During  germination  the 
hypocotyl  (with  the  radicle) 
breaks  out  of  the  testa  and 
fruit  wall  of  the  young  fruit 
and  grows  downward,  developing 
into  a  large  fusiform  body 
which  slowly  enlarges  and  ac- 
cumulates food.  The  cotyledons 
are  reduced;  they  have  an  ab- 
sorptive function  and  serve  to 
pass  nutrients  (including  salt) 
from  the  parent  plant  to  the 
growing  seedling  before   it  de- 


taches. When  the  fruit  is  ma- 
ture (defined  as  when  the  coty- 
ledons are  detached  or  the 
fruit  petiole  is  broken),  the 
seedling  drops  from  the  parent 
plant.  The  seedling,  depending 
on  the  weight  of  the  hypocotyl 
(and  the  depth  of  the  water 
under  the  tree)  may  either 
plant  itself  in  the  mud  or  fall 
into  the  water,  drift  ashore, 
and  quickly  develop  a  sturdy 
root  system.  Only  at  this  time 
does  the  epicotyl  and  plumule 
emerge  and  develop  a  shoot.  All 
the  leaves  are  decussate,  and 
the  lowest  pair  are  always 
scale-like. 

The  Rhizophora  Subtype  has 
been  recorded  from  the  mangrove 
genera  of  Rhizophoraceae,  in 
Avicenia  (Verbenaceae),  and  in 
Aegiceras  (Myrsinaceae).  Like 
other  types  of  seedling  associ- 
ated with  aquatic  habitats, 
this  subtype  is  a  highly  speci- 
alized modification  and  is  of 
no  particular  phylogenetic  sig- 
nificance. 

14b.  Sechium  Subtype  (fig.  14b) 
The  mature  seed  is  exalbuminous 
and  the  embryo  is  large.  During 
germination  the  cotyledons  en- 
large and  break  out  of  the 
testa  from  one  side,  attaching 
directly  onto  the  fleshy  fruit 
wall  and  absorbs  nutrients  from 
the  young  fruit.  Subsequently, 
the  cotylendons  rapidly  enlarge 
2-3  times  their  previous  size, 
and  push  the  immature  radicle 
and  hypocotyl  out  of  the  fruit, 
but  these  structures  do  not 
develop  further.  The  epicotyl 
and  plumule  elongate  and  deve- 
lop into  a  seedling  shoot  with- 
out tendrils.  The  first  leaves 
are  scale-like,  but  subsequent 
leaves  gradually  develop  into 
normal,  spirally  arranged 
leaves.  The  seedling  remains  in 
this  condition  until  the  the 
parental  plant  dies.  Upon  its 
death,  the  vivparious  seedlings 
fall  to  the  ground. 


174 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  3 


The  Sechium  Subtype  is  known 
only  from  a  monotype  genus, 
Sechium  (Cucurbitaceae),  native 
to  tropical  South  America.  The 
edible  fruit  of  S^  edule  Swartz 
contains  one  enormous  seed. 

15.  Loranthus  Type  (fig.  15) 
The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
copious  endosperm  and  a  small 
embryo.  During  germination  the 
hypocotyl  and  radicle  (which 
cannot  be  readily  differentiat- 
ed) jointly  break  out  of  the 
fruit  wall  and  form  a  short 
column.  Shortly  thereafter  the 
end  of  the  column  enlarges  and 
forms  a  haustorial  disk  covered 
with  a  glutinous  substance.  The 
cotyledons,  which  have  an  ab- 
sorptive function,  remain  in 
the  seed  and  absorb  the  nutri- 
ents from  the  endosperm.  In 
some,  the  cotyledons  will  with- 
draw from  the  fruit  wall,  but 
have  no  significant  photosyn- 
thetic  function.  If  the  seed- 
ling germinates  on  a  suitable 
host,  the  haustorial  disk  will 
attach  itself  to  the  host  and 
grow  into  its  tissue.  The  plu- 
mule will  then  develop  into  a 
seedling  shoot  and  eventual 
produce  normal  leaves.  The  re- 
sulting plant  is  hemiparasitic 
as  the  mature  plant  is  fully 
photosynthetic. 

The  Loranthus  type  is  re- 
stricted to  representative, 
hemiparasitic  genera  of  Loran- 
thaceae  and  Viscaceae. 

16,  Pyrola  Type  (fig.  16) 

The  mature  seeds  is  filled  with 
copious  endosperm  and  a  small 
embryo.  During  germination  the 
radicle  breaks  out  of  the  tes- 
ta, grows  downward,  and  deve- 
lops into  a  taproot.  The  hypo- 
cotyl and  the  cotyledons  abort, 
or  occasionally  the  hypocotyl 
elongates  and  brings  the  coty- 
ledons above  the  soil  level. 
The  plumule  aborts  and  adventi- 
tious buds  form  the  seedling 
shoots . 


The  Pyrola  type  is  known 
only  from  Pvrola  (Pyrolaceae) 
and  some  genera  belonging  to 
the  Gesneriaceae. 

17.  Orobanche  Type  (fig.  17) 
The  mature  seed  is  filled  with 
copious  endosperm  and  a  very 
small,  essentially  undifferent- 
iated embryo.  During  germina- 
tion a  slender,  unbranched  axis 
develops,  yet  there  is  not  dif- 
ferentiation between  the  radic- 
le and  the  hypocotyl.  Before 
contact  with  a  host,  the  axis 
elongates,  and  when  contact  is 
made,  a  haustorial  disk  is  form 
at  the  point  of  contact  which 
pierces  the  epidermis  of  the 
host  plant  and  fuses  with  its 
tissue.  A  paratic  life  thus  is 
established. 

The  Orobanche  type  is  unlike 
any  normal  type  of  seedling 
development.  As  such  it  is  of 
no  particular  phylogenetic  sig- 
nificance. It  is  reported  in 
Orobanche  (Orobanchaceae)  but 
should  be  expected  in  other 
genera  of  the  family  as  well, 
the  monotypic  Cuscutaceae,  and 
perhaps  some  species  of  Balano- 
phoraceae  and  Pyrolaceae  (not- 
ably the  genus  Moneses). 

ORIGIN   AND    EVOLUTION   OF   THE 
SEEDLING  CONDITION 

Seedlings  were  long  divided 
into  two  types,  epigeal  and 
hypogeal.  Little  agreement  has 
been  reached  as  to  which  of 
these  two  conditions  was  the 
most  primitive.  Vasilezenko 
(19^6)  stated  with  certainty 
that  the  hypogeal  condition  was 
the  more  primitive.  This  con- 
tradicted the  earlier  conclu- 
sion of  Compton  (1912)  and 
Takhtajan  (1948)  that  the  epi- 
geal condition  was  the  less 
advanced  of  the  two. 

Vasilizenko  argued  that  the 
hypogeal  type  was  found  among 
the  primitive  families  of  seed 
plants,    notably  Cycadaceae  and 


1983 


Ye,  Seedling  types 


175 


Fig.  15.  Loranthus  type         Fig.  16.  Pyrola  type 

Loranthus  parasiticus  (L.)  Merr.  iiDnophyllaea  horsfieldii  R.Br. 
(Loranthaceae)  (Pyrolaceae) 

(see  Serebriakov  1952) 


Fig.  17.  Orobanche  type 

a.  Cuscuta  chinensis  Lam. 

(Cuscutaceae) 

b.  Orobanche  minor  Sutton 

(Or obanchaceae ) 
(after  Caspody  1968) 


Fig.  18.  The  seedling  of  a 
pteridosperm 

(after  Chamberlain  1935) 


176 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    5A,    No.    3 


Ginkgoaceae,  and  that  in  the 
Magnoliopsida,  the  hypogeal 
condition  was  more  predominant 
among  the  polypetalous  angio- 
sperms  than  the  more  advanced 
gamopetalous  members.  Grushv it- 
ski  (1963)  felt  that  of  the  two 
major  hypogeal  conditions,  the 
cotyleon  type  with  an  absorp- 
tive function  was  more  primi- 
tive than  that  with  a  storage 
function.  Compton  (1912)  and 
Takhtajan  (1948)  argued  that 
the  epigeal  condition  is  more 
primitive  because  in  those  fam- 
ilies of  flowering  plants  with 
both  seedling  conditions,  epi- 
geal seedlings  are  found  in  the 
less  advanced  members  while 
hypogeal  seedlings  are  found  in 
the  more  advanced  members  of 
the  same  family.  Hill  and  De 
Fraine  (1913)  and  Grushvitski 
argued  that  the  epigeal  condi- 
tion was  more  primitive  because 
the  epidermis  of  the  cotyledons 
of  the  hypogeal  type  (which  are 
located  underground)  have  sto- 
mata,  and  therefore  must  have 
evolved  from  a  cotyledon  type 
that  had  stomata.  In  short,  the 
exposed  epigeal  condition  gave 
rise  to  the  hidden  hypogeal 
type. 

In  part,  the  problem  of 
which  is  the  most  primitive 
type  is  clouded  by  the  superfi- 
cial division  of  all  seedlings 
into  two  type.  Such  a  classifi- 
cation is  based  on  an  outward 
phenomenon  —  whether  during 
germination  the  cotyledons  are 
above  or  below  the  soil  —  and 
fails  to  scrutinize  other  crit- 
ical morphological  and  physio- 
logical features  of  the  seed- 
ling. The  attempts  to  divide 
seedlings  into  finer  classifi- 
catory  groupings,  such  as  pro- 
posed here,  should  permit  a 
more  exact  resolution  of  the 
problems  relating  to  the  origin 
and  evolution  of  the  seedling. 

It  is  generally  agreed  that 
the  most  primitive  of  the  ex- 
tant flowering  plants  are  those 


belonging  to  the  Magnoliidae 
(Cronquist  1981;  Dahlgren  et 
al.  1981;  Takhtajan  1980;  Thor- 
ne  1981,  1983).  Not  all  concur 
which  order  of  the  extant  Mag- 
noliidae should  be  considered 
the  less  specialized.  Cronquist 
defines  the  Magnoliales  to  in- 
clude the  Annonales,  and  begins 
his  system  with  the  Winterac- 
eae.  Dahlgren  in  his  most  re- 
cent work  begins  with  Annonac- 
eae  (Annonales)  and  places  the 
Magnoliales  after  it,  the  Aris- 
tolochiales  and  the  Rafflesi- 
ales.  Takhtajan  essentially 
concures  with  Cronquist,  while 
Thorne  (1983)  agrees  with  Cron- 
quist and  Takhtajan  that  Win- 
teraceae  is  the  premiere  fami- 
ly. 

Among  the  Magnolales  as  de- 
fined by  Cronquist,  there  are 
three  seedling  types:  the  Poly- 
althia,  Mezzettiopsis  and  Mag- 
nolia types.  Winteraceae  has 
the  Magnolia  type  (Lubbock 
1892),  as  does  Magnoliaceae 
itself,  and  it  is  found,  with 
the  other  two  types,  in  the 
Annonaceae.  So  far  as  known, 
only  the  Polyalthia  type  is 
found  in  the  Myristicaceae. 

Turning  to  the  gymnosperms, 
only  two  of  these  three  types 
are  found:  Polyalthia  and  Mag- 
nolia. Cycadales  and  Ginkgoac- 
eae only  have  the  Polyalthia 
type.  Among  the  Pinales,  Kete- 
leeria  and  some  Araucaria  have 
the  Polyalthia  type;  otherwise, 
the  Magnolia  type  of  seedling 
predominates.  Ephedraceae  has 
the  Magnolia  type,  but  Gnetac- 
eae  and  Welwitschiaceae  (all 
members  of  the  Gnetopsida)  have 
a  specialized  seedling  type 
which  cannot  be  compared  with 
those  found  among  the  Magnolio- 
psida. 

The  Cycadopsida  and  Ginkgop- 
sida  are  considered  to  be  more 
primitive  than  the  Pinopsida, 
with  all  three  not  having  "a 
common   ancestor   short   of  the 


1983 


Ye,    Seedling   types 


177 


Archaeopteridales"  (Cronquist 
1971,  p.  A19).  On  the  basis  of 
this  finding,  it  would  seem  the 
Polyalthia  type  of  seedling 
would  be  somewhat  more  primi- 
tive than  the  more  widespread 
and  cormon  Magnolia  type. 

The  origin  of  angiospermous 
plants  has  long  been  considered 
a  mystery.  The  majority  of  most 
modern  botanists  consider  that 
the  Magnoliophyta  originated 
from  the  extinct  seed  ferns 
(e.g.,  see  Cronquist  1968, 
1981),  the  Pteridiospermopsida 
of  the  Pinophyta.  Unfortunate- 
ly, no  pteridosperm  fossil  em- 
bryos or  seedlings  have  been 
found,  and  in  fact,  Taylor 
(I98I)  reports  seedlings  only 
for  fossil  members  of  Araucari- 
aceae  (it  is  the  Polyalthia 
type  of  seedling!).  This  is  not 
surprising  for  like  Cvcas  and 
Ginkgo  of  today,  the  seeds  of 
pteridosperms  likely  matured 
and  were  dropped  from  the  par- 
ent plant  before  the  embryo 
developed.  It  was  only  after 
ripening  that  the  embryo  of 
such  plants  probably  developed. 

It  is  likely  that  the  embryo 
of  the  pteridosperms  was  some- 
what similar  to  that  found  in 
Cvcas,  that  is,  it  had  two 
cotyledons,  and  a  plumule,  hy- 
pocotyl  and  a  radicle.  Chamber- 
lain (1935)  proposed  that  the 
seedlings  of  the  pteridosperms 
were  hypogeal  with  the  cotyle- 
dons remaining  subterranean  and 
within  the  seed  serving  as  a 
haustorium  absorbing  nutrients 
from  the  endosperm.  He  drew  a 
hypothetical  seedling  for  a 
pteridosperm  (fig.  I8),  and 
this  type  of  seedling  would 
fall  into  my  Polyalthia  type. 

From  the  above  evidence,  the 
Polyalthia  type  of  seedling 
must  be  considered  the  most 
primitive.  That  is,  the  seed- 
ling arose  from  an  albuminous 
seed,  with  the  cotyledons  re- 
maining subterranean  and  absop- 


tive.  Among  the  early  Magnolio- 
psida,  this  kind  of  seedling  is 
the  only  type  found  in  the 
Myristicaceae,  and  occurs  with 
two  other  seedling  types  in  the 
Annonaceae.  The  Myristicaceae 
are  not  the  most  primitive  type 
of  angiosperm  as  the  plants  are 
dioecious  and  this  is  a  speci- 
alization. Although  Dahlgren 
and  his  fellow  workers  (1981) 
argue  that  Annonaceae  is  the 
most  primitive  family,  I  be- 
lieve the  most  ancient  surviv- 
ing angiosperm  is  the  Winterac- 
eae  which  has  a  Magnolia  type 
of  seedling. 

How  does  one  explain  this?  In 
evolutionary  processes,  the 
speed  of  each  stage  in  the 
development  of  morphological 
features  of  the  plant  body  is 
not  necessarily  in  concert. 
Thus,  in  some  families  with 
more  specialized  (or  advanced) 
flowers  (features  which  tend  to 
be  emphasized  in  systems  of 
angiosperm  classification), 
other  less  obvious  features 
(such  as  anatomical  character- 
istics) may  not  be  so  special- 
ized. Thus  one  can  find  famil- 
ies of  flowering  plants  with  a 
combination  of  advanced  and 
primitive  features.  The  same 
should  be  true  to  seedling 
types  as  well. 

The  most  ancient  angiosperm 
was  likely  a  small  tree  or 
shrub  (Stebbins  1965;  Doyle  & 
Hickey  1976),  with  a  xylem 
system  consisting  only  of  trac- 
heids,  and  a  flowering  struc- 
ture composed  of  many  parts 
(Cronquist  1968).  The  seeds 
were  probably  fairly  large  and 
albuminous  (Takhtajan  1964), 
and  the  resulting  seedling  was 
of  the  Polyalthia  type. 

Although  I  have  affirmed 
that  the  Polyalthia  type  of 
seedling  is  the  most  ancient, 
how  can  the  existence  of  stoma- 
ta  on  the  cotyledons  of  hypo- 
geal  seedlings,    and  those  of 


178 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  5A,  No.  3 


anbryonic  leaves 


ligule 


Fig .  19 .  The  embryo  structxire  of  the  fern .  (a .  )  Pteridium 
aquilinum  (b.)  Selaginella  martensii.  Both  figures  sinpli- 
fied;  see  Smith  1955. 


"  "embryonic  leaves 

radicle 

Fig.  20.  The  hypothetical  structure  of  a  progymnosperm  anbryo. 


Cvcas  and  Ginkgo  be  explained? 
This  condition  must  be  traced 
back  to  a  fern  group  known  as 
the  progymnosperms  or  Archaeo- 
pteropsida  of  Polypodiophyta. 
It  is  likely  that  the  seed 
ferns  evolved  from  the  progyiri- 
nosperms,  and  therefore  the 
embryo  of  both  taxa  were  not 
only  different  (as  obvious  by 
the  fact  one  formed  seeds  and 
the  other  did  not),  but  that 
they  were  related  as  well  (if 
one  evolved  from  the  other). 
The  embryo  of  the  true  fern  may 
be  generally  divided  into  a 
stem  tip,  an  embryonic  leaf,  a 
radicle  and  a  foot  (fig.  19a). 
I  believe  the  embryo  of  the 
progymnosperm  (fig.  20)  was  not 


like  that  of  the  true  ferns, 
however,  but  rather  more  like 
Selaginella  (fig.  19b)  where 
one  also  finds  a  stem  tip,  a 
radicle  and  a  foot  as  before, 
but  now  two  embryonic  leaves. 
While  I  do  not  suggest  that  the 
progymnosperms  evolved  from  the 
Lycopodiophyta,  the  similari- 
ties are  striking.  The  stem 
tips  develops  into  the  shoot; 
the  radicle  develops  into  a 
primary  root;  the  foot  is  a 
haustorium  which  absorbs  nutri- 
ents from  the  female  gameto- 
phyte;  and,  the  embryonic 
leaves  develop  into  seedling 
leaves  (which  are  in  the  posi- 
tion of  cotyledons)  which  have 
stomata.  I  postulate  that  the 


I 


1983 


Ye,    Seedling  types 


179 


embryo  of  the  seed  fern  lacked 
a  foot,  that  the  plumule  of  the 
seed  fern  corresponded  to  the 
stem  tip  of  the  progyrrmosperm, 
that  the  radicles  corresponded 
in  each  taxon,  and  that  the 
cotyledons  of  the  seed  ferns 
correspond  to  the  first  two 
embryonic  leaves  of  the  progym- 
nosperms. 

I  am  the  first  to  admit  that 
the  morphological  shifts  repre- 
sented by  the  evolution  of  the 
seed  habit  was  a  qualitative 
leap,  and  certainly  the  embryo- 
nic changes  from  the  progymno- 
sperms  to  the  seed  ferns  must 
have  been  a  qualitative  leap  as 
well.  This  was  manifested  in 
the  loss  of  the  foot,  and  in 
the  embryonic  leaves  remaining 
in  the  female  gametophyte  where 
they  served  as  an  haustoriur.  to 
replace  the  function  of  the 
foot.  We  can  use  the  neoteny 
hypothesis  to  explain  this  pro- 
cess (see  Takhtajan  1976).  When 
the  embryo  of  the  progymnosperm 
evolved  into  the  embryo  of  the 
seed  fern,  the  foot  of  the 
former  disappeared  in  the  deve- 
lopmental process  of  the  embr- 
yo. The  two  embryonic  leaves  at 
the  early  period  of  the  differ- 
entiation matured  quickly  so 
that  they  did  not  have  to  en- 
large further,  and  thus  (1)  did 
not  have  to  grow  above  the  soil 
level,  and  (2)  were  not  requir- 
ed to  assume  a  photosynthetic 
function.  In  short,  the  seed 
leaves  later  period  of  develop- 
ment was  arrested,  and  their 
function  changed  from  a  photo- 
synthetic  one  to  an  absorptive 
one.  Thus,  the  photosynthetic 
first  leaves  of  epigeal  progym- 
nosperm seedlings  were  changed, 
via  neoteny,  into  the  haustori- 
al  cotyledons  of  hypogeal  seed 
ferns.  Evolutionarily,  the  sto- 
mata  of  the  cotyledons  that 
have  remained  in  hypogeal  seed- 
lings likely  have  done  so  be- 
cause they  have  been  neither 
selected  for  or  against  (Grant 
1971). 


EVOUmONARY  RELATIONSHIPS 
AMONG  DICOTYLEDONOUS  SEED- 
LING TYPES 

There  are  four  basic  types 
of  dicotyledonous  seedlings, 
namely  Polyalthia,  Magnolia, 
Chimonanthus  and  Cinnamomum. 
Within  the  primitive  families 
of  the  Magnoliopsida,  all  four 
types  are  found.  In  fact,  three 
of  the  four  types  occur  in  the 
Magnoliales  and  nine  of  the  17 
types  recognized  in  this  paper 
are  found  in  the  Magnoliidae  as 
defined  by  Cronquist  (1981).  As 
can  be  seen^  even  the  most 
primitive  angiosperms  displayed 
a  wide  array  of  seedling  plas- 
ticity. 

Like  the  evolution  of  the 
dicotyledonous  subclasses,  the 
evolution  of  the  seedlings 
found  in  the  Magnoliidae  pro- 
duced an  array  to  dead  ends, 
with  only  a  single  successful 
line  of  developrnent  continuing 
into  the  Asteridae  (fig.  21). 
It  was  the  Magnolia  type  that 
gave  rise  to  a  series  of  addi- 
tion basic  groups,  notably  the 
Chimonanthus  type  which  can  be 
separated  into  four  groups  each 
of  which  is  associated  with  a 
major  dicotyledonous  subclass- 
es, notably  an  expression  here- 
in called  the  Hamamelis  group 
(Hamamelididae),  a  Thea  group 
(Dilleniidae),  a  Rosa  group 
(Rosidae),  and  finally  a  Aster 
group  (Asteridae).  A  small  num- 
ber of  additional  types  evolved 
as  more  specialized  seedling 
expressions  (Sophora,  Garcinia 
and  Ternstroemia).  All  of  these 
cair.e  from  various  groups  of  the 
Chimonanthus  type. 

The  loss  of  endosperm  allow- 
ed the  Magnolia  type  to  evolve 
into  the  Chimonanthus  type.  It 
was  through  a  series  of  minor 
modifications,  all  within  the 
Chimonanthus  theme,  that  the 
Chimonanthus  type  gave  rise 
repeatedly  to  the  Cinnamomum 
type.  These  are  not  technically 


180 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  3 


Orobanche 


Magnolia 
(Veronica  group) 


Sterculia 
Mezzettiopsis 
1.  Polyalthia 


Loranthus 
Rhizophora 


Eurale 


Fig.  21.  Evolutionary  Rela- 
tionship of  Magnoliopsida  Seed- 
ling Types.  —  From  the  origin- 
al Polyalthia  type  evolved  a 
number  of  specialized  lines  of 
seedling  development.  Only  the 
Magnolia  type  evolved  further. 
Line  2  is  an  aquatic  form  of 
the  Polyalthia  type,  evolving 
into  the  Eurale  type  as  a  re- 
sult of  the  abortion  of  the 
hypocotyl  and  radicle.  In  line 
3,  the  Mezzettiopsis  type,  the 
hypocotyl  of  the  Polyalthia 
type  elongates  and  extends  the 
cotyledons,  endosperm  and  testa 
to  a  point  above  the  soil  le- 
vel. From  this  type,  line  7  to 
the  Sterculia  type,  evolved 
with  the  cotyledons  and  its 
surrounding  endosperm  withdraw- 
ing from  the  testa,  but  with 
the  endosperm  adhering  to  the 
lower  surface  of  the  cotyle- 
dons. Line  5  to  the  Peperomia 


type  evolved  as  a  specialized 
line  from  the  Polyalthia  type 
in  which  one  cotyledon  extends 
above  the  soil  level  and  is 
photosynthetic,  while  the  other 
remains  in  the  testa.  In  line 
6,  to  the  Cyclamen  type,  the 
hypocoty  become  swollen  and 
forms  a  tuber,  with  poorly 
developed  or  aborted  cotyle- 
dons. The  resulting  seedling 
has  but  a  single  leaf.  In  lines 
8  and  9,  the  endosperm  is  lost. 
Line  8  consists  of  plants  with 
massive  cotyledons  which  have  a 
storage  function  (Cinnamomum 
type),  while  in  line  9  (Cerato- 
phyllum  type)  the  hypocotyl  and 
radicle  are  aborted.  Line  4  to 
the  Magnolia  type  is  represent- 
ative of  seedlings  in  which  the 
hypocotyl  elongates  from  the 
endospermous  seed,  and  the  cot- 
yledons become  photosynthetic. 
As  with  the  Polyalthia  type,    a 


1983 


Ye,    Seedling   types 


181 


Qiimonanthus 
(Aster  group) 


11 


Chimonant±ius 
(Rosa  group)" 


■ Sophora 


CirmainomLin 
(Vicia  group) 


Cinnanonum 
(Prunus  group) 


. —  Chimonant±rus  ■ 


■  Chimonantiius 

(Hamamelis  group) 


Cinnamomum 
(Quercus  group) 


-Cinnamonium 


■ Ceratophyllum 


Chimonanthus 
(Thea  group) 

12  I 
Terns troemia 


13 


Cinnamornjm 
(Thea  groiip) 


Garcinia 


number  of  specialized  lines 
evolved  from  the  Magnolia  type. 
Those  plants  with  viviparous 
seedlings  formed  line  14,  the 
Rhizophora  type.  In  line  15, 
the  Loranthus  type,  the  radicle 
end  of  the  seedling  forms  a 
haustorium.  In  line  16,  the 
Pyrola  line,  the  plumule  aborts 
and  the  adventitious  buds  form 
the  seedling  shoot.  A  truly 
parasitic  line  (line  17)  leds 
to  the  Orobanche  type.  Here  the 
seedling  becomes  simple  and  the 
end  of  the  radicle  forms  an 
haustorium.  The  final  expres- 
sion of  the  Magnolia  type  is 
its  Veronica  group  in  which 
small  seeds  with  little  endo- 
sperm occur.  Line  10,  the  Chi- 
monanthus line,  evolved  from 
the  Magnolia  type  and  may  be 
recognized  by  the  absence  of 
endosperm.  From  various  expres- 
sions within  the  epigeal  Chi- 


monanthus type,  herein  called 
the  Rosa,  Hamamelis  and  Thea 
groups,  specialized  seedling 
types  developed  involving  a 
change  to  a  hypogeal  condition 
with  the  cotyledons  becoming 
massive  and  assuming  a  storage 
function.  This  resulted  in  the 
formation  of  a  series  of  iso- 
lated groups  all  of  the  Cinna- 
momum type.  The  Sophora  type, 
line  11,  differs  from  the  Chi- 
manthus  type  only  the  somewhat 
swollen  cotyledons.  The  Tern- 
stroemia  type  (line  12)  is  a 
line  of  epigeal  seedlings  with 
aborted  cotyledons  and  a  swol- 
len hypocotyl.  The  Garcinia 
type,  line  13,  is  a  line  of 
hypogeal  seedlings  with  aborted 
cotyledons  and  a  massive  hypo- 
cotyl. The  ultimate  line  in  the 
exalbuminous  seedlings  is  the 
Aster  group  of  the  Chimoanthus 
type  which  has  small  seeds. 


182 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


the  same  as  the  Cinnaniorrium  type 
as  strictly  defined,  but  cannot 
otherwise  be  distinguished. 

In  addition  to  the  Chimonan- 
thus  type,  a  series  of  special- 
ized types  also  evolved  from 
the  Magnolia  type,  all  albumin- 
ous expressions.  The  Magnolia 
type  is  widespread  in  the  di- 
cotyledonous plants,  and  this 
line  of  evolutionary  develop- 
ment gave  rise  to  a  series  of 
specialized,  hemiparasitic  and 
parasitic  seedling  expressions. 
The  final  expression  of  the 
Magnolia  type  is  the  Veronica 
group  (fig.  21).  The  develop- 
ment of  the  Aster  and  Veronica 
groups  relate  to  the  reduction 
in  seed  size  as  the  Magnoliop- 
sida  evolved.  In  the  Veronica 
group,  a  small  amount  of  endo- 
sperm persists,  whereas  in  the 
Aster  group,    all   vestiges  of 


the  endosperm  is  gone.  Still, 
in  the  Veronica  group,  it  is 
necessary  for  photosynthesis  to 
occur  quickly  after  the  cotyle- 
dons emerge  from  the  ground,  or 
they  shall  cease  to  function. 

Each  specialized  type  is 
concerned  with  a  definite  eco- 
logical condition;  e.g.,  the 
Rhizophora  type  grows  in  tropi- 
cal mangroves  and  is  vivipari- 
ous;  the  Ceratophyllum  type  has 
an  aborted  radicle  and  hypo- 
cotyl  with  the  resulting  plants 
free-floating;  and  the  wholly 
or  partially  parasitic  plants 
have  a  series  of  unique  types 
of  seedling  development.  As 
would  be  expected,  such  ecolog- 
ically specialized  seedlings 
are  widely  scattered  throughout 
the  various  subclasses  of  the 
dicotyledons. 


APPENDIX 


TABLE  I.  Comparison  of  Ye  and  Vogel  Seedling  Classification 


Ye 


Vogel 


Vogel 


Ye 


Polyalthia 

Eurale 

Mezzettiopsis 

Magnolia 

Peperomia 

Cyclamen 

Sterculia 

Cinnamonum 


9a  Ceratophyllum 
9b  Nelumbo 

10  Chimonanthus 

1 1  Sophora 

12  Ternstromia 

13  Garcinia 
14a  Rhizophora 
14b  Sechium 

15  Loranthus 

16  Pyrola 

17  Orobanche 


6a,  7a 

7b,  8,  10 

1,  2a 

11c 

5 

3 

2b,  6a,  6b, 

7a,  7b,  8, 

lib,  12 


1 

2a,  11a 

4 

13,  14 

9 


16 


1  Macaranga 

2a  Sloanea 

2b  Palagium 

3  Sterculia 

4  Ternstromia 

5  Cyclamen 

6a  Heliciopsis 

6b  Koordersiodendron 

7a  Horsfieldia 

7b  Pseudavaria 

8  Blumeodendron 

9  Rhizophora 

10  Coscinium 
11a  Eudertia 

1  lb  Chisocheton 

11c  Streblus 

12  Cynometra 

13  Barring tonia 

14  Garcinia 

15  Hodgson ia 

16  Orobanche 


i 

7 
12 
6 

I- 
1, 

3, 

?«= 

3 
11 


13 
13 


10 

11 


I 


1983  Ye,    Seedling  types  183 

KEY  TO  THE  SEEDLING  TYPES 

\.     Seedling  not  viviparous  or  forming  an  haustorial  tip;   seed- 
ling free-living. 
B.     Cotyledons  and  plumule  present  and  well  developed. 

C.     Terrestrial  plants  with  the  radicle  developing  into 
a  sturdy  taproot. 

D.     Germination  cryptocotylar,  the  cotyledons  never 
withdrawing  from  the  testa. 

E.     Seeds  albuminous;   embryo  small;   cotyledons 
thin,   with  an  absorptive  function. 

F.     Hypocotyle  not  elongating 1.  Polyalthia 

FF.   Hypocotyle  elongating 3.   Mezzettiopsis 

EE.  Seeds   exalbuminous;    embryo    large;    cotyle- 
dons massive,  with  a  foodstorage  function 

8 .  Cinnamomum 

DD.  Germination  phanerocotylar,  with  one  or  more 
cotyledons  withdrawing  from  the  testa. 
E.     Seeds  albuminous. 

F.     Two   cotyledons   withdrawing   from   the 
testa. 

G.  Cotyledons  not  adhering  to  the 
endosperm,    thin   and   photosynthetic 

on    both   surfaces 4.    Magnolia 

GG.  Cotyledons  adhering  to  the  endo- 
sperm when  withdrawn  from  the  tes- 
ta, photo-synthetic  above,  absorp- 
tive   below 7.  Sterculia 

FF.  One    cotyledon    withdrawing    from    the 

testa,     the   other    remain   within 

5.    Peperomia 

EE.  Seeds  exalbuminous. 

F.     Cotyledons  thin  and   leaf-like,    only 

with    a    photosynthetic    function 

10.      Chimonanthus 

FF.  Cotyledons  somewhat  thick  and  fleshy, 
with    foodstorage   and   some  photosynthe- 

^^     ,  tic    functions 11.    Sophora 

CC.  Aquatic  plants  with  the  radicle  and  hypocotyl  abor- 
ted and  never  emerging  from  the  seed. 
D.     Seeds  albuminous;  cotyledons  with  an  absorptive 

function 2.     Eurale 

DD.  Seeds   exalbuminous;    cotyledons  with   a   food 
storage  or  photosynthetic   function. 
E.     Cotyledons  with   a  photosynthetic   function, 

thin  and  green 9a.  Ceratophyllum 

EE.   Cotyledons  with  a  food  storage  function, 

[Tiassive    and    yellowish 9b.    Nelumbo 

BB.  Cotyledons  or  plumule  reduced  or  absent;    seedling  with 
only  a  single  leaf,   or  if  more,   then  the  cotyledons 
reduced  or  absent  and  the  hypocotyl  swollen. 
C.     Plumule  not  aborted. 

D.     Seedling  with  a  single  leaf 6.  Cyclamen 

DD.  Seedlings  with  more  than  a  single  leaf;  cotyle- 
dons reduced  or  absent;  hypocotyl  swollen. 
E.     Seedling  free  from  both  the  testa  and  the 

fruit    wall 12.    Ternstroemia 

EE.  Seedling  not  free  from  the  testa  and/or  the 
fruit  wall  which  remains  persistent  around 


184 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


the    swollen    hypocotyl 13.    Garcinia 

CC.  Plumule  aborted;  cotyledons  sometimes  reduced 

16.   Pyrola 

M.  Seedlings  viviparous  or  forming  an  haustorium. 
B.     Seedlings  viviparous. 

C.     Hypocotyl  fusiform 14a.   Rhizophora 

CC.   Hypocotyl  not  fusiform 14b.   Sechium 

BB.   Seedlings  forming  an  haustorium. 

C.     Seedlings  green 15.   Loranthus 

CC .  Seedlings  non-photosynthetic 17 .  Orobanche 


The  following  appendix  attempts 
to  summarise  the  known  seedling 
types  (according  to  the  system 
presented  in  this  paper)  for 
the  Magnoliopsida.  The  families 
not  represented  indicate  fami- 
lies of  flowering  plants  which 
remain  to  have  their  seedling 
examined.  I  would  appreciate 
reprints  of  papers  dealing  with 
families  which  have  been  exa- 
mined but  for  which  I  have  not 
seen  the  published  reports.  The 
system  of  classification  here 
is  that  proposed  by  Cronquist 
(1981).  I  have  not  attempted  to 
bring  his  system  up  to  date 
(see  Cronquist  I983). 

I.  Magnoliidae 

1 .  Magnoliales 

1 .  Winteraceae  -  4 

2.  Degeneriaceae  -  4 

3.  Himantandraceae 

4.  Eupomatiaceae 

5.  Austrobaileyaceae 

6.  Magnoliaceae  -  4 

7.  Lactoridaceae 

8.  Annonaceae  -  1,  3,  4 

9.  Myristicaceae  -  1 

10.  Canellaceae 

2.  Laura les 

11 .  Amborellaceae 

12.  Trimeniaceae 

13.  Monimiaceae  -  4 

14.  (k)mortegaceae 

15.  Calycanthaceae  -  10 

16.  Idiospermaceae 

17.  Lauraceae  -  8 

18.  Hernandiaceae  -  8 

3.  Piperales 

19.  Chloranthaceae 

20.  Saururaceae 

21.  Piperaceae  -  4,  5 

4.  Aristolochiales 

22.  Aristolochiaceae  -1,4 

5.  Illiciales 


23.  Illiciaceae  -  4 

24.  Schisandraceae 

6.  Nymphaeales 

25.  Nelumbonaceae  -  9b 

26.  Nymphaeaceae  -  2 

27.  Barclayaceae 

28.  Cabombaceae 

29.  Ceratophyllaceae  -  9a 

7.  Ranunculales 

30.  Ranunculaceae  -  4,  6 

31.  Circaeasteraceae 

32.  Berberidaceae  -  4 

33.  Sargentodoxaceae 

34.  Lardizarabalaceae  -  4 

35.  Menispermaceae  -  3,  4 

36.  Coriariaceae 

37.  Sabiaceae  -  4 

8.  Papaveraceae 

38.  Papaveraceae  -  4 

39.  Fumariaceae  -  4,    6 
II.  Hamamelididae 

9.  Trochodendrales 

40.  Tetracentraceae 

41.  Trochodendraceae 

10.  Hamamelidales 

42.  Cercidiphyllaceae 

43.  Eupteleaceae 

44.  Platanaceae  -  4 

45.  Hamamelidaceae  -  4 

46.  Myrothamnaceae 

11.  Daphniphyllales 

47.  Daphniphyllaceae 

12.  Didymelales 

48.  Didymelaceae 

13.  Eucorrmiales 

49.  Eucommiaceae  -  4 

14.  Urticales 

50.  Barbeyaceae 

51.  Ulmaceae  -  4,  10 

52.  Cannabaceae  -  4 

53.  Moraceae  -  4,8,  11 

54.  Cecropiaceae 

55.  Urticaceae  -  10 

15.  Leitneriales 

56.  Leitneriaceae 

16.  Juglandales 

57.   Rhoipteleaceae 


1983 


Ye,  Seedling  types 


185 


58.  Juglandaceae  -  8, 

10 

17.  Myricales 

59.  Myricaceae  -  10 

18.  Fagales 

60.  Balanopaceae 

61.  Fagaceae  -  8,  10 

62.  Betulaceae  -  8,  10 

19.  Casuarinales 

63.  Casuarinaceae  -  10 

III.  Caryophyllidae 

20.  Caryophyllales 

6^4 .  Phytolaccaceae  -  ^ 

65 .  Achatocarpaceae 

66.  Nyctaginaceae  -  4 

67.  Aizoaceae  -  4 

68.  Didiereaceae 

69.  Cactaceae  -  M 

70.  Chenopodiaceae  -  ^ 

71 .  Amaranthaceae  -  ^ 
12.   Portulacaceae  -  4 

73.  Basellaceae  -  4 

74.  Molluginaceae  -  4 

75.  Caryophyllaceae  -  4 

21 .  Polygonales 

76.  Polygonaceae  -  4 

22.  Plumbaginales 

77.  Plumbaginaceae  -  4 

IV.  Dilleniidae 

23.  Dilleniales 

78.  Dilleniaceae  -  4 

79.  Paeoniaceae  -  1 

24.  Theales 

80.  Ochnaceae  -  8,  11 

81 .  Sphaerosepalaceae 

82.  Sarcolaenaceae 

83.  Dipterocarpaceae  -  8,  11 

84.  Caryocaraceae 

85.  Theaceae  -  8,  10.  12 

86.  Actinidiaceae  -  4 

87.  Scytopetalaceae 

88.  Pentaphylacaceae 

89.  Tetrameristaceae 

90.  Pellicieraceae  -  8 

91 .  Oncothecaceae 

92.  Marcgraviaceae  -  10 

93.  Quiinaceae 

94.  Elatinaceae  -  10 

95.  Paracryphiaceae 

96.  Medusagynaceae 

97.  Clusiaceae  -  8,  10,  13 

25.  Mai vales 

98.  Elaeocarpaceae  -  4 

99.  Tiliaceae  -  4 

100.  Sterculiaceae  -4.7 

101.  Bombacaceae  -  4,  0 

102.  Malvaceae  -  4 

26.  Lecythidales 


103. Lecythidaceae-  8, 

10,  13 

27.  Nepenthales 

104.  Sarraceniaceae 

105.  Nepenthaceae 

106.  Droseraceae  -  4 

28.  Violales 

107.  Flacourtiaceae  - 

3,  4 

108.  Peridiscaceae 

109.  Bixaceae  -  4 

1 10.  Cistaceae  -  4 

111.  Huaceae 

112.  Lacistemataceae 

113.  Scyphostegiaceae 

114.  Stachyuraceae 

115.  Violaceae  -  4 

116.  Tamaricaceae  -  10 

117.  Franker iaceae 

118.  Dioncophyllaceae 

119.  Ancistrocladaceae  -  4 

120.  Turneraceae  -  4 

121.  Malesherbiaceae 

122.  Passifloraceae  -  4 

123.  Achariaceae 

124.  Caricaceae  -  4 

125.  Fouquieriaceae 

126.  Hoplestigmataceae 

127.  Curcurbitaceae  -  8,  10, 

11,  14b 

128.  Datiscaceae 

129.  Begoniaceae  -  10 

130.  Loasaceae 

29.  Salicales 

131.  Salicaceae  -  10 

30.  Capparales 

132.  Tovariaceae 

133.  Capparaceae  -  10 

134.  Brassicaceae  -  10 

135.  Moringaceae  -  8 

136.  Resedaceae  -  10 

31.  Batales 

137.  Gyrostemonaceae 

138.  Bataceae 

32.  Ericales 

139.  Cyrillaceae 

140.  Clethraceae  -  4 

141.  Grubbiaceae 

142.  Empetraceae  -  4 

143.  Epacridaceae 

144.  Ericaceae  -  4 

145.  Pyrolaceae  -  16,  17 

146.  Monotropaceae 

33.  Diapensiales 

147.  Diapensiaceae 

34.  Ebenales 

148.  Sapotaceae  -  4,  8,  11 

149.  Ebenaceae  -  3,  4 


186 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


150.  Styraceae  -  ^ 

151.  Lissocarpaceae 

152.  Symplocaceae  -  4 

35.  Primulales 

153.  Theophrastaceae 

154.  Myrsinaceae  -  4,  14a 

155.  Primulaceae  -  4,  6 
V.  Rosidae 

36.  Resales 

156.  Brunelliaceae 

157.  Connaraceae  -  8 

158.  Eucryphiaceae 

159.  Cunoniaceae 

160.  Davidsoniaceae 

161.  Dialypetalanthaceae 

162.  Pittosporaceae  -  4 

163.  Byblidaceae 

164.  Hydrangeaceae  -  4 

165.  Columelliaceae 

166.  Grossulariaceae  -  4 

167.  Greyiaceae 

168.  Bruniaceae 

169.  Anisophylleaceae 

170.  Alseuosmiaceae 

171.  Crassulaceae  -  4 

172.  Cephalotaceae 

173.  Saxifragaceae  -  4 

174.  Rosaceae  -  8,  10,  11 

175.  Neuradaceae 

176.  Crossomomataceae 

177.  Chrysobalanaceae  -  8 

178.  Surianaceae 

179.  Rhabdodendraceae 

37.  Fa bales 

180.  Mimosaceae  -  8,  10,  11 

181.  Caesalpiniaceae  -  o, 

10,  11 

182.  Fabaceae  -  8,  10,  11 

38.  Proteales 

183.  Elaeagnaceae  -  10,  11 

184.  Proteaceae,  8,  10,  11 

39 .  Podostemales 

185.  Podostemaceae 

40.  Haloragales 

186.  Haloragaceae 

187.  Gunneraceae  -  4 

41 .  Myrtales 

188.  Sonneratiaceae  -  10 

189.  Lythraceae  -  10 

190.  Penaeaceae 

191.  Crypteroniaceae 

192.  Thyme laeaceae  -  8,  10 

193.  Trapaceae 

194.  Myrtaceae  -  8.  10,  11 

195.  Punicaceae  -  I0 

196.  Onagraceae  -  10 

197.  Oliniaceae 

198.  Melastomataceae  -  8, 


10 

199.  Combretaceae,  8, 

10,  11 

42.  Rhizophorales 

200.  Rhizophoraceae,    4, 

14a 

43.  Cornales 

201.  Alangiaceae  -  4 

202.  Nyssaceae  -  4 

203.  Cornaceae  -  4 

204.  Garryaceae 

44.  Santalales 

205.  Medusandraceae 

206.  Dipentodontaceae 

207.  Olacaceae  -  3,  4 

208.  Opiliaceae 

209.  Santalaceae  -  3,  4 

210.  Misodendraceae 

211.  Loranthaceae  -  15 

212.  Viscaceae  -  15 

213.  Eremolepidaceae 

214.  Balanophoraceae 

45.  Rafflesiales 

215.  Hydnoraceae 

216.  Mitrastemonaceae 

217.  Rafflesiaceae 

46.  Celastrales 

218.  Geissolomataceae 

219.  Celastraceae  -  4,  8, 

11 

220.  Hippocrateaceae 

221.  Stackhousiaceae 

222.  Salvadoraceae 

223.  Tepuianthaceae 

224.  Aquifoliaceae  -  4 

225.  Icacinaceae  -  8,  10 

226.  Aextoxicaceae 

227.  Cardiopteridaceae 

228.  Corynocarpaceae 

229.  Dichapetalaceae 

47.  Euphorbiales 

230.  Buxaceae  -  4 

231.  Sinimondsiaceae 

232.  Pandaceae 

233.  Euphorbiaceae  -  1,  3, 

4,  11 

48.  Rhamnales 

234.  Rhamnaceae  -  8,  10, 

11 

235.  Leeaceae  -  4 

236.  Vitaceae  -  4 

49.  Linales 

237.  Erythroxylaceae  -  4 

238.  Humiriaceae 

239.  Ixonanthaceae 

240.  Hugoniaceae 

241.  Linaceae  -  4 

50.  Polygalales 


1983 


Ye,  Seedling  types 


187 


2^2.   Malpighiaceae  -  8,  10 

243.  Vochysiaceae 

244.  Trigoniaceae  -  11 

245.  Tremandraceae 

246.  Polygalaceae  -  4,  11 

247.  Xanthophyllaceae 

248.  Krameriaceae 

51.  Sapindales 

249.  Staphyleaceae  -  4 

250.  Melianthaceae 

251.  Bretschneideraceae 

252.  Akaniaceae 

253.  Sapindaceae  -  8,  10, 

11 

254.  Hippocastanaceae  -  8 

255.  Aceraceae  -  10.  11 

256.  Burseraceae  -  o,  10, 

11 

257.  Anacardiaceae  -  8, 

10,  11 

258.  Julianiaceae 

259.  Simaroubaceae  -  8,  10 

260.  Cneoraceae 

261.  Meliaceae  -  4,  8,  11 

262.  Rutaceae  -  4,  8,  11 

263.  Zygophyllaceae 

52.  Geraniales 

264.  Oxalidaceae  -  4 

265.  Geraniaceae  -  4 

266.  Limnanthaceae 

267.  Tropaeolaceae  -  8 

268.  Balsaminaceae  -  10 

53.  Apiales 

269.  Araliaceae  -  4 

270.  Apiaceae  -  4 
VI .  Asteridae 

54.  Gentianales 

271.  Loganiaceae  -  4 

272.  Retziaceae 

273.  Gentianaceae  -  4 

274.  Saccifoliaceae 

275.  Apocynaceae  -4,8 

276.  Asclepiadaceae  -  4, 

11 

55.  Solanales 

277.  Duckeodendraceae 

278.  Nolanaceae 

279.  Solanaceae  -  4 

280.  Convolvulaceae  -  4 

281.  Cuscutaceae  -  17 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Bedell,  H.G.,  &.  J.L.  Reveal. 
1983.  Amended  outlines  and 
indices  for  six  recently  pub- 
lished systems  of  angiosperm 
classification.  Phytologia 


282.  Menyanthaceae  -  4 

283.  Polemoniaceae  -  4 

284.  Hydrophyllaceae  -  4 

56.  Lamiales 

285.  Lennoaceae 

286.  Boraginaceae  -  4,  10 

287.  Verbinaceae  -  4,  10, 

14a 

288.  Lamiaceae  -  10 

57.  Callitrichales 

289.  Hippuridaceae 

290.  Callitrichaceae  -  4 

291.  Hydrostachyaceae 

58.  Plantaginales 

292.  Plantaginaceae  -  4 

59.  Scrophulariales 

293.  Buddlejaceae 

294.  Oleaceae  -  3,  4 

295.  Scrophulariaceae  -  4 

296.  Globulariaceae  -  4 

297.  Myoporaceae 

298.  Orobanchaceae  -  17 

299.  Gesneriaceae  -  4 

300.  Acanthaceae  -  10 

301.  Pedaliaceae  -  10 

302.  Bignoniaceae  -  8,  10 

303.  Mendonciaceae 

304.  Lentibulariaceae  - 

9a,  10 

60.  Campanulales 

305.  Pentaphragmataceae 

306.  Sphenocleaceae 

307.  Campanulaceae  -  4 

308.  Stylidiaceae  -  4 

309.  Donatiaceae 

310.  Brunoniaceae 

311.  Goodeniaceae 

61.  Rubiales 

312.  Rubiaceae  -  3,  4 

313.  Theligonaceae 
62.  Dipsacales 

314.  Caprifoliaceae  -  4 

315.  Adoxaceae  -  4 

316.  Valerianaceae  -  10 

317.  Dipsacaceae  -  4 

63.  Calycerales 

318.  Calyceraceae 

64.  Asterales 

319.  Asteraceae  -  10 


51:65-156. 

Bokdom,  J.  1977.  Seedling  mor- 
phology of  some  African  Sapo- 
taceae  and  its  taxonomical 
significance.  Med.  Landbouw- 
kundgeschool  Wageningen  77 


188 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


(20):    1-84. 

Burger,  H.D.  1972.  Seedlings  of 
some  tropical  trees  and 
shrubs  mainly  of  south-east 
Asia.  Center  for  Agricultural 
Publishing  and  Documentation, 
Wageningen.    399   pp. 

Chamberlain,  C.J.  1935.  Gym- 
nospenns,  structure  and  evo- 
luticm.  University  of  Chicago 
Press,  Chicago.  484  pp. 

Compton,  R.H.  1912.  An  inves- 
tigation of  the  seedling 
structure  in  the  Leguminosae. 
J.  Linn.  Soc,  Bot.  41:1-122. 

Cronquist,  A.  1968.  The  evo- 
lution and  classification  of 
flowering  plants.  Houghton 
Mifflin  Co.,    Boston.   396  pp. 

.  1971.  Introductory  bot- 
any. 2nd  edit.  Harper  &  Row, 
Publishers,    New  York.   885  pp. 

.  1981.  An  integrated  sys- 
tem of  classification  of  flo- 
wering plants.  Columbia  Uni- 
versity Press,  New  York.  1262 
pp. 

.   1983.  Some  realignments 

in  the  dicotyledons.  Nordic 
J.  Bot.  3:75-85. 

Csapody,  V.  1968.  Keimlings- 
bestimmungsbuch  der  Dikoty- 
ledonen.  Akademia  Kiado,  Bu- 
dapest. 286  pp. 

Dahlgren,  R.M.T.,  S.  Rosendal- 
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DESCRIPnONS  OF  VARIOUS  SEEDLINGS  OF  LEGUMINOUS  PLANTS 

Ye  Nenggan 

Department  of  Plant  Protection,  Guizhou  Agricultural  College 

Guiyang,  Guizhou  Province 

People's  Republic  of  China 

and 

Department  of  Botany,  University  of  Maryland 
College  Park,  MD  207^2 

ABSTRACT 

Thirty-six  species  of  leguminous  plants  (Mimosaceae,  Caesal- 
piniaceae  and  Fabaceae)  from  Australia,  Africa  and  the  United 
States  belonging  to  Acacia,  Bauhinia,  Cassia,  Ervthrina,  Parkin- 
son ia  and  Prosopis  are  illustrated  and  described. 


The  legumes,  in  the  broad 
sense,  belong  to  one  of  the 
largest  of  the  flowering  plant 
families.  Many  legumes  are  of 
economic  importance  as  green 
vegetables,  an  important  source 
of  drugs  and  medicines,  animal 
fodder,  and  in  the  tropics  a 
source  of  firewood.  Many  legum- 
inous species  are  weedy.  As  a 
result,  special  concern  has 
been  given  to  the  identifica- 
tion of  leguminous  seedlings  so 
that  good  forest  and  pasture 
management  can  be  practiced  in 
the  developing  countries  of  the 
world . 

Seedlings  are  often  differ- 
ent from  the  adult  stage.  The 
juvenile  leaves  of  leguminous 
seedlings  are  often  simplier 
than  the  adults.  The  first  true 
leaves  are  often  simple,  while 
the    later    leaves    are    often 


compound  with  the  number  of 
leaflets  increasing  gradually 
until  it  reaches  the  constant 
number  of  the  species. 

In  this  paper,  seeds  of 
leguminous  plants  were  obtained 
by  Dr.  James  A.  Duke  of  the 
Economic  Plants  Laboratory, 
United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture,  Beltsville,  MD 
from  a  variety  sources.  The 
seeds  were  sown  in  the  green- 
house of  the  Department  of 
Botany,  University  of  Maryland. 
College  Park,  MD.  Of  the  38 
species  of  seeds  obtained  for 
this  study,  most  germinated  and 
produced  healthy  seedlings.  A 
few  became  diseased  and  died  at 
an  early  age.  Two  species, 
Acacia  Senegal  and  Prosopis 
tamarugo,    failed  to  germinate. 

Seedlings  of  six  genera  were 


The  present  paper  was  prepared  in  the  United  States.  An  oppor- 
tunity to  visit  the  United  States  from  September  1982  to  September 
1983  allowed  me  to  do  this  work  and  prepare  the  present  paper  for 
publication.  This  was  done  at  the  Department  of  Botany,  University 
of  Maryland,  College  Park,  MD.  Dr.  James  A.  Duke,  Germplasm  Re- 
sources Laboratory,  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  Beltsville,  MD, 
obtained  the  seeds  from  a  variety  of  sources  and  presented  them  to 
me.  The  seedlings  were  grown  in  the  greenhouse  at  the  University  of 
Maryland.  Dr.  James  L.  Reveal  of  the  University  assisted  me  in 
preparing  this  paper  for  publication.  This  is  Scientific  Article 
A3559,  Contribution  No.  6634  of  the  Maryland  Agricultural  Experi- 
ment Station. 

190 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


191 


examined:  Acacia  and  Prosopis 
(Mimosaceae);  Bauhinia  Cassia 
and  Parkinsonia  (Caesalpiniac- 
eae);  and  Ervthrina  (Fabaceae). 
The  species  are  arranged  alpha- 
betically in  the  following  sec- 
tion. The  illustrations  are 
arranged  accordingly  and  follow 
the  same  sequence. 

1.   Acacia  acuainata  Benth. 

Root  system  with  many  later- 
als. Hypocotyl  pale  green,  suf- 
fused with  purple,  glabrous,  ca 
20  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliace- 
ous,  3x6  mm,  oblong,  becoming 
reflex  when  the  seedling  at  the 
3-leaf  stage  and  deciduous  at 
the  6-leaf  stage,  sessile;  apex 
rounded;  base  somewhat  auricu- 
late;  upper  surface  green;  un- 
der surface  pale  green  and 
suffused  with  purple.  First 
leaf  pinnate  with  3  or  4  pairs 
of  leaflets;  petiole  4-6  mm 
long,  pubescent,  somewhat  purp- 
lish. Second  leaf  bipinnate 
with  one  pair  of  pinnae;  pinna 
with  2-4  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  4-0  mm  long,  pubescent 
and  somewhat  purplish.  Third  to 
sixth  leaves  bipinnate  and 
otherwise  similar  to  the  second 
leaf  only  with  the  petiole 
flattened  and  the  seventh  leaf 
reduced  to  a  phyllode.  Stipule 
scale-like,  caducous.  Leaflets 
2x4  mm-2.5x6  mm,  obovate-ob- 
long;  apex  minutely  apiculate; 
base  obtuse,  oblique;  upper 
surface  green;  under  surface 
pale  green;  margin  pubescent. 
Flattened  petiole  25-35  mm 
long,  2-3  mm  wide,  pubescent, 
somewhat  purplish.  Epicotyl  not 
evident.  Internode  short,  less 
than  5  mm  long  in  the  4-leaf 
stage. 

Fig.  1.  Seedlings  stages  of 
Acacia  acuminata:  a)  2  days 
old;  b)  5  days  old;  c)  25  days 
old.  Source:  Seedlot  No.  11150. 
Locality:  Harrogin,  Western 
Australia.  Germination  time:  9 
days. 


2.  Acacia  albida  Delile 

Root  system  with  some  later- 
als; taproot  yellowish  with  the 
outer  layer  soon  eroded  and 
brownish.  Hypocotyl  pale  green, 
glabrous,  30-45  mm  long.  Coty- 
ledons foliaceous,  somewhat 
fleshy,  5x9  rnm,  ovate  to  ellip- 
tic, sessile;  apex  rounded; 
base  auriculate;  upper  surface 
green;  under  surface  pale 
green;  nerves  conspicuous. 
First  leaf  bipinnate  with  1 
pair  of  pinnae;  pinna  with 
about  7  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  ca  6  mm  long,  pubes- 
cent. Second  to  fifth  leaves 
same  as  the  first.  Stipule 
spinous,  ca  2  mm  long.  Leaflets 
oblong,  ca  2x5  mm,  glabrous, 
green;  apex  rounded;  base 
rounded  or  obtuse,  oblique. 
Epicotyl  conspicuous  in  5-leaf 
stage.  Internodes  up  to  8  mm 
long,    pubescent,   green. 

Fig.  2.  Seedling  of  Acacia 
albida:  1?  days  old.  Source: 
Seedlot  No.  ISRA/CNRF  Senegal 
(821598).  Locality:  Senegal. 
Germination  time:    17  days. 

3.  Acacia  aneura  F.  Muell. 

Root  system  with  few  later- 
als; taproot  white  with  the 
outer  layer  soon  eroded  and 
brownish.  Hypocotyl  pale  green 
and  somewhat  purplish,  glab- 
rous, 30  mm  long.  Cotyledons 
foliaceous,  3x6  mm,  oblong, 
glabrous,  sessile;  apex  round- 
ed; base  somewhat  auriculate; 
upper  surface  green;  under  sur- 
face pale  green.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  2  pairs  of  leaf- 
lets; petiole  5  mm  long,  glab- 
rous, green.  Second  leaf  bipin- 
nate with  1  pair  of  pinnae; 
pinna  with  2  or  3  pairs  of 
leaflets.  Third  leaf  petiole 
flattened  or  all  leaves  reduced 
to  a  phyllode.  Fourth  leaf 
reduced  to  a  phyllode.  Stipules 
scale-like,  green.  Leaflets  2x6 
rm  or  3x8  mm,  oblong  or  obovate 
-oblong,    green,    glabrous;    apex 


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Vol.    5A,    No.    3 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


193 


minutely  apiculate;  base  ob- 
tuse, oblique.  Flattened  petio- 
les and  phyl  lodes  up  to  MO  mm 
long  and  5  mm  wide,  somewhat 
curved  like  a  sickle,  tapering 
at  both  ends,  green  and  shin- 
ing, 3-  or  5-nerved.  Epicotyl 
not  evident.  Internodes  less 
than  5  mm  long  in  5-leaf  stage, 
pubescent. 

Fig.  3.  Seedlings  stages  of 
Acacia  aneura:  a)  germinating 
seedling;  b)  3  days  old;  c)  8 
days  old;  d)  26  days  old.  Sour- 
ce: Seedlot  No.  13481.  Locali- 
ty: 6  km  east  of  Charleville, 
Queensland,  Australia.  Germina- 
tion time:  5  days. 

1.  Acacia  auriculiformis  A. 
Cunn.  ex  Benth. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals.  Hypocotyl  30  mm  long, 
glabrous,  pale  green,  suffused 
with  purple.  Cotyledons  folia- 
ceous,  3x6  mm,  oblong  or  ellip- 
tic, glabrous,  sessile;  apex 
rounded;  base  somewhat  auricu- 
late;  upper  surface  green;  un- 
der surface  pale  green  and 
somewhat  purplish,  soon  becom- 
ing green.  First  leaf  pinnate 
with  M-6  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  5  mm  long,  pubescent. 
Second  leaf  bipinnate  with  1 
pair  of  pinnae;  pinna  with  M  or 
5  pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole  10 
nm  long,  pubescent.  Third  leaf 
same  as  the  second  one,  only 
with  a  flattened  petiole. 
Fourth  leaf  or  more  reduced  to 
phyllodes.  Stipules  small,  o- 
vate,  pubescent.  Leaflets  3x8 
mm-4x10  mm,  oblong  or  obovate- 
oblong,  green,  glabrous;  apex 
minutely  apiculate  or  rounded; 
based  rounded  and  oblique.  Phy- 
llodes 5x40  mm  or  more  long, 
linear,  tapering  at  both  ends, 
green  and  shining,  with  2  or  3 
conspicuous  nerves.  Epicotyle 
not  evident.  Internodes  up  to  5 
mm  long  in  the  4-leaf  stages, 
pubescent. 

Fig.    4.   Seedling  stages  of 


Acacia  auariculiformis:  a)  ger- 
minating seedling;  b)  9  days 
old;  c)  23  days  old.  Source: 
Seedlot  No.  13191.  Locality: 
Darwin,  Northern  Territory. 
Australia.  Germination  time:  10 
days. 

5.  Acacia  bailevana  F.   Meull. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  white.  Hypo- 
cotyl purplish,  glabrous,  up  to 
25  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliace- 
ous,  about  3x7  mm,  oblong,  soon 
reflexed  and  deciduous  at  the 
2-  or  3-leaf  stage;  apex  round- 
ed; base  somewhat  auriculate; 
upper  surface  deep  green;  under 
surface  green  and  suffused  with 
purple.  First  leaf  pinnate  with 
4  or  5  leaflets;  petiole  ca  5 
mm  long,  glabrous,  pointed  at 
the  top  of  the  rachis.  Second 
leaf  bipinnate  with  1  pair  of 
pinnae;  pinna  with  5  pairs  of 
leaflets;  petiole  ca  7  mm  long, 
glabrous  or  with  scattered, 
minute  hairs.  Third  and  fourth 
leaves  similar  to  the  second 
leaf,  but  the  petiole  becoming 
longer.  Eighth  leaf  bipinnate 
with  4  pairs  of  pinnae;  petiole 
rounded,  not  at  all  flattened. 
Stipules  small,  scale-like, 
purple.  Leaflets  oblong  or  ob- 
ovate-oblong,  up  to  2x9  nini, 
glabrous;  apex  minutely  apicu- 
late; base  obtuse  or  rounded, 
oblique;  upper  surface  green; 
under  surface  pale  green  and 
somewhat  purplish.  Epicotyl  not 
evident.  Internodes  less  than  5 
mm  long  at  5-leaf  stage,  pubes- 
cent. 

Fig.  5.  Seedlilng  stages  of 
Acacia  bailevana:  a)  germina- 
ting seedling;  b)  9  days  old. 
Source:  Seedlot  No.  11664. 
Locality:  Canberra,  Australia 
Capital  Territory.  Germination 
time:  10  days. 

6.  Acacia  cambagei  R.T.  Baker 

Root  system  with  moderate 
lateral;   taproot  white  with  the 


194 


HYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,   No.    3 


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Fig.  ^ 


Fig.   5 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


195 


outer  layer  eroded  and  becoming 
yellowish-brown.  Hypocotyl  gla- 
brous, pale  green  or  somewhat 
purplish,  terete,  up  to  35  mm 
long.  Cotyledons  foliaceous, 
somewhat  fleshy,  ca  10x12  mm, 
elliptic;  apex  rounded;  base 
auriculate;  upper  surface 
green;  under  surface  pale 
green;  nerves  inconspicuous. 
First  leaf  pinnate  with  ^  pairs 
of  leaflets;  petiole  10  mm 
longj  glabrous,  pale  green; 
rachis  pointed  at  the  apex. 
Second  leaf  similar  to  the 
first  one  and  opposite  it. 
Third  leaf  or  more  reduced  to 
phyl lodes.  Stipules  scale-like, 
caducous.  Leaflets  ca  3x10  mm, 
oblong  or  ovate-oblong,  glab- 
rous, green;  apex  minutely  api- 
culate  or  rounded;  base  obtuse, 
oblique.  Phyllodes  ca  45  mm 
long  and  M  mm  wide,  linear, 
attenuated  at  both  ends,  pubes- 
cent with  scattered,  minute, 
appressed  hairs,  green  and  shi- 
ning, 2  or  3  nerved.  Epicotyle 
1  mm  long.  Internode  less  than 
5  mm  long  at  3-leaf  stage, 
pubescent. 

Fig.  6.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  cambaeei:  a)  germinating 
seedling;  b)  3  days  old;  c)  19 
days  old.  Source:  Seedlot  No. 
13487.  Locality:  98  km  W  of 
Winderah,  Queensland,  Austra- 
lia.  Germination  time:    5  days. 

7.  Acacia  crassicarpa  A.  Cunn. 
ex  Benth. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals.  Hypocotyl  purple, 
glabrous,  15-20  mm  long.  Coty- 
ledons foliaceous,  3x8  mm,  ob- 
long, glabrous,  sessile;  apex 
rounded;  base  somewhat  auricu- 
late; upper  surface  green;  un- 
der surface  purple.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  3  pairs  of  leaf- 
lets; petiole  5  mm  long,  pubes- 
cent. Second  leaf  bipinnate 
with  1  pair  of  pinnae;  pinna 
with  3  or  4  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  8-20  mm  long,  pubes- 
cent.   Third    leaf  same  as  the 


second  only  the  petiole  flat- 
tened in  some.  Fifth  leaf  re- 
duced to  a  phyllode.  Stipules 
small,  subulate.  Leaflets  2x5 
mn-3x7  mm,  ovate-oblong,  glab- 
rous; apex  acute  or  obtuse; 
base  obtuse,  oblique;  upper 
surface  green,  under  surface 
pale  green  or  suffused  with 
purple.  Phyllodes  10x20  mm- 
15x60  mm,  oblanceolate,  green 
and  shining,  with  an  apex  acute 
and  attenuated  base,  3-nerved. 
Epicotyl  not  evident.  Internode 
up  to  5  mm  long  at  5-leaf 
stage,    pubescent. 

Fig.  7.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  crassicarpa:  a)  germin- 
ating seedling;  b)  3  days  old; 
c)  22  days  old.  Source:  Seedlot 
No.  13367.  Locality:  7  km  from 
Daintree,  Queensland,  Austra- 
lia.  Germination  time:    10  days. 

8.  Acacia  dealbata  Link 

Root  system  with  few  later- 
als. Hypocotyl  purple,  glab- 
rous, ca  20  mm  long.  Cotyledons 
foliaceous,  2.5x7  mm,  oblong, 
glabrous,  becoming  reflexed 
when  the  first  leaf  unfolds  and 
deciduous  at  3-leaf  stage;  apex 
rounded;  base  somewhat  auricu- 
late; upper  surface  green;  un- 
der surface  purplish  but  becom- 
ing green.  First  leaf  pinnate 
with  3  pairs  of  leaflets;  pe- 
tiole ca  5  mm  long,  pubescent. 
Second  leaf  bipinnate  with  1 
pair  of  pinnae;  pinna  with  4 
pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole  ca 
10  mm  long,  pubescent.  Third 
leaf  similar  to  second  one; 
petiole  flattened  until  the  10- 
leaf  stage.  Stipules  small, 
scale-like,  brown.  Leaflets  2-o 
mm-3x10  mm,  oblong,  glabrous; 
apex  minutely  apiculate  or  ob- 
tuse; based  obtuse,  oblique; 
upper  surface  green;  under  sur- 
face pale  green  and  suffused 
with  purple.  Epicotyl  not  evi- 
dent. Internodes  up  to  6  mm 
long  or  more  at  the  3-leaf 
stage,    pubescent. 


196 


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Vol.    5A,    No.    3 


c:^ 


Fig.    7 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


197 


Fig.  8.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  dealbata:  a)  gerrr.inating 
seedling;  b)  ^  days  old;  c)  17 
days  old.  Source:  Seedlot  No. 
887^.  Locality:  Lake  George, 
New  South  Wales,  Australia. 
Germination  time:    14  days. 

9.  Acacia   elata   A.   Cunn.   ex 
Benth. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  white.  Hypo- 
cotyl  purple,  glabrous,  15-20 
mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliaceous, 
4x7  mm,  oblong,  glabrous,  re- 
flex and  deciduous  at  the  3- 
leaf  stage;  apex  rounded;  base 
somewhat  auriculate;  upper  sur- 
face purplish-green;  under  sur- 
face purple.  First  leaf  pinnate 
with  4  or  5  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  about  5  mm  long,  pur- 
ple, pubescent.  Second  leaf 
bipinnate  with  1  pair  of  pin- 
nae; pinna  with  4  or  5  leaf- 
lets; petiole  up  to  20  mm  long, 
purple,  pubescent.  Third  leaf 
same  as  the  second.  Seventh  to 
nineth  leaves  bipinnate  with  2 
pairs  of  pinnae;  petiole  round- 
ed, not  flattened.  Stipules 
small,  subulate,  brown.  Leaf- 
lets 3x5  mm-4.5-10  mm,  oblong, 
glabrous;  apex  minutely  apicu- 
late;  base  rounded,  oblique; 
upper  surface  purplish-green, 
becoming  green  when  dry;  under 
surface  purple.  Epicotyl  not 
evident.  Internode  up  to  7  mm 
long  at  4-leaf  stage,  purple, 
pubescent. 

Fig.  9.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  elata:  a)  germinating 
seedling;  b)  4  days  old;  c)  16 
days  old.  Source:  Seedlot  No. 
9972.  Locality:  Balmoral,  New 
South  Wales,  Australia.  Germin- 
ation time:    15  days. 

10.  Acacia  excel sa  Benth. 

Root  system  with  few  later- 
als; taproot  with  the  outer 
layer  soon  eroded  and  brownish. 
Hypocotyl  glabrous,  somewhat 
purplish,  ca  30  mm  long.  Coty- 


ledons foliaceous,  3x7  mm,  ob- 
long, green  but  becoming  yel- 
lowish at  3-leaf  stage,  ses- 
sile; apex  rounded;  base  some- 
what auriculate.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  2  pairs  of  leaf- 
lets; petiole  slender,  4  mm 
long,  glabrous,  pale  green. 
Second  leaf  bipinnate  with  1 
pair  of  pinnae;  pinna  with  2 
pairs  of  leaflets.  Third  leaf 
(and  subsequent  leaves)  reduced 
to  phyl lodes,  occasionally  with 
a  few  leaflets  on  the  top  of 
the  third  phyllode  at  the  3- 
leaf  stage.  Stipules  small, 
ovate-oblong,  pale  green.  Leaf- 
lets 2.5x5  mm-3.5x10  mm,  oblong 
or  obovate-oblong,  green,  glab- 
rous; apex  minutely  apiculate; 
base  obtuse,  oblique.  Phyl lodes 
4x20  mm-4x25  mm,  oblanceolate, 
green  and  shining,  with  an 
apiculate  apex  and  an  attenuat- 
ed base,  3-nerved.  Epicotyl  not 
evident.  Internode  less  than  5 
mm  long  at  5-leaf  stage,  pur- 
ple,  glabrous. 

Fig.  10.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  excelsa:  a)  germinating 
seedling;  b)  3  days  old;  c)  10 
days  old.  Source:  Seedlot  No. 
13270.  Locality:  40  km  south  of 
Charleville,  Queensland,  Aus- 
tralia. Germination  time:  14 
days. 

11.  Acacia  famesiana  Willd. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  yellowish. 
Hypocotyl  pale  green,  glabrous, 
20-30  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foli- 
aceous, somewhat  fleshy,  8x14 
mm,  elliptic,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded;  base  auriculate;  upper 
surface  green;  under  surface 
green;  petiole  2  mm  long.  First 
leaf  pinnate  with  6  pairs  of 
leaflets;  petiole  8  mm  long, 
glabrous,  green.  Second  leaf 
same  as  the  first  one  only  the 
leaflets  larger  and  the  petiole 
longer.  Third  leaf  bipinnate 
with  1  or  2  pinnae;  pinna  with 
5  or  6  pairs  of  leaflets;  pe- 
tiole   10   mm    long.    Forth   and 


198 


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Vol.    5A,    No.    3 


Fig.  8 


b 


Fig.  9 


1983 


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Fig.  11 


200 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


fifth  leaves  similar  to  the 
third  leaf.  Stipules  becoming 
spinous,  stiffened,  5  mm  long, 
ascending,  purple.  Leaflets  2x4 
mm  or  1.5x6  mm,  elliptic  or 
oblong,  green,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded  or  obtuse;  base  rounded 
or  obtuse,  oblique;  upper  sur- 
face green;  under  surface  pale 
green.  Epicotyl  8  mm  long. 
First  internode  ca  18  mm  long 
at  the  6-leaf  stage,  purplish- 
green,     glabrous. 

Fig.  11.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  farnesiana:  a)  3  days 
old;  b)  14  days  old.  Source: 
CSIRO  11M57.  Locality:  Austra- 
lia.  Germination   time:    8  days. 

12.  Acacia  holosericea  A.  Cunn. 
ex  G.  Don 

Root  system  with  many  later- 
als; taproot  white  with  the 
outer  layer  soon  eroded.  Hypo- 
cotyl  glabrous,  pale  green  and 
somewhat  purplish,  up  to  35  mm 
long,  terete.  Cotyledons  foli- 
aceous,  2.5x7  mm,  oblong,  glab- 
rous, sessile,  soon  reflexed 
and  deciduous  at  the  3-leaf 
stage;  apex  rounded;  base  some- 
what auriculate;  upper  leaf 
surface  green;  under  surface 
pale  green  and  somewhat  purpl- 
ish. First  leaf  pinnate  with  2 
pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole  ca  4 
mm  long,  pale  green.  Second 
leaf  bipinnate  with  1  pair  of 
pinnae;  pinna  with  4  pairs  of 
leaflets;  petiole  ca  5  mm  long, 
pubescent.  Third  and  fourth 
leaves  similar  to  the  second 
one.  Fifth  to  ninth  leaf  with 
flattened  petioles.  Tenth  leaf 
reduced  to  a  phyllode.  Stipules 
small,  scale-like,  pale  green. 
Leaflets  ca  2x8  mm,  oblong, 
obovate-oblong  or  obovate, 
green,  glabrous;  apex  minutely 
apiculate;  base  obtuse,  obli- 
que; petiole  flattened.  Phyl- 
lodes  linear  or  lanceolate, 
attenuated  at  both  ends,  green 
and  shining,  pubescent,  3-  or 
4-nerved.  Epicotyl  not  evident. 
Internodes   less  than  5  mm  long 


at  5-leaf  stage,   pubescent. 

Fig.  12.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  holosericea:  a)  4  days 
old;  b)  20  days  old.  Source: 
Seedlot  No.  11502.  Locality: 
Sandfire  Roadhouse,  Great/N. 
Hwy.,  Western  Australia.  Ger- 
mination time:    10  days. 

13.   Acacia  implpva  Benth. 

Root  system  with  abundant 
laterals;  taproot  white.  Hypo- 
cotyl  glabrous,  pale  purple,  up 
to  40  mm  long,  terete.  Cotyle- 
dons foliaceous,  2.5x10  mm, 
oblong,  soon  reflexed  and  deci- 
duous by  3-  or  4-leaf  stage; 
apex  rounded;  base  weakly  auri- 
culate; upper  surface  green; 
under  surface  pale  green  or 
somewhat  purplish.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  6  or  7  pairs  of 
leaflets;  petiole  ca  8  mm  long, 
glabrous,  pale  green;  rachis  ca 
25  mm  long,  subulate  at  the 
apex.  Second  leaf  bipinnate 
with  1  pair  of  pinnae;  pinna 
with  6  pairs  of  leaflets;  pe- 
tiole ca  10  mm  long,  glabrous. 
Third  through  fifth  leaves  si- 
milar to  the  second  one,  only 
the  petiole  gradually  elongat- 
ing. Sixth  leaf  with  a  flatten- 
ed petiole.  Seventh  leaf  becom- 
ing a  phyllode.  Stipules  subu- 
late, ca  1.5  mm  long.  Leaflets 
up  to  2.5x8  mm,  oblong  to  ob- 
long-obovate,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded  or  minutely  apiculate; 
base  obtuse,  oblique;  upper 
surface  green;  under  surface 
pale  green  or  somewhat  purpl- 
ish. Epicotyl  not  evident.  In- 
ternodes less  than  5  mm  long  at 
the  4-leaf  stage,   glabrous. 

Fig.  13.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  implexa:  a)  3  days  old; 
b)  15  days  old.  Source:  Seedlot 
No.  9738.  Locality:  Spicers 
Creek,  New  South  Wales,  Austra- 
lia.  Germination  time:    10  days. 

IM.   Acacia  manfrjim  Willd. 

Root   system  with   numerous 


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Vol.    54,    No.    3 


delicate  laterals.  Hypocotyl 
glabrous,  pale  green  and  some- 
what purplish,  up  to  30  mm 
long.  Cotyledons  foliaceous,  ca 
2.5x7  mm,  oblong,  glabrous; 
apex  rounded;  base  weakly  auri- 
culate;  upper  surface  green; 
under  surface  pale  green  and 
somewhat  purplish.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  3-5  pairs  of  leaf- 
lets; petiole  ca  5  mm  long, 
pale  green,  pubescent;  rachis 
ca  10  mm  long.  Second  leaf 
bipinnate  with  1  pair  of  pin- 
nae; pinna  with  3  or  4  pairs  of 
leaflets;  petiole  ca  10  mm 
long.  Third  and  fourth  leaves 
similar  to  the  second  one  but 
each  pinna  with  more  than  5 
pairs  of  leaflets  and  the  pe- 
tiole longer.  Stipules  small, 
scale-like,  pale  green,  pubes- 
cent. Leaflets  up  to  2.5x7  mm, 
oblong;  apex  minutely  apicu- 
late;  base  oblique;  upper  sur- 
face green;  under  surface  pale 
green  and  somewhat  purplish; 
margin  pubescent.  Epicotyl  not 
evident.  Internodes  less  than  5 
mm  long  at  the  4-leaf  stage, 
pubescent. 

Fig.  1M.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  mangium:  a)  3  days  old; 
b)  9  days  old;  c)  31  days  old. 
Source:  Seedlot  No.  13534. 
Locality:  Cassowary  Range, 
Queensland,  Australia.  Germina- 
tion time:  1 1  days. 

15.  Acacia  melanoxvl(xi  R.  Br. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals.  Hypocotyl  glabrous, 
purple,  ca  15  mm  long.  Cotyle- 
dons foliaceous,  ca  2.5-7  mm 
long,  oblong,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded;  base  minutely  auricu- 
late;  upper  surface  green;  un- 
der surface  pale  green  and 
somewhat  purplish.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  4-6  pairs  of  leaf- 
lets; petiole  5  mm  long,  pubes- 
cent; rachis  ca  8  mm  long. 
Second  leaf  bipinnate  with  1 
pair  of  pinnae;  pinna  with  ca  5 
pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole  ca 
10  mm    long,    pubescent.    Third 


through  sixth  leaves  similar  to 
the  second  one  only  each  pinna 
with  more  than  5  pairs  of  leaf- 
lets and  the  petiole  becoming 
longer;  fifth  leaf  with  10 
pairs  of  leaflets  and  a  petiole 
up  to  14  mm  long.  Stipules 
small,  2  mm  long,  pubescent. 
Leaflets  up  to  2.5x8  mm,  ob- 
long, glabrous;  apex  rounded  to 
minutely  apiculate;  base  ob- 
tuse, oblique;  upper  surface 
green;  under  surface  green  or 
somewhat  purplish.  Epicotyl  2 
mm  long,  pubescent.  Internodes 
10-18  mm  long,  pale  green  or 
somewhat  purplish,   pubescent. 

Fig.  15.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  melanoxvlon:  a)  1  day 
old;  2)  12  days  old;  c)  30  days 
old.  Source:  Seedlot  No.  13157. 
Locality:  Smithton,  Tasmania. 
Germination  time:    12  days. 

16.  Acacia  nilotica  L.  var. 
adansonii 

Root  system  with  scattered 
laterals;  taproot  pale  with  the 
outer  layer  soon  eroded  and 
brownish.  Hypocotyl  pale  green, 
glabrous,  up  to  25  mm  long  and 
more  than  5  mm  thick,  swollen 
at  its  base.  Cotyledons  foliac- 
eous, somewhat  fleshy,  ca  10x13 
mm,  ovate,  pale  green,  glab- 
rous; apex  rounded;  base  auri- 
culate;  petiole  2  mm  long, 
glabrous.  First  leaf  pinnate 
with  8-10  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  ca  4  mm  long;  rachis  ca 
20  mm  long.  Second  leaf  similar 
to  the  first  or  bipinnate  with 
1  pair  of  pinnae;  pinna  with  ca 
10  pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole 
ca  5  mm  long,  subulate  at  the 
apex.  Third,  fourth  and  fifth 
leaves  bipinnate  and  similar  to 
the  bipinnate  second  leaf.  Sti- 
pules spinous,  ca  4  mm  long. 
Leaflets  ca  2x6  mm,  oblong- 
obovate,  green;  apex  rounded  or 
minutely  apiculate;  base  ob- 
tuse, oblique.  Epicotyl  not 
evident.  Internode  3-10  mm 
long,  green.  Seedling  ill- 
scented. 


1983 


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PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


Fig.  16.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  nilotica  var.  adansonii: 
a)  5  days  old;  b)  1?  days  old. 
Source:  ISRA/CNRF  (81/443). 
Lx)cality:  Senegal.  Germination 
time:  8  days. 

17.  Acacia    nilotica    L.     var. 
tomentosa 

Root  system  with  only  a  few 
laterals;  taproot  pale  yellow, 
its  outer  layer  soon  eroded, 
dark  brown.  Hypocotyl  pale 
green,  glabrate  to  glabrous,  ca 
30  mm  long  and  ca  1  mm  thick. 
Cotyledons  foliaceous,  somewhat 
fleshy,  ca  10x13  mm,  ovate  to 
orbicular,  green,  glabrate  to 
glabrous;  apex  rounded;  base 
auriculate;  petiole  ca  3  mm 
long.  First  leaf  pinnate  with 
9-11  pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole 
ca  5  mm  long;  rachis  ca  20  mm 
long.  Second  leaf  bipinnate 
with  1  pair  of  leaflets;  pinna 
witbi  10  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  ca  10  mm  long,  pale 
green,  with  a  subulate  apex 
between  the  two  pinnae.  Third 
leaf  similar  to  the  second  one. 
Fourth  leaf  bipinnate  with  2 
pairs  of  pinnae.  Stipules  spin- 
ous, up  to  5  mm  long.  Leaflets 
ca  2x6  mm,  oblong,  green,  glab- 
rescent;  apex  rounded  and  min- 
utely apiculate;  base  obtuse, 
oblique.  Epicotyl  not  evident 
at  the  4-leaf  stage.  First 
internode  only  2  mm  long;  se- 
cond and  third  internodes  ca  7 
mm   long  each,   green. 

Fig.  17.  Seedling  of  Acacia 
nilotica  var.  tomentosa:  16 
days  old.  Source:  ISRA/CNRF 
(82/597).  Locality:  Senegal. 
Germination  time:    9  days. 

18.  Acacia  pendula  A.  Cunn.  ex 
G.  Don 

Root  system  with  few  later- 
als; taproot  brown.  Hypocotyl 
pale  green,  glabrous,  20-45  mm 
long.  Cotyledons  foliaceous,  ca 
7x9  mm,  elliptic,  glabrous; 
apex    rounded;     base    minutely 


auriculate,  upper  surface  deep 
green;  under  surface  pale 
green.  First  leaf  pinnate  with 
3  or  4  pairs  of  leaflets;  pe- 
tiole ca  5  mm  long;  rachis  ca 
15  mm  long,  glabrous.  Second 
leaf  bipinnate  with  1  pair  of 
pinnae;  pinna  with  3  or  4  pairs 
of  leaflets;  petiole  up  to  20 
mm  long,  glabrous.  Third  and 
fourth  leaves  similar  to  the 
second  one  only  the  petioles 
longer  (exceedingly  30  mm)  and 
becoming  somewhat  flattened, 
1.5  mm  wide.  Stipules  small, 
scale-like,  pale  green.  Leaf- 
lets up  to  2.5x9  mm,  oblong  to 
oblong-obovate,  green,  glab- 
rous; apex  rounded  and  minutely 
apiculate;  base  obtuse,  obli- 
que. Epicotyl  not  evident.  In- 
ternodes less  than  5  mm  long, 
pale  green,   glabrous. 

Fig.  18.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  pendula:  a)  1  day  old; 
b)  4  days  old;  11  days  old. 
Source:  Seedlot  No.  13482.  Lo- 
cality: North  of  Charleville, 
Queensland,  Australia.  Germina- 
tion time:  5  days. 

19.  Acacia  peuce  F.  Muell. 

Root  system  with  many  later- 
als; taproot  white,  its  outer 
layer  soon  eroded,  becoming 
pale  yellow.  Hypocotyl  glab- 
rous, pale  green,  up  to  40  mm 
long,  terete.  Cotyledons  foli- 
aceous, somewhat  fleshy,  9x12 
mn-10xl6  mm,  elliptic  or  ovate, 
glabrous,  sessile;  apex  round- 
ed; base  auriculate;  upper  sur- 
face deep  green;  under  surface 
pale  green.  First  leaf  pinnate 
with  4  or  5  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  ca  o  mm  long;  rachis  ca 
12  mm  long,  glabrous.  Second 
leaf  similar  to  the  first  one 
and  almost  opposite  to  it. 
Third  leaf  with  the  petiole 
flattened  to  a  phyllode,  occa- 
sionally with  a  few  leaflets  at 
the  top.  Fourth  leaf  always 
reduced  to  a  phyllode.  Stipules 
scale-like,  caducous.  Leaflets 
ca  2x8  mm,  oblong-lanceolate. 


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PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


somewhat  purplish  when  imma- 
ture, soon  green,  glabrous; 
apex  acute;  base  attenuate, 
oblique.  Phyllodes  linear,  up 
to  70  mm  long  and  2  mm  wide, 
green,  pubescent  when  immature, 
becoming  glabrous  with  age. 
Epicotyl  not  evident.  Internode 
short,  less  than  5  mm  long  at 
the  4-leaf  stage,   pubescent. 

Fig.  19.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  peuce:  a)  15  days  old; 
b)  23  days  old.  Source:  Seedlot 
No.  13424.  Locality:  Montogu 
Downs,  Bonlia,  Queensland,  Aus 
tralia.  Germination  time:  9 
days. 

20.  Acacia  polystachva  A.  Cunn. 
ex  Benth. 

Root  system  with  only  a  few 
laterals;  taproot  pale  yellow. 
Hypocotyl  purple,  glabrous,  20- 
30  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliace- 
ous,  4x7  mm,  elliptic,  glab- 
rous, soon  reflexed,  sessile; 
apex  rounded;  base  somewhat 
auriculate;  upper  surface  green 
and  suffused  with  purple;  under 
surface  purple.  First  leaf  pin- 
nate with  4  or  5  pairs  of  leaf- 
lets; petiole  4  mm  long;  rachis 
ca  12  mm  long,  glabrous.  Second 
leaf  bipinnate  with  1  pair  of 
pinnae;  pinna  with  3-5  pairs  of 
leaflets;  petiole  ca  10  mm 
long.  Third  leaf  still  bipin- 
nate but  the  pinnae  not  as  well 
developed  as  the  second  leaf; 
petiole  flattened  to  a  phyl- 
lode.  Fourth  leaf  and  on  all 
reduced  to  a  phyllode.  Stipules 
scale-like.  Leaflets  2x5  mm- 
4x10  mm,  lanceolate  to  obovate, 
glabrous;  apex  apiculate;  base 
obtuse,  oblique;  upper  surface 
green;  under  surface  purple. 
Phyllodes  somewhat  curved  and 
sickle-like,  4x40  mm  or  more, 
at  first  purple  but  soon  becom- 
ing green  and  shining;  nerve 
and  margin  purplish.  Epicotyl 
not  evident.  Internodes  less 
than  5  mm  long  at  the  4-leaf 
stage,   purple,   glabrous. 


Fig.  20.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  polystachva:  a)  1  day 
old;  b)  11  days  old;  c)  23  days 
old.  Source:  Seedlot  No.  13500. 
Locality:  Meilwraith  Range, 
Queensland,  Australia.  Germina- 
tion time:  9  days. 

21.  Acacia  prulnocarpa  Tindale 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  white,  its 
outer  layer  soon  eroded,  becom- 
ing whitish-yellow.  Hypocotyl 
glabrous,  green  or  somewhat 
purplish,  up  to  30  mm  long. 
Cotyledons  foliaceous,  ca  3x7 
mm,  elliptic,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded;  base  weakly  auricu- 
late; upper  surface  green;  un- 
der surface  pale  green.  First 
leaf  pinnate  with  5  pairs  of 
leaflets;  petiole  ca  8  mm  long; 
rachis  ca  20  mm  long,  pubes- 
cent. Second  leaf  bipinnate 
with  1  pair  of  pinnae;  pinna 
with  4  or  5  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  up  to  25  trim  long.  Third 
leaf  and  on  all  reduced  to 
phyllodes,  occasionally  with 
some  leaflets  on  top  of  the 
phyllode  at  the  3-leaf  stage. 
Stipules  small,  scale-like. 
Leaflets  mostly  2x9  mm,  oblong 
or  lanceolate,  glabrous,  green; 
apex  rounded  and  minutely  api- 
culate; base  obtuse,  oblique. 
Phyllodes  and  flattened  peti- 
oles linear,  30-50  mm  long,  up 
to  3  mm  wide,  attenuated  at 
both  ends,  green  and  shining, 
2-  or  3-nerved.  Epicotyl  short. 
Internode  may  exceed  5  mm  long 
by  the  2-leaf  stage,    pubescent. 

Fig.  21.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  prulnocarpa:  a)  1  day 
old;  b)  11  days  old;  c)  35  days 
old.  Source:  Seedlot  No.  7859. 
Locality:  Wiluna,  Western  Aus- 
tralia. Germination  time:  9 
days. 

22.  Acacia  saligna  Vfendl. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  pale  yellow. 
Hypocotyl  at  first  pale  green 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


207 


Fig.  21 


208 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    5A,    No.    3 


and  somewhat  purplish,  soon 
becoming  green,  glabrous,  ca  20 
mn  long.  Cotyledons  foliaceous, 
3x7  mm,  oblong,  glabrous,  pur- 
ple, caducous,  usually  dropped 
at  the  3-  or  4-leaf  stage;  apex 
rounded;  base  somewhat  auricu- 
late.  First  leaf  pinnate  with  3 
pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole  de- 
licate, ca  10  mm  long,  glab- 
rous; rachis  5  mm  long,  subu- 
late apical ly.  Second  leaf  same 
as  first  one  and  almost  oppo- 
site with  it.  Third  leaf  bipin- 
nate  with  1  pair  of  pinnae; 
pinna  with  3  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  ca  15  mm  long,  apically 
subulate.  Fourth  through  sixth 
leaves  similar  to  the  third 
one,  but  gradually  changing 
into  phyl lodes.  Stipules  small, 
scale-like.  Leaflets  oblong,  up 
to  ca  3x7  inm,  green,  glabrous; 
apex  rounded  and  minutely  api- 
culate;  based  obtuse,  oblique; 
margin  with  scattered  hairs  at 
early  leaf  stages.  Epicotyl  not 
evident.  Internodes  up  to  3  mm 
long  at  6-leaf  stage,  glabrous. 

Fig.  22.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  saligna:  a)  1  day  old; 
b)  2  days  old;  c)  5  days  old; 
d)  23  days  old.  Source:  Seedlot 
No.  11929.  Locality:  Weir,  Wes- 
tern Australia.  Germination 
time:  9  days. 

23.  Acacia  sophorae  R.  Br. 

Root  system  with  only  a  few 
laterals;  taproot  pale  yellow. 
Hypocotyl  pale  green  or  some- 
what purplish,  glabrous,  up  to 
30  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliace- 
ous, 2.5x6  mm,  oblong,  glab- 
rous; apex  rounded;  base  weakly 
auriculate;  upper  surface 
green;  under  surface  pale  green 
and  somewhat  yellowish.  First 
leaf  pinnate  with  3  pairs  of 
leaflets,  glabrous;  petiole  ca 
8  mm  long;  rachis  5  mm  long, 
apically  subulate.  Second  leaf 
bipinnate  with  1  pair  of  pin- 
nae; pinna  with  3  or  4  leaf- 
lets; petiole  sometimes  flat- 
tened,    ca    20    mm    long.    Third 


leaf  and  above  all  reduced  to 
phyl lodes.  Stipules  small,  sca- 
le-like, green.  Leaflets  ca 
2.5x6  mm,  oblong  or  obovate- 
oblong,  green,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded  and  minutely  apiculate; 
base  obtuse,  oblique.  Phyl lodes 
linear,  mostly  40  mm  long  and  6 
mm  wide,  attenuated  at  both 
ends,  green,  scattered  with 
depressed  hairs,  3-nerved.  Epi- 
cotyl not  evident.  First  inter- 
node  less  than  5  mm  long;  se- 
cond internode  ca  8  mm  long  at 
the  4-leaf  stage,   pubescent. 

Fig.  23.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  sophora:  a)  3  days  old; 
b)  8  days  old;  c)  18  days  old. 
Source:  Seedlot  No.  11689.  Lo- 
cality: North  of  Woolgoolga, 
New  South  Wales,  Australia. 
Germination  time:    26  days. 

24.  Acacia  tortilis  Hayne 

Root  system  with  a  few  late- 
rals; taproot  brown.  Hypocotyl 
pale  green,  glabrous,  ca  20  mm 
long.  Cotyledons  foliaceous, 
somewhat  fleshy,  ca  5x10  mm, 
ovate,  green,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded;  base  auriculate;  pe- 
tiole 3  mm  long,  pale  green, 
glabrous.  First  leaf  pinnate 
with  6  pairs  of  leaflets;  pe- 
tiole 3  mm  long,  pale  green, 
pubescent;  rachis  ca  10  mm 
long,  apically  subulate.  Second 
leaf  bipinnate  with  1  pair  of 
pinnae;  pinna  with  6  or  7  pairs 
of  leaflets;  petiole  ca  8  mm 
long,  pale  green,  pubescent, 
apically  subulate.  Third, 
fourth  and  fifth  leaves  similar 
to  the  second  one.  Stipules 
spinose,  somewhat  reflexed. 
Leaflets  2x5  mm,  oblanceolate 
to  oblong,  green,  glabrous; 
apex  rounded;  base  attenuate, 
oblique.  Epicotyl  not  evident. 
Internode  less  than  5  mm  long 
at  the  5-leaf  stage,    pubescent. 

Fig.  24.  Seedling  of  Acacia 
tortilis:  11  days  old.  Source: 
ISRA/CNRF  (82/599).  Locality: 
Senegal.    Germination   time:    6 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


209 


C2 


\^ 


Fig.  22 


Fig.  23 


210 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.  54,  No.  3 


days. 

25.  Acacia  victoriae  Benth. 

Root  system  with  a  few  lat- 
erals; taproot  white.  Hypocotyl 
pale  green,  glabrous,  ca  20  mm 
long.  Cotyledons  foliaceous,  ca 
4x8  mn,  elliptic,  glabrous,  re- 
flexed  and  deciduous  at  the  3- 
leaf  stage,  sessile;  apex 
rounded;  base  weakly  auricu- 
late;  upper  surface  green;  un- 
der surface  pale  green  and 
somewhat  purplish.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  4  or  5  pairs  of 
leaflets,  glabrous;  petiole  ca 
5  mm  long;  rachis  ca  20  mm 
long,  apical ly  subulate.  Second 
leaf  bipinnate  with  1  pair  of 
pinnae;  pinna  with  3  or  4  pairs 
of  leaflets;  petiole  5-10  mm 
long,  scattered  with  depressed 
hairs.  Third  through  twelfth 
leaves  essentially  similar  to 
the  second  one.  Stipules  subu- 
late, 1-2  mm  long,  stiffened 
when  the  seedling  matures. 
Leaflets  2.5x8  mm,  oblong, 
green,  glabrous;  apex  rounded 
and  minutely  apiculate;  base 
rounded  or  obtuse,  oblique. 
Epicotyl  not  evident.  Internode 
less  than  5  mm  long  at  the  4- 
leaf  stage,    pubescent. 

Fig.  25.  Seedling  stages  of 
Acacia  victoriae:  a)  2  days 
old;  b)  12  days  old.  Source: 
Seedlot  No.  13271.  Locality:  79 
km  N.  of  Charleville,  Queens- 
land, Australia.  Germination 
time:  8  days. 

26.  Bauhinia  carronii  F.  Muell. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  dark  brown. 
Hypocotyl  pale  green,  glabrous, 
ca  20  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foli- 
aceous, fleshy,  ca  9x18  mm, 
oblong  or  somewhat  reniform, 
glabrous,  sessile;  apex  round- 
ed; base  attenuate;  upper  sur- 
face green;  under  surface  pale 
green.  Leaves  pinnate  with  1 
pair  of  leaflets,  or  the  first 
one  simple  and  deeply  obcor- 


date;  petiole  ca  5  mm  long, 
apical ly  subulate.  Leaflets  ca 
8x12  mm,  elliptic  or  suborbicu- 
lar,  green  and  somewhat  purpl- 
ish especially  when  young.  Sti- 
pules small,  lanceolate,  pale 
green.  Epicotyl  conspicuous, 
more  than  10  mm  long,  pale 
green.  Internodes  up  to  10  mm 
long. 

Fig.  26.  Seedling  of  Bauhi- 
nia carronii:  6  days  old.  Sour- 
ce: Seedlot  No.  11636.  Locali- 
ty: Birdsville,  Queensland, 
Australia.  Germination  time:  30 
days. 

27.  Bauhinia  cunninghamii 
Benth. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  brown.  Hypo- 
cotyl thick,  white,  usually  not 
growing  above  the  soil  level, 
glabrous,  ca  5  mm  long  and  2  mm 
thick.  Cotyledons  foliaceous, 
fleshy,  ca  10x14  mm,  elliptic 
to  ovate,  yellowish-green, 
glabrous;  apex  rounded;  base 
rounded  and  narrowed  to  the 
short  petiole;  First  leaf  sca- 
le-like or  not  well  developed, 
broadly  obcordate;  apex  divided 
almost  to  the  base  with  each 
lobe  rounded;  base  rounded. 
Second  leaf  apparently  pinnate 
with  2  leaflets;  petiole  ca  4 
mm  long,  apically  subulate, 
sparsely  pubescent;  leaflets  ca 
5x8  mm,  obovate,  glabrous, 
green,  oblique;  apex  rounded; 
base  obtuse.  Leaves  of  remain- 
ing stages  similar  to  the  se- 
cond one  only  the  leaflets 
gradually  larger,  purplish- 
green  when  young,  becoming 
green  with  age.  Stipules  small, 
scale-like.  Epicotyl  conspi- 
cous,  ca  10  mm  long.  Internodes 
ca  10  mm  long,  green,  at  first 
pubescent,  then  the  upper  ones 
glabrous . 

Fig.  27.  Seedling  stages  of 
Bauhinia  cunninghamii:  a)  3 
days  old;  b)  7  days  old.  Sour- 
ce: Seedlot  No.  11475.  Locali- 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


211 


Fig.  25 


\<^ 


Fig.  26 


212 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    5A,    No.    3 


ty:  West  of  King  River,  Western 
Australia.  Germination  time:  40 
days, 

28.  Cassia  eremophila  A.  Cunn. 
ex  Vog. 

Root  system  with  a  few  late- 
rals; taproot  dark  brown.  Hypo- 
cotyl  pale  green,  pubescent, 
15-30  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foli- 
aceous,  ca  9x11  mm,  elliptic  or 
obovate,  glabrous,  3-nerved; 
apex  rounded;  base  weakly  auri- 
culate;  upper  surface  green; 
under  surface  pale  green;  pe- 
tiole 2  mm  long.  First  leaf 
pinnat  with  1  pair  of  leaflets; 
petiole  12  mm  long,  apically 
subulate;  leaflets  ca  5x25  mm, 
oblong,  attenuated  at  both 
ends.  Leaves  of  the  remaining 
stages  similar  to  the  first 
leaf  only  the  leaflets  and 
petioles  becoming  longer. 
Fourth  leaf  linear  and  up  to  40 
mm  long;  petiole  to  28  mm  long. 
Stipules  small,  scale-like. 
Epicotyl  short,  less  than  5  mm 
long.  Internodes  less  than  5  mm 
long  at  the  4-leaf  stage. 

Fig.  28.  Seedling  stages  of 
Cassia  eremophila:  a)  23  days 
old;  b)  45  days  old.  Source: 
Seedlot  No.  8643.  Locality: 
Lightening  Ridge,  New  South 
Wales,  Australia.  Germination 
time:  7  days. 

29.  Cassia  glutinosa  DC. 

Root  system  with  a  few  late- 
rals; taproot  dark  brown.  Hypo- 
cotyl  pale  green,  glabrous,  ca 
20  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliace- 
ous,  unequal,  the  larger  ca  9- 
11  mm,  elliptic  or  orbicular, 
green,  glabrous,  rounded  on 
both  ends,  conspicuously  nerv- 
ed. First  leaf  pinnate  with  1 
pair  of  leaflets;  petiole  ca  5 
mm  long,  apically  subulate 
Leaflets  ca  3x8  mm,  oblong, 
green,  glabrous;  apex  rounded; 
base  obtuse  or  attenuate.  Se- 
cond to  sixth  leaves  similar  to 
the  first  leaf,   only  the  leaf- 


lets and  petiole  becoming  long- 
er. Sixth  leaf  pinnate  with  2 
pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole  20 
mm  long,  glabrous;  rachis  15  mm 
long,  glabrous.  Stipules  subu- 
late, pale  green.  Epicotyl  less 
than  5  mm  long.  Internodes  less 
than  5  mm  long  at  the  6-leaf 
stage,    glabrous. 

Fig.  29.  Seedling  stages  of 
Cassia  glutinosa:  a)  1  day  old; 
b)  23  days  old;  c)  45  days  old. 
Source:  Seedlot  No.  11523.  Lo- 
cality: Hammereley  Ranges,  Wes- 
tern Australia.  Germination 
time:   10  days. 

30.  Cassia  neroophila  Vblp. 

Root  system  with  only  a  few 
laterals;  taproot  dark  brown. 
Hypocotyl  pale  green,  glabrous, 
20-40  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foli- 
aceous,  ca  8x12  mm,  elliptic  or 
obovate,  green,  glabrous,  in- 
frequently unequal  or  even  with 
3  cotyledons;  apex  rounded; 
base  rounded  and  somewhat  auri- 
culate.  First  leaf  pinnate  with 
1  pair  of  leaflets;  petiole  ca 
8  mm  long,  pubescent.  Leaflets 
3x8  mm,  oblong,  pubescent.  Se- 
cond through  sixth  (occasional- 
ly eighth)  leaves  similar  to 
the  first  only  the  leaflets  and 
petioles  longer,  infrequently 
some  with  linear  leaflets  2x25 
mm  at  the  4-leaf  stage;  petiole 
ca  20  mm  long.  Seventh  or  nine- 
th  leaves  pinnate  with  2  pairs 
of  leaflets.  Stipules  minute, 
scale-like,  brown.  Epicotyl 
less  than  5  mm  long,  pubescent. 
Internodes  less  than  5  mm  long 
(rarely  longer)  at  the  4-leaf 
stage. 

Fig.  30.  Seedling  stages  of 
Cassia  nemophila:  a)  21  days 
old;  b)  43  days  old.  Source: 
Seedlot  No.  13479.  Locality: 
St.  George,  Queensland,  Austra- 
lia.  Germination  time:    12  days. 

31.  Cassia  olieophvlla  F. 
Muell. 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants  213 


Fig.  28 


Fig.  29 


214 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


215 


Root  system  with  some  later- 
als; taproot  dark  brown.  Hypo- 
cotyl  pale  green,  glabrous,  20- 
MO  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliace- 
ous,  unequal,  the  larger  10x12 
mm-15x20  mm,  green,  glabrous, 
infrequently  with  3  cotyledons; 
apex  rounded;  base  rounded; 
petiole  1-2  mm  long.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  1  pair  of  leaf- 
lets; petiole  10-20  mm  long, 
pubescent,  apically  subulate. 
Leaflets  0x9  mni-10x15  mm,  obo- 
vate,  green;  apex  rounded  or 
somewhat  emarginate  and  minute- 
ly apiculate;  base  attenuate, 
oblique;  petiolule  ca  3  mm 
long;  Second  through  sixth 
leaves  similar  to  the  first  one 
only  the  leaflets  larger  and 
the  petiole  longer.  Stipules 
subulate,  5  mm  long,  pale 
green,  pubescent.  Epicotyl  less 
than  5  mm  long.  Internodes 
mostly  more  than  5  mm  long  at 
the  M-leaf  stage,  green,  pubes- 
cent. 

Fig.  31.  Seedling  stages  of 
Cassia  oligophylla:  a)  11  days 
old;  b)  25  days  old.  Source: 
Seedlot  No.  11528.  Locality: 
Rio  Tinto  Gorges,  Western  Aus- 
tralia. Germination  time:  10 
days. 

32.  Cassia  venusta  F.  Muell. 

Root  system  with  a  few  late- 
rals; taproot  dark  brown.  Hypo- 
cotyl  pale  green,  glabrous,  25- 
40  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliace- 
ous,  ca.  10x12  mm,  obovate, 
green,  glabrous;  apex  rounded 
or  truncate;  base  rounded  and 
somewhat  auriculate.  First  leaf 
pinnate  with  1  pair  of  leaf- 
lets. Second  or  third  leaf 
similar  to  the  first.  Third  or 
more  frequently  the  fourth  leaf 
with  2  pairs  of  leaflets.  Leaf- 
lets 10x15  mm,  obovate,  green, 
pubescent;  apex  rounded  or  min- 
utely apiculate;  base  attenu- 
ate; petiole  8-15  mm  long, 
pubescent,  apically  subulate; 
rachis  (in  leaves  with  2  pairs 
of    leaflets)    ca    10   mm    long. 


pubescent,  apically  subulate; 
petiolule  short,  mostly  ca  2  mm 
long.  Stipules  subulate,  ca  3 
mm  long.  Epicotyl  less  than  5 
mn  long,  pubescent.  Internodes 
usually  more  than  5  mm  long  at 
the  4-leaf  stage,   pubescent. 

Fig.  32.  Seedling  stages  of 
Cassia  venusta:  a)  20  days  old; 
b)  62  days  old.  Source:  Seedlot 
No.  9701.  Locality:  Yantabulla 
and  Queensland,  New  South 
Wales,  Australia.  Germination 
time:  12  days. 

33.  Erythrina  vespertilio 
Benth. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  stout,  gray- 
ish-white, its  outer  layer  soon 
eroded  and  becoming  yellowish- 
brown.  Hypocotyl  stout,  ca  5  mm 
long  and  3  nm  thick,  subterran- 
eous, white.  Cotyledons  fleshy, 
remaining  in  the  testa  and 
subterranean,  ca  6x20  mm.  reni- 
form,  yellowish.  First  through 
fourth  leaves  opposite  or  near- 
ly so,  otherwise  alternate 
above,  simple.  Fifth  leaf  com- 
pound with  3  leaflets.  Leaflets 
mostly  18x30  mm,  more  or  less 
rhomboid;  upper  surface  green; 
under  surface  pale  green;  peti- 
oles slender,  ca  20  mm  long. 
Stipules  small,  lanceolate,  ca 
2  mm  long,  green.  Epicotyl 
conspicuous,  30  mm  or  more 
long,  up  to  2  mm  thick,  pale 
green.  Internodes  up  to  20  mm 
or  more  long,  pale  green,  with 
scattered  minute  spine-like 
hairs  on  some. 

Fig.  33.  Seedling  stage  of 
Erythrina  vespertilio:  10  days 
old.  Source:  Seedlot  No.  1064?. 
Locality:  Anningie,  H/Stead 
Road,  Northern  Territory,  Aus- 
tralia. Germination  time:  16 
days. 

34.  Parkinsonia  aculeata  L. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;    taproot  brown.    Hypo- 


216 


PHYTOLOGI 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


1983 


Ye,  Seedlings  of  leguminous  plants 


217 


cotyl  pale  green,  glabrous,  18- 
35  mm  long,  1-2  mm  thick.  Coty- 
ledons foliaceous,  somewhat 
fleshy,  ca  8x20  mm,  oblong  to 
ovate-oblong,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded;  base  rounded  and  some- 
what auriculate;  upper  surface 
green;  under  surface  pale 
green,  some  becoming  yellowish, 
3-nerved.  First  leaf  pinnate 
with  4  or  5  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  ca  10  mm  long;  rachis 
ca  20  mm  long,  apically  subu- 
late. Second  and  third  leaves 
similar  to  the  first  only  with 
more  pairs  of  leaflets.  Fourth 
leaf  bipinnate  with  1  pair  of 
pinnae;  pinna  with  ca  7  pairs 
of  leaflets.  Leaflets  ca  2.5x8 
mm,  oblong,  glabrous;  apex 
rounded  and  minutely  apiculate; 
base  obtuse,  oblique;  upper 
surface  green;  under  surface 
pale  green.  Stipules  small, 
scale-like,  glabrous.  Epicotyl 
conspicuous,  ca  10  mm  long, 
green.  First  internode  only  up 
to  2  mm  long;  second  and  third 
internode  ca  10  mm  long,  green, 
glabrous. 

Fig.  34.  Seedling  stage  of 
Parkinsonia  aculeata:  a)  16 
days  old.  Source:  ISRA/CNRF, 
Senegal  (80/258).  Locality: 
Senegal.  Germination  time:  8 
days. 

35.   Prosopis  alba  Griseb. 

Root  systems  with  several 
laterals;  taproot  whitish-yel- 
low, the  outer  layer  soon  erod- 
ed, becoming  yellowish-brown. 
Hypocotyl  pale  green,  ca  30  mm 
long.  Cotyledons  foliaceous,  ca 
8x12  mm,  elliptic  to  elliptic- 
ovate,  glabrous;  apex  rounded; 
base  auriculate;  upper  surface 
green;  under  surface  pale 
green,  3-nerved;  petiole  ca  2 
mm  long.  First  leaf  pinnate 
with  5-7  pairs  of  leaflets; 
petiole  ca  5  mm  long;  rachis  ca 
15  mm  long,  apically  subulate. 
Second  leaf  bipinnate  with  1 
pair  of  pinnae;  pinna  with  9-11 
pairs  of   leaflets.    Third   and 


fourth  leaves  similar  to  the 
second  one.  Leaflets  ca  1.5x6 
mm,  oblong,  green,  glabrous, 
sessile;  apex  rounded  and  min- 
utely apiculate;  base  truncate, 
oblique.  Stipules  small,  scale- 
like, pale  green.  Epicotyl  con- 
spicuous, ca  10  rmi  long,  green. 
Internode  ca  10  mm  long  at  the 
3-leaf  stage,   green,   glabrous. 

Fig.  35.  Seedling  stages  of 
Prosopis  alba:  a)  2  days  old; 
b)  12  days  old.  Source:  Texas 
A.  &  I.  (0166).  Locality:  Not 
given.  Germination  time:  8 
days. 

36.  Prosopis  glandulosa  Torr. 

Root  system  with  numerous 
laterals;  taproot  white,  its 
outer  layer  soon  eroded,  becom- 
ing brown.  Hypocotyl  white,  15- 
20  mm  long.  Cotyledons  foliace- 
ous, somewhat  fleshy,  ca  10x12 
ran,  elliptic,  green,  glabrous; 
apex  rounded  or  emarginate; 
base  auriculate,  5-  or  7-nerv- 
ed;  petiole  ca  2  mm  long.  First 
leaf  pinnate  with  5  or  6  pairs 
of  leaflets;  petiole  ca  5  mm 
long;  rachis  ca  20  mm  long, 
apically  subulate,  glabrous. 
Second  leaf  bipinnate  with  1 
pair  of  pinnae;  pinna  with  4-7 
pairs  of  leaflets;  petiole  ca 
10  mm  long.  Third,  fourth  and 
fifth  leaves  similar  to  the 
second  one.  Leaflets  ca  2.5x8 
ran,  elliptic  to  oblong,  green, 
glabrous;  apex  rounded  and  min- 
utely apiculate;  base  rounded, 
oblique.  Stipules  spinous,  ca  4 
mm  long,  ascendent.  Epicotyl  ca 
10  mm  long,  green.  Internodes 
ca  10  mm  long  at  the  5-leaf 
stage,  somewhat  zigzag,  glab- 
rous. 

Fig.  36.  Seedling  stages  of 
Prosopis  glandulosa:  a)  5  days 
old;  b)  13  days  old.  Source: 
Texas  Department  of  Health. 
Locality:  No  given.  Germination 
time:  10  days. 


218 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    3 


FiR.    35 


[      Lizzzs' 


Fig.   36 


ADDITIONAL  NOTES  ON  THE  ERIOCAULACEAE ,   XCI 
Itarold  N.  Moldenke 


PAEPALANTHUS  ARMERIA   Hart. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  151.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  encountered  this  plant  in  wet  places,  in 
both  flower  and  fruit  in  September  and  describe  the  flowers 
as  whitish  and  the  "folhas  acinzentadas". 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Distrito  Federal:  Heringer, 
Figueiras,   Mendonca,   Pereira,   Salles,    S  Silva    54i9(N). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ASCENDENS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  30.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  237—238.  1928  (N,  W)  &  pi.  158  (Ld,  N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ASPER   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  30.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  pi.  176.  1928  (Ld) 

PAEPALANTHUS  ATER   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  297.  1974;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  247—249.  1928  (N,  W)  &  pi.  165.  1928  (Ld,  N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ATROVAGINATUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  30.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Serr. 
Min.  45.  1908  (W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  AUREUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  30.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont,  1:  pi.  180  &  181.  1928  (Ld,  Ld,  N,  N). 

PAEPALANTHUS  AUYANTEPUIENSIS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  30.  1976;  Mold., 
Pjuyol.  Mem.  2:  117,  610,  &  627.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  245 
&  246.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  having  elongate,  bro\^n, 
procumbent  to  ascending  stems,  to  40  cm.  long,  and  shiny,  deep 
grass-green  or  glossy  dark-green,  reflexed  leaves,  yellowish-green 

219 


220  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  3 

peduncles,  and  grayish-white  white-hairy  heads »   They  have  found 
it  growing  in  wet  ground  below  rocks  and  in  Bonnettia  roraimae 
forests,  at  1940 — 2500  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
February  and  Octobero  Material  has  been  misidentif led  and  dis- 
tributed in  some  herbaria  as  Pa   fraternus   N.  Eo  Bro 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark,   Brewer- 
Carias,    S  Liesnei  124418    (N) „   Bolivar:  Steyermark,    Espinosa, 
McDiarmid,   &   Brev/er-Carias  116105    (Ld).   GUYANA:  Persaud  130    (N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS   BABYLONIENSIS   Alv.  Silv„ 

Additional  bibliography:  Moldo,  Phytologia  37:  33.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Memo  2:  150  &  610.  1980„ 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silvo,  Fl, 
Monto  1:  188~189o  1928  (N,  W)  &  pl„  121  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  BAHIENSIS    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Additional  synonymy:  Paepalanthus  bahiensis    (Bong.)  Ruhl, 
in  herb. 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Bong.,  Mem,  Acado  Impo  Sci, 
St.-Petersbo,  ser<,  6,  ]:  622—623  (1831)  and  2  (3):  [545]~547, 
pi.  20.  1835;  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  33.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem. 
2:  150  &  610,  1980o 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bongo,  Ess.  Monogo  ErioCo  183. 
1831  (N,  W);  Kunth,  Enum.  Plo  3:  572,  1841  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS   BALANSAE    Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Moldo,  Phytologia  37:  33,,  1977;  An- 
gely,  S.  Amer,  Boto  Bibl.  2:  675.  1980;  Mold„,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
150,  178,  &  610.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  periodically 
flooded  areas,  in  cerrado,  and  in  bosq^ue  abler  to,  in  both  flower 
and  fruit  in  June  and  September o 

Additional  citations:  PARAGUAY:  casas  &  Molero  FCo3865    (N) , 
FC.4006    (N);  Krapovickas  S  Schinini   32553    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  BALANSAE    varo  DENSIFLORUS    Moldo 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  151.  1973; 
Angely,  S.  Amer.  Boto  Bibl,  2:  675.  1980;  Moldo,  Phytol.  Memo  2: 
150  &  610.  1980o 

PAEPALANTHUS   BARAUNENSIS      Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  30~31o  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  W.  R.  Anderson 
8939    (W~2755484).   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv, 
Silv.,  Flo  Monto  1:  112~113o  1928  (N,  W)  &  plo  70  (Ld,  W)  o 

PAEPALANTHUS  BARBIGER    Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Moldo,  Phytologia  41:  475.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytolo  Mem,  2:  ]50  &  610,  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS   BARBULATUS    Herzog 

Synonymy:  Paepalanthus  bargulatus    Herzog, ex  Mold.,  Phytolo- 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  221 

gia  52:  128  in  syn.  1982. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  33.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward 
Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  7A.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  52:  128.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  a  rosette  herb,  to  20 
cm.  tall,  the  leaves  coriaceous,  green  above,  gray-green  beneath. 
They  have  found  it  growing  in  a  region  of  "sandstone  rock  out- 
crops with  small  areas  of  disturbed  marsh  as  base  and  nearby  riv- 
er with  lush  vegetation  along  the  rocky  margins,  in  restinga  and 
natural  campo ,  and  in  dry  places  on  campos,  at  25 — 1200  m.  alti- 
tude, in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March,  June,  and  August. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  ManOf   Storr,   Santos, 
&  Pinheiro   in  Harley  19906    (Ld,  N,  W~29363A4);  Mori,   Carvallio, 
Mattos  Silca,   Santos,    S  Ribeiro  11930    (Ld,  N) ;  Mori,    Walther ,    S 
Necker  12784    (Ld).  Minas  Gerais:  Smith,   Segadas-Vianna,   Egler, 
Dau,   Silva,   Ormond,   S  Machline  in  L.   B.   Smith  6836a    (W — 2120203). 

PAEPALANTHUS   BARKLEYI   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  152.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  109,  117,  &  610.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  growing  in  tufts,  the 
leaves  a  rich  grass-green,  and  have  found  it  growing  in  woods  and 
pantamo,  at  2600 — 2880  ra.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
January  and  October. 

Additional  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Antioquia:  F.  W.   Barkley 
18A147    (W~1999317).   VENEZUELA:  Merida:  Cuatrecasas,   Ruiz-Teran, 
S  Lopez-Figueiras  28150    (W — 2585779A).   Tachira:  Steyermark, 
Dunsterville,   S  Dunsterville  101060    (N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS   BARREIRENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  33.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Men.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUOTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
1:  260—261  (N,  W)  &  pi.  172  [bis].  1928  (Ld,  N,  V). 

PAEPALANTHUS   BATATALENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  136.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  77—79  (N,  W)  &  pi.  45.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS   BATOCEPHALUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  20,  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS   BELIZENSIS   Hold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  475.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  74  &  610.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS   BELLUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  152.  1973;  An- 
gely,  S.  Amer.  Bot.  Bibl.  2:  675.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 


222  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    3 

150  &   610.   1980. 

Hatschbach  encountered  this  plant  in  wet  places  on  campo ,  in 
flower  and  fruit  in  October. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Parani:  Hatschbach  43246    (Ld,  W — 
2931953). 

PAEPALANTHUS   BEN EDICT I   Alv,  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  136.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  150  &  610.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  fi.  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  ]28— 2A0.  1920  (N,  W)  &  pi.  159.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  BIFIDUS    (Schrad.)  Kunth 

Additional  synonymy:  Paepacantus  bifudus    (Schara)  Kunth  ex 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  A24  in  syn.  1980. 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Bong.,  Mem.  Acad.  Imp. 
Sci.  St.-P^tersb.,  ser.  6,  1:  624  &  637.  1831;  Arekal  &  Rama- 
swaray,  Proc.  63rd  Ind.  Cong.  3  (6):  85.  1976;  Thanikaimoni, 
Trav.  Sect.  Scient.  Techn.  Inst.  Franc.  Pond.  13:  332.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  475—476  (1979)' and  42:  36.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  96,  109,  117,  122,  124,  126,  134,  150,  401,  424, 
&  610.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward  ChecUist  Fl.  Bahia 
74.  1980;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Hot.  A. 36:  23.  1981;  Reis  £.  Lipp, 
New  PI,  Sources  Drugs  22.  1982;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  245 
(1982)  and  53:  348.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  "in  white  sand 
in  full  sun  of  secondary  forest  and  weedy  regro\jth  at  margin  of 
oil-palm  plantation",  at  60  m.  altitude,,  in  flower  and  fruit 
in  June.   Carvalho  &  Gatti  describe  the  leaves  as  concolorous 
and  the  "erva  crescendo  na  areia".  Reis  &  Lipp  (1982)  cite  A, 
Silva   210     and  record  the  name  "capim  mortinha". 

Other  recent  collectors  describe  the  plant  as  an  herb.  8 — 
15  cm.  tall,  the  leaves  light-green,  the  involucral  bractlets 
stramineous,  and  the  flowers  i^hite.   They  have  found  it  growing 
in  open  areas  of  peaty  marshes,  the  wetter  areas  predominantly 
sedge,  grass,  and  other  nonocots  on  white  sand  and  peat,  with 
small  shrubs,  with  scattered  rocky  bluffs  with  scrab  and  small 
trees,  on  sandy  campina  and  on  "campina  de  areia  branca",  in 
swamps  among  dunes,  as  a  "common  herb  on  white  sand  savannas", 
and  "along  brushy  roadsides  and  in  clearings  with  many  species 
of  Solanum,    including  S,   rugosum,   S,   asperum,   and  S.  subinerme" , 
They  have  found  it  at  altitudes  up  to  1000  m.,  in  flower  and 
fruit  in  February,  May,  and  July. 

The  Prance  &  Lleras  23719,   previously  cited  and  distributed 
as  typical  P.  bifidus,    is  now  the  type  collection  of  its  f . 
parvicapitulatus   Mold, 

Additional  citations:  GUYANA:  De  la  Cruz  1700    (Ba) ,  2750 
(Ba),  1849    (Ba~384517);  Jenman  5287    (Ld);  Maas  S  Westra  3489 
(Ld,  N).   SURINAM:  Wee  S  Mori   4202      (Ws).   FRENCH  GUIANA:  Gran- 
ville B.5325    (Ld).   BRAZIL:  Amapa:  Murca  Pires  s  Cavalcante 
52143    (W~2514662).  Amazonas:  Lasseign  21169   in  part  (W~2780463). 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  223 

Bahia:  Carvalho   &  Gatti   833    (Ld);  Hage,   tlattos  Silva,   &  Ribeiro 
270    (Ld);  Harley,   Mavo,   Stcrr ,   Santos,    &  Pinheiro  in  Harley  18781 
(Ld,  N,  W— 2936337).   Espiritu  Santo:  Sucre  8315    (W— 2940690) . 
Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach  41294    (N) .   Para:  Cid,   Ramos,   Mota,    S 
Rosas  1872    [Herb.  Inst.  Nac.  Pesq.  Amaz.  960A0]  (Ld,  N) ;  Davidson 

5  Martinelli   CD, 1027 f^    (Ld);  Martinelli    6948    [RB  Herb.  2035A1] 
(Ld);  Plowman,   Rosa,   S  Rosario   9559    (Ld,  N,  W — 2967825);  Prance 
21155   In  part  (N) ;  Silva  s  Santos  4684    (N,  N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS   BIFIDUS   f.  BREVIPES   Hold. 

Additional  bibliosraphy :  Mold.,  Phytologia  Al:  A76.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  122,  12A,  151,  &  610.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley 

6  Mayo,  Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  7A.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia 
50:  2A5.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  a  small,  slender, 
tufted  herb,  to  10  cm.  tall,  the  leaves  rather  bright-green  or 
mid-green,  the  heads  "off-white"  or  pale  whitish-brown.   They 
have  encountered  it  in  sandy  soil  at  the  base  of  hills,  in  "open 
scrub  on  white  sand  with  damp  areas  and  extensive  sedge  meadows 
(brejo)",  in  mixed  restinga,  mainly  high  restinga  on  drier  ground 
with  areas  of  normally  wet  sedge  meadow",  and  in  sandy  soil  of 
disturbed  woods,  from  sealevel  to  950  m,  altitude,  flowering  and 
fruiting  in  January,  February,  April,  and  September. 

The  Prance,   Ramos,   Farias,    S  Philcox  4835,   distributed  as  and 
previously  cited  by  me  as  this  form,  is  now  regarded  as  represen- 
ting f.  parvicapitulatus   Mold. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark,  Haas, 
Field,  &  Redmond  123644  (Lc).  FRENCH  GUIANA:  Raynal-Rogues  AR. 
20208  (Cy).  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo,  Storr,  Santos,  &  Pin- 
heiro in  Harley  18049  (Ld,  N) ,  18845  (N) ;  Mattos  Silva  S  Hage  604 
(Ld);  Mori,  Mattos  Silva,  s  Santos  10469  (N) .  Minas  Gerais: 
Hatschbach  41294  (W~28A003A).  Para:  Prance  21155  in  part  (W — 
2935278). 

PAEPALANTBUS  BIFIDUS   f .  FRUSTUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  3A.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151,  A03,  AOA,  A25,  &  610.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  BIFIDUS  f.  PARVICAPITULATUS  Mold.,  Phytologia  A3: 
355.  1979. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  A3:  355.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol. 
Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 36:  23.  1981. 

The  collections  cited  belov?  were  previously  cited  by  me  as 
typical  P.  bifidus    (Schrad.)  Kunth  and/or  its  f.  brevipes   Mold, 
before  the  present  taxon  was  recognized. 

Citations:  BRAZIL:  Amazonas:  Prance  S  Lleras  23719    (Ld — 
type,  Ld — isotype,  N — isotype,  W — 28382AA — isotype);  Prance,   Ra- 
mos,  Farias,    S  Philcox  4835    (Ld,  N,  S,  W — 257308A) . 

PAEPALANTHUS   BIFRONS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  3A.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 


22^  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  3 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  206—207.  1928  (N,  W)  &  pi.  136,  1928  (Ld,  N, 
W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  BIFRONS   var.  FUSCIOR   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  153.  1973;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv,,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  207— 
208.  1928  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  BLEPHAROPHORUS    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  34.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980, 

PAEPALANTHUS  BOMBACINUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  34.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  82—83.  1928  (N,  W)  &  pi.  49.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W); 
Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  574,  18^:1  (W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  BONGARDI   Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  476.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS   BRACHYPHYLLUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  34.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

Poole  describes  this  plant  as  an  infrequent  annual,  to  20  cm. 
tall,  with  whitish  flower-heads,  and  found  in  both  in  flower  and 
fruit  in  June. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Amazonas:  Poole  1794    (N). 

PAEPALANTHUS  BRACHYPUS    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  34  (1977),  40: 
26  (1978),  and  41:  476.  1979;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 33:  89. 
1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Maguire,  Maguire, 
&  Murca   Pires  44773    (Ld,  Ld,  N) .   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum. 
PI.  3":  572.  1841  (W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS   BRACHYPUS    f.  BREVIPILOSUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 33:  89.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  476.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  & 
610.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  BRADEI   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  25:  154.  1973;  An- 
gely,  S.  Amer.  Bot.  Bibl,  2:  674.  1980;  Mold,,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
151  &  610.  1980. 

[to  be  continued] 


/  ' 

f        PHYTOLOGIA 

An  international  journal  to  expedite  botanical  and  phytoecological  publication 
Vol.  54  November  1983  No.  4 

FIFTIETH  JUBILEE  YEAR 

CONTENTS 

DILLON,  M.  O.,  A  new  species  of  Bide ns  (Heliantheae-Asteraceae) 

from  Guatemala 225 

MOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  A  sixth  summary  of  the  Verbenaceae, 

Avicenniaceae,  Stilbaceae,  Chloanthaceae,  Symphoremaceae, 
Nyctanthaceae,  and  Eriocaulaceae  of  the  world  as  to  valid 
taxa,  geographic  distribution  and  synonymy.  Supplement  3  .  .  .  .  228 

MOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  Additional  notes  on  the  Eriocaulaceae.  XCIl 245 

DWYER,  J.  D.,  Deppea  lundellii  (Rubiaceae),  a  new  species 

from  Guatemala 277 

OSORIO,  H.  S.,  Contribution  to  the  lichen  flora  of  Uruguay.  XIX. 

Lichens  from  Rio  de  la  Plata  coast 279 

GANDHI,  K.  N,  &  THOMAS,  R.  D.,  Stem  pubescence  in  the 

Salvia  azurea  var.  azurea  and  var.  grandiflora  complex 283 

LUNDELL,  C.  L.,  Neotropical  Myrsinaceae — X 285 

MOLDENKE,  A.  L.,  Book  reviews 286 


I 


Published  by  Harold  N.  Moldenke  and  Alma  L.  Moldenke 

303  Parkside  Road 

Plainfield,  New  Jersey  07060 

U.S.A. 


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A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  BIDENS  (HELIANTHEAE-ASTERACEAE) 

FROM  GUATEMALA 

Michael  O.  Dillon 

Botany  Department 

Field  Museum  of  Natural  History 

Chicago,  Illinois  60605 

Recently,  while  intercalating  members  of  the  Asteraceae  into 
the  herbarium,  the  following  new  species,  Bidens  nana   Dillon,  was 
encountered.   It  was  originally  distributed  under  the  name  Bahia 
depauperata   S.F.  Blake,  a  species  that  it  superficially  resembles. 

Bidens  nana   Dillon,  sp.    nov . ,    fig.  1. 

TYPE:   Guatemala,  Huehuetenango,  Chiantla,  Aldea  San  Nicolas, 
pasto  natural  de  la  Estacion  Ovino,  3150  m,  12  Oct  1976,  D.  W. 
Smith  490    (holotype,  F;  isotype,  ISC). 

Herbae  annuae  2-5  cm  altae.      Folia  bipinnata   5-11   mm  longa 
inclusis  petiolis,    5-10  mm  lata   segmentis  oblanceolatis   vel   ellip- 
ticis  1-5  mm  longis,    0.5-1.0  mm  latis.      Capitula   solitaria   discoi- 
dea   flosculis   7-10.      Achaenia   linearia-attenuata   3-5  mm  longa, 
pappi   aristae  2,    0.5-1.0  mm  longi   hamulosi . 

Annual  herbs,  2-5  cm  tall;  stems  to  6  cm  long,  erect  to  pro- 
cumbent, sparsely  pilose.   Leaves  opposite,  bipinnatif id,  ovate  in 
outline,  5-11  mm  long,  including  petiole,  5-10  mm  wide,  the  seg- 
ments oblanceolate  to  elliptic,  1-5  mm  long,  0.5-1.0  mm  wide, 
sparsely  pilose.   Capitulescence  solitary,  terminal  and  axillary, 
peduncles  1-6  mm  long.   Capitula  discoid,  3.0-5.5  mm  high,  2-3  mm 
wide,  often  subtended  by  foliaceous  calycerate  bracts,  2-3-fid, 
4-5  mm  long;  receptacle  plane;  involucres  campanulate,  2-seriate; 
outer  phyllaries  oblanceolate,  subfoliaceous,  green,  sparsely  pi- 
lose, 2.5-5.0  mm  long,  0.7-1.0  mm  wide,  apically  acute,  the  inner 
phyllaries  lanceolate  to  narrowly  ovate,  membranaceous,  sparsely 
pilose,  yellowish,  striate,  dark  striped,  3.0-3.5  mm  long,  1.0-1.4 
mm  wide,  the  margins  hyaline,  apically  acute  to  rounded,  ciliate; 
paleae  linear-lanceolate,  membranaceous,  yellow  striped,  4.0-4.5 
mm  long,  apically  obtuse  to  truncate,  mucronate;  florets  7-10,  the 
corollas  (4-)  5-lobed,  yellow,  narrowly  cylindrical,  2.0-2.5  mm 
long,  sparsely  glandular;  anthers  black,  ca.  0.8  mm  long,  the  ter- 
minal appendages  ovate,  the  style  branches  ca.  0.5  mm  long,  the 
appendages  lanceolate,  hispidulous.   Achenes  black,  linear-attenu- 
ate, flattened,  ribbed,  3-5  mm  long,  0.3-0.6  mm  wide,  antrorsely 
setose  apically;  pappus  of  2  awns,  erect,  slender,  0.5-1.0  mm  long, 
retorsely   barbellate. 

225 


226  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  A 

This  small  annual  is  unique  among  the  Bidens   taxa  thusfar  de- 
scribed from  Guatemala,  and  does  not  appear  closely  related  to  any 
of  the  species  currently  known  from  that  country.   It  resembles 
forms  of  Bidens  anthemoides    (DC.)  Sherff  occurring  in  alpine  habi- 
tats (above  3000  m)  in  central  Mexico.   Those  individuals  have  a 
smaller  habit  and  bipinnatifid  leaves;  however,  their  larger  leaf 
segments  and  radiate  capitula  on  peduncles  over  1  cm  long  clearly 
distinguish  them  from  Bidens  nana. 

Additional  material  examined:   GUATEMALA:   Huehuetenango. 
Todo  Santos,  Yac,  Valle  de  la  Ventura,  3550  m,  4  Oct  1977,  D.    N. 
Smith  846    (F,  ISC);  Huehuetenango.   Chiantla,  Llano  de  San  Nico- 
las, 3080  m,  5  Oct  1977,  D.    N.    Smith   849    (F,  ISC);  San  Marcos. 
Ixchiguan,  Cerro  Cotzic,  3550  m,  D.    N.    Smith  at   al .    919    (F,  ISC). 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.   I  wish  to  thank  David  N.  Smith  for  supply- 
ing additional  material  of  this  species  for  investigation,  Benja- 
min Taylor  for  preparing  the  illustration,  and  Dr.  Rolf  Singer  for 
helping  with  the  Latin  description. 


1983 


Dillon,  A  new  species 


227 


Fig.  1.  Bidens   nana.   A,  habit;  B,  floret;  C,  achene;  D,  anther. 
(From  Smith   490,    F) . 


A  SIXTH  SUMMARY  OF  THE  VERBENACEAE ,   AVICENNIACEAEf   STILBACEAE , 
CHLOANTHACEAE ,    SYMPHOREMACEAE ,    NYCTANTHACEAE ,   AND  ERIOCAULACEAE 
OF  THE  WORLD  AS  TO  VALID  TAXA,  GEOGRAPHIC  DISTRIBUTION  AND 
SYNONYMY,  SUPPLEMENT  3 

Harold  N,  Moldenke 


The  original  of  this  work  (629  pp.)  was  published  by  rae  as 
PHYTOLOGIA  MEMOIRS  II  in  1980  and  was  based,  in  part,  on  the  exam- 
ination of  246,814  herbarium  specimens  of  these  groups  preserved 
in  320  private  and  institutional  herbaria,  A  first  supplement 
was  issued  on  February  24,  1982,  in  PHYTOLOGIA  50:  233—270, 
based,  in  part,  on  7,310  additional  specimens  examined,  A  second 
supplement  was  issued  on  October  13,  1982,  in  PHYTOLOGIA  52: 
110 — 129,  after  the  examination  of  5,692  additional  specimens 
from  5  additional  herbaria.   Since  then  no  less  than  5,901  additio- 
nal specimens  have  come  to  hand  from  botanical  collectors  and 
museum  curators  all  over  the  world,  and  representing  another  ad- 
ditional herbarium.   These  have  brought  to  light  so  many  new  geo- 
graphic records  and  even  new  taxa,  and  concomitant  literature 
study  by  my  wife.  Alma  L,  Moldenke,  and  myself  has  shown  the 
necessity  for  so  many  changes  in  nomenclature  and/or  specific  delimi- 
tations that  it  seems  appropriate  to  publish  this  third  supplement 
at  this  time.   For  substantiating  data  please  consult  my  vari- 
ous papers  on  individual  genera  in  this  (and  some  other)  journals, 

I.  Geographic  distribution  additions  and  emendations: 
CANADA: 
Ontario: 

Verbena  striata   Vent,  [Essex  County] 
UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA: 
Massachusetts : 

Eriocaulon  pellucidum   Michx,  [Grand  Menan  Island] 
New  York: 

Verbena  urticifolia   L.  [Sullivan  County] 

Verbena  urticifolia   var,  leiocarpa   Perry  &  Fernald  [Delaware 
County] 
Maryland : 

Verbena  urticifolia   var.  leiocarpa   Perry  &  Fernald  [Calvert  . 
County] 
North  Carolina: 

Eriocaulon  decangulare   f,  parviceps   Mold.  [Macon  County] 
Georgia: 

Eriocaulon  decangulare   L,  [Meriwether  County] 
Florida: 

Citharexylum  fruticosum   var,  villosum   (Jacq.)  0.  E,  Schulz 

[Big  Pine  Key] 
Lantana  camara   f,  mista    (L.)  Mold,  [Stock  Island] 
Lantana  ovati folia   Britton  [Point  Losman's  Key] 

228 


1983  Moldenke,  Sixth  summary  supplement  229 

Lantana  ovatifolia   f.  parvifolia   Mold.  [Broward  &  Lee  Coun- 
ties; Anna  Maria,  Palraa  Vista,  &  Paradise  Keys] 

Verbena  hrasiliensis   Veil,  [Volusia  County] 

Vitex   tri folia   var.  variegata   Mold,  [Stock  Island] 
Alabama : 

Eriocaulon  decangulare   f,  parviceps   Mold.  [Mobile  County] 
Mississippi: 

Verbena  bonariensis   L.  [Washington  County] 

Verbena  bracteata   Lag,  &  Rodr,  [Washington  County] 

Verbena  halei   Small  [Washington  County] 

Verbena   urticifolia   L.  [Monroe  &  Washington  Counties] 

Verbena  xutha   Lehra.  [Washington  County] 
Ohio: 

Verbena   striata   Vent.  [Miami  County] 
Michigan: 

Verbena  hastata   L,  [Kalamazoo  County] 
South  Dakota: 

Verbena  bipinnatifida   Nutt,  [Cliarles  Mix  County] 
Arkansas: 

Eriocaulon  decangulare   L,  [Calhoun  County] 

Eriocaulon  kOrnickianum   Van  Heurck  &  Muell,-Arg,  [Madison 
County] 
Texas: 

Aloysia  gratissima    (Gill,  &  Hook.)  Troncoso  [Caldwell 
County] 

Eriocaulon  texense   KHrn.  [Houston  County] 

Vitex  agnus-castus   L.  [Jasper  County] 
MEXICO: 

Aegiphila  odontophylla   Donn.  Sm,  [Veracruz] 
Citharexylum  hirtellum   Standi.  [Quintana  Roo] 
Citharexylum  mexicanum   Mold,  [Jalisco] 

Citharexylum  tetramerum   T,  S.  Brandeg,  [San  Luis  Potosi] 
Cornutia  lilacina   var,  velutina   Mold,  [Veracruz] 
Duranta  repens   f,  serrata    (Mold.)  Mold.  [Quintana  Roo] 
Eriocaulon  schippii   Standi,  [Tabasco] 
Eriocaulon   tepicanum   Mold,  [Chiapas] 

Lantana  camara   var,  moritziana   f,  parvifolia    (Mold,)  Lopez- 
Palacios  [Guerrero,  Hidalgo,  Nayarit,  Sinaloa,  Vera- 
cruz, &  Yucatan] 
Lantana   camara   f.  parvifolia   Mold.  [Yucatan] 
Lantana  chiapasensis   Mold,  [Jalisco] 
Lantana   dwyeriana   Mold,  [Campeche]* 
Lantana   f rut  ilia   Mold,  [Durango  &  Oaxaca] 
Lantana  frutilla   var,  velutina   Mold.  [Mexico] 
Lantana   glandulosissima    f,  parvifolia   Mold,  [Durango,  Guerrero, 

Michoac^,  Nayarit,  &  Oaxaca] 
Lantana   hintoni   Mold,  [Jalisco] 
Lantana  hirta   var,  pubescens   Mold,  [Yucatan] 
Lantana  hispida   H.B.K,  [Guerrero] 

Lantana  hispida   f.  parvifolia   Mold,  [Baja  California,  Chiapas, 
Michoac^n,  Oaxaca,  &  Veracruz] 


230  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No. A 

Lantana  hispida   var.  ternata   Mold.  [Oaxaca] 
Lantana  horrida   H.B.K.  [Baja  California] 
Lantana  horrida   f.  bracteosa   Mold.  [Puebla]* 

Lantana  horrida   f.  inerrnis   Mold.  [Chiapas,  Chihuahua,  Guanaju- 
ato, Jalisco,  Puebla,  &  Veracruz] 
Lantana  involucrata   var.  odorata    (L.)  Mold.  [Yucatan] 
Lantana  macropoda   f,  parvula   Mold.  [Tamaulipas] 
Lantana  mollis   Grah.  [Sinaloa] 
Lantana  montevidensis    (Spreng.)  Briq,  [Puebla] 
Lantana  notha   Mold.  [Chiapas  &  Nayarit] 
Lantana  urticoides   f.  raacrdphylla   Mold.  [Sinaloa] 
Lantana  velutina   f.  albifructa   Mold,  —  delete  the  asterisk 
Lantana  velutina   f,  violacea   Mold.  [Baja  California  &  Yucatan] 
Lippia  graveolens   f.  microphylla   Mold.  [Baja  California] 
Lippia  mcvaughi   Mold.  [Oaxaca] 
Vitex  mollis   f.  iltisii   Mold.  [Guerrero,  Jalisco,  &  Oaxaca]* 

YUCAtAn  ISLANDS: 

Lantana  camara  var.  aculeata   (L.)  Mold.  [Cozumel] 
Lantana  involucrata  var,  odorata   (L,)  Mold,  [Holbox] 

GULF  OF  CALIFORNIA  ISLANDS: 

Lantana  hispida   f ,  parvifolia  Mold,  [Piedra] 
Lippia  palmeri   S.  Wats.  [Partida] 

GUATEMALA: 

Aegiphila  deppeana   Steud.  [Puntarenas] 

Ghinia  curassavica   (L.)  Oken  [Huehuetenango] 

Lantana  costaricensis   Hayek  [Alta  Verapaz] 

Lantana  hispida   f.  parvifolia  Mold.  [Sacatep^quez] 

Lantana   tri folia   f.  oppositifolia   Mold.  [Alta  Verapaz] 

Lantana  velutina   Mart.  &  Gal.  [El  Progreso] 

Lantana  velutina   f .  violacea  Mold.  [Amatitlan  &  Izabal] 

Phyla  nodiflora   var.  longifolia   Mold.  [Amatitlan] 

BELIZE: 

Citharexylum  caudatum   f .  parvifolium  Mold, 

Lantana  camara   L. 

Phyla  nodiflora   vair,  texensis  Mold, 
HONDURAS: 

Avicennia  germinans   (L,)  L,  [Colon] 

Citharexylum  caudatum  L,    [Col^n] 

Citharexylum  hirtellum   Standi,  [San  Marcos] 

Lantana  camara   f.  flava    (Medic)  Mold,  [Atlantida  &  Coldh] 

Lantana   trifolia   L.  [Colon] 

Lantana   trifolia   f .  oppositifolia   Mold.  [Colon] 

Lantana  velutina   f .  violacea   Mold,  [Comayagua] 

Petrea  volubilis   L.  [Colon] 
EL  SALVADOR: 

Lantana  camara   f.  mista    (L.)  Mold,  [San  Miguel] 

Lantana  camara   var.  moritziana    (Otto  &  Dietr.)  LcSpez-Palacios 

Lantana  camara   var.  moritziana   f.  parvifolia    (Mold.)  L6pez- 
Palacios  [Sonsonate] 

Lantana  camara   f.  parvifolia   Mold.  [San  Miguel] 

Lantana  glandulosissima   Hayek  [San  Vicente] 


1983  Moldenke,  Sixth  sunnnary  supplement  231 

Lantana  glandulosissima    f,  parvi folia   Mold.  [La  Unl6n  &  Saa 

Salvador] 
Lantana   hispida   H.B.K,  [San  Vicente] 
Lantana  notha   Mold.  [Ahuachapan  &  San  Salvador] 
NICAEAGUA: 

Aegiphila  elata   Sw.  [Jlnoteca] 

Aegiphila  magnifica   Mold,  [Bcaca] 

Aegiphila  monstrosa   Mold.  [Zelaya] 

Aegiphila  panamensis   Mold,  [Estell  &  Granada] 

Bouchea  prismatica   var.  longirostra   Grenz.  [Esteli] 

Citharexylum  caudatum   L.  [Palmeta  Key] 

Citharexylum  mocinni   f,  williamsii   Mold,  [Jlnotega] 

Cornutia  lilacina   var.  velutina   Mold,  [Granada] 

Lantana  camara   var.  moritziana    (Otto  &  Dletr.)  L6pez-Palaclos 

[Chlnandega,  Esteli,  &  Granada] 
Lantana  camara   var,  moritziana   f.  parvi  folia    O'iold.)  L^pez- 

Palaclos  [Le6n   &  Matagalpa] 
Lantana  glandulosissima   f.  albiflora   Mold.  [Madrlz] 
Lantana  glandulosissima   f.  parvi folia   Mold.  [Boaco,  Estelf, 

Madrlz,  &  Managua] 
Lantana  hirta   f.  caerulea   Mold,  [Esteli] 
Lantana  notha   Mold.  [Managua] 
Lantana   tri folia   L.  [Esteli  &  Madrlz] 
Lantana   tri folia   f.  albiflora   Mold.  [Jlnotega] 
Lantana   tri folia   f.  hirsuta   Mold.  [Nueva  Segovia] 
Lantana   velutina   Mart,  &  Gal.  [Madrlz] 
Lantana   velutina   f.  albifructa   Mold.  [Esteli] 
Lantana   velutina   f.  macrophylla   Mold.  [Matagalpa] 
Lantana  velutina   f .  violacea   Mold,  [Madrlz  &  Masaya] 
Lippia  cardiostegia   Benth,  [Leon] 
Lippia  chiapasensis   Loes,  [Madrlz] 
Lippia  myriocephala   var,  hypoleia    (Brlq,)  Meld,  [Esteli  & 

Jlnotega] 
Phyla  nodiflora    (L.)  Greene  [Zelaya] 
Phyla  scaberrima    (A,  L,  Juss,)  Mold,  [Nueva  Segovia] 
Phyla  stoec had i folia    (L.)  Small  [Chontales  &  Matagalpa] 
Phyla   strigulosa   var.  sericea    (Kuntze)  Mold.  [Esteli] 
Priva  lappulacea    (L,)  Pers,  [Managua,  Nueva  Segovia,  &  Zelaya] 
Priva  lappulacea   f,  albiflora   Mold,  [Nueva  Segovia] 
Rehdera   trinervis    (Blake)  Mold.  [Estelf] 
Rehdera   trinervis   f,  mollicella    (Standi,  &  Mold.)  Mold.  [ES- 

telf  &  Let^n] 
Verbena  litoralis   H.B.K,  [Madrlz  &  Nueva  Segovia] 
COSTA  RICA: 

Clerodendrum  epiphyticum   Standi,  —  to  be  deleted 

Eriocaulon  schippii   Standi.  [Puntarenas] 

Lantana  camara   var.  moritziana   f.  parvifolia    (Mold.)  Lopez- 

Palaclos  [Cartago  &  San  Jose] 
Lantana   hirta    f.  caerulea   Mold.  [San  Jcs^] 
Lantana   hirta   var.  pubescens   Mold.  [San  Jos^] 
Lantana   trifdlia   f.  hirsuta   Mold.  [Cartago] 


232  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Lippia  liberiensis   Mold.  —  delete  the  asterisk 

Priva  lappulacea   f.  albiflora   Mold.  [Puntarenas] 
PANAMA: 

Aegiphila  anowala   Plttier  [Veraguas] 

Aegiphila  hoehnei   var.  spectabilis   Mold.  [Colc^n] 

Aegiphila  laevis    (Aubl.)  Gmel,  [Panama] 

Avicennia  bicolor   Standi.  [Los  Santos;  Poao  Island] 

Avicennia  germinans    (L.)  L,  [Poai  Island] 

Citharexyluw  hirtellum   var.  guatemalense   Mold.  [Chiriqui] 

Citharexylum  spinosum   L.  [Coldh] 

Clerodendrum  epiphyticum   Standi.  —  to  be  deleted 

Lantana  camara   var.  moritziana   f,  parvifolia    (Mold.)  L.<ipez- 
Palacios  [Canal  Zone  &  San  Bias] 

Lantana  glandulosissima   var,  grandis   Mold,  [Canal  Zone  &  Colon] 

Lantana  hirta   var.  pubescens   Mold.  [Chiriqui] 

Lantana  hispida   f.  parvifolia   Mold.  [Cocl^,  Panam^,  &  Ver- 
aguas] 

Lantana   trifolia   f.  oppositifolia   Mold.  [Colon] 

Lippia  liberiensis   Mold,  [Veraguas] 

Phyla  nodiflora   var,  longifolia   Mold,  [Veraguas;  Colrfn  Island] 

Stachytarpheta  cayennensis    (L,  C,  Rich.)  Vahl  [Chiriqui!^] 

Stachytarpheta  jamaicensis    (L,)  Vahl  [Veraguas] 
TABOGA  ISLAND: 

Lantana  camara   var.  moritziana    (Otto  &  Dietr.)  Lopez-Palacios 
PEARL  ISLANDS: 

Stachytarpheta  cayennensis   f.  purpurea   Mold.  [Ray]* 

Stachytarpheta  guatemalensis   Mold.  [Salaga] 
CUBA: 

Citharexylum  caudatum   f ,  parvifolium   Mold,  [Pinar  del  Rio] 

Phyla  strigulosa   var,  sericea    (Kuntze)  Mold,  [Las  Villas] 

Syngonanthus  insularis   Mold,  [Pinar  del  Rfo] 

Syngonanthus  lagopodioides   f ,  minor   Mold,  [Pinar  del  Rfo] 
ISLA  DE  PINOS: 

Lantana  arida   Britton 

Syngonanthus  lagopodioides   f,  minor   Mold, 
CAYMAN  ISLANDS: 

Clerodendrum  aculeatum    (L,)  Schlecht,  [Grand  Cayman] 
JAMAICA: 

Citharexylum  fruticosum   var,  smallii   Mold, 
HISPANIOLA: 

Lantana  ciferriana   Ekra.  &  Mold.  —  delete  the  asterisk 

Lantana  involucrata   f.  rubella   Mold.  [Haiti] 

Petrea  volubilis   L.  [Dominican  Republic] 

Priva  lappulacea   f.  albiflora   Mold.  [Dominican  Republic] 
HISPANIOLAN  OFFSHORE  ISLANDS: 

Lantana  ciferriana   Ekm.  &  Mold.  [Cabritos] 
PUERTO  RICO: 

Clerodendrum  wallichii   Merr, 

Priva  lappulacea   f,  albiflora   Mold, 
PUERTO  RICAN  OFFSHORE  ISLANDS: 

Citharexylum  fruticosum   L,  [Cabras] 


1983  Moldenke,  Sixth  summary  supplement  233 

Lantana   involucrata   L.  [Icacos] 
VIRGIN  ISLANDS: 

Duranta  repens   f.  integrifolia    (Tod.)  Mold.  [St.  Croix] 

Holmskioldia   sanguinea   Retz.  [St.  John] 
LEEWARD  ISLANDS: 

Citharexylutn  fruticosum   L,  [Desirade] 

Citharexylum  spinosum   L.  [Desirade  &  Marie  Galante] 

Lantana   involucrata   f,  kubnboltziana    Stehle'  [Petite  Terre]* 

Lantana   involucrata   f,  nivea   Stehl^  —  to  be  deleted 

Priva   lappulacea   f.  albiflora   Mold.  [Guadeloupe] 

Stachytarpheta   jamaicensis    (L.)  Vahl  [Saba] 
WINDWARD  ISLANDS: 

Phyla  nodiflora   var.  antillana   Mold,  [Barbados] 
TRINIDAD  &  TOBAGO: 

Lantana  lockhartii    (Griseb.)  D,  Don  [Charcachacare] 

Stachytarpheta  jamaicensis   f,  atrocoerulea   Mold,  [Trinidad] 
SOUTHERN  NETHERLANDS  ANTILLES: 

Lantana  arida   Britton  [Cura9ao] 

Lantana  arubensis   Mold.  [Bonaire] 

Lantana  camara   var,  moritziana   f,  parvifolia    (Mold.)  Mold. 
[Aruba] 

Stachytarpheta  jamaicensis   f.  atrocoerulea   Mold.  [Bonaire] 
NORTHERN  SOUTH  AMERICAN  ISLANDS: 

Citharexylum  caudatum   f ,  parvifolium  Mold,  [Providencia] 

Lantana  involucrata   var.  odorata    (L.)  Mold,  [San  Andres] 

Stachytarpheta  jamaicensis   f.  atrocoerulea   Mold,  [Margarita  & 
San  Andres] 
SWAN  ISLANDS: 

Lantana   involucrata   L.  [Great  Swan] 
COLOMBIA: 

Aegiphila  mollis   var.  longi folia    (Turcz.)  Lopez-Palacios 
[Valle] 

Aegiphila  novogranatensis   Mold.  [Nariilo] 

Aegiphila  novogranatensis   f,  grandifolia   Mold.  [Cundlnamarca] 

Aegiphila  peruviana   Turcz,  —  to  be  deleted 

Aegiphila  peruviana   var.  oblongifolia    (Rusby)  Mold,  [Bolivar] 

Citharexylum  karsteni   var,  lanceolatum   Mold.  [Boyaca] 

Citharexylum  suicatum  Mold,  [Bcyaca] 

Eriocaulon  microcephalum   H,B,K,  —  delete  "Magdalena" 

Eriocaulon   spruceanum   KHrn.  [Meta] 

Lantana   colombiana   Lopez-Palacios  [Antioquia] 

Lantana    trifolia   L.  [Caqueta] 

Lantana   trifolia   f.  hirsuta   Mold.  [Nariflo] 

Lippia  alba   f.  intermedia   Mold.  [Amazonas] 

Lippia  americana   L.  [Boyaci] 

Paepalanthus  andicola   Ktim,  [Santander  &  Valle] 

Paepalanthus  fasciculatus   f.  iganensis   Herzog  [Vaupe's] 

Paepalanthus  fasciculatus   f,  tenellus   Herzog  [Vaupe's] 

Paepalanthus  meridensis   Klotzsch  [Norte  de  Santander] 

Paepalanthus  pauperrimus   Herzog  [Vaupes] 

Petrea  algentryi   Mold,  [Choco]* 


234  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Petrea  colombiana   Mold.  [Amazonas] 
Priva  lappulacea   f,  albiflora   Mold,  [Atlantico] 
Stachytarpbeta  canescens   H.B.K,  [Antioquia] 

Stachytarpheta  jamaicensis   f.  atrocoerulea   Mold,  [Cundinamarca] 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   var,  hatschbachii   Mold.  [Meta] 
Syngonanthus  xeranthetnoides    (Bong.)  Ruhl,  [Meta] 
Tonina  fluviatilis   f,  parvifolia   Mold.  [Choc($] 
VENEZUELA: 

Aegiphila  glandulifera   var,  para&nsis   Mold.  [Amazonas] 

Aegiphila  lewisiana   Mold.  [Guarico,  Portuguesa,  &  T^chira] 

Aegiphila  macrantha   Ducke  [Delta  Aiaacuro] 

Aegiphila  mollis   var.  intermedia   Mold.  [Zulia] 

Aegiphila  novogranatensis   Mold,  [Trujillo] 

Aegiphila  perplexa   Mold.  [Sucre] 

Citharexylum  karsteni   Mold,  [M^rida] 

Eriocaulon  klotzschii   f.  proliferum   (Mold.)  Mold,  — to  be  deleted 

Eriocaulon  spruceanum   KHrn,  [Amazonas] 

Lantana  armata   Schau.  [Anzo^tegui] 

Lantana  camara   var.  moritziana   f.  parvifolia    (Mold.)  Lopez- 

Palacios  [Apure] 
Lantana   tri folia   f.  hirsuta   Mold.  [Trujillo] 
Leiothrix  amazonica   Mold.  [Bolivar] 

Leiothrix  flavescens   var.  chimantensis   Mold,  [Bolivar]* 
Leiothrix  marahuacensis   Mold.  [Amazonas]* 
Leiothrix  mucronata   var.  glabra   Mold.  [Bolivar]* 
Lippia  micromera   Schau,  [Anzo^tegui] 
Paepalanthus  andicola   var,  villosus   Mold,  [Merida] 
Paepalanthus  apacarensis   var,  humilis   Mold,  [Boll^var]* 
Paepalanthus  barkleyi   Mold,  [Merida] 
Paepalanthus  convexus   var,  major   Mold,  [Boldivar] 
Paepalanthus  duidae   var,  parvifolius   Mold,  [Amazonas]* 
Paepalanthus  fasciculatus   f,  iganensis   Herzog  [Amazonas  & 

Bolfvar] 
Paepalanthus  fraternus   var.  chimantensis   Mold.  [Bollvat]* 
Paepalanthus  fulgidus   var.  zuloagensis   Mold,  [Bolivar] 
Paepalanthus  kunhardtii   Mold.  [Bolfvar] 
Paepalanthus  meridensis   Klotzsch  [Trujillo] 
Petrea  pubescens   f,  albicalyx   Mold,  [T^chira  &  Trujillo]* 
Phyla  betulaefolia    (H,B,K,)  Greene  [Portuguesa] 
Stachytarpheta  angustissima   Mold,  [Bolfvar] 
Stachytarpheta  dichotoma    (Ruiz  &  Pav.)  Vahl  [Monagas] 
Stachytarpheta  jamaicensis   f,  atrocoerulea   Mold,  [Delta  Ama- 

curo  &  Sucre] 
Stachytarpheta  roraimensis   var,  pubescens   Mold,  [Bolivar] 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   var,  bellohorizontinus   Alv,  Silv, 

[Amazonas] 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   var,  hirsutus   Mold,  [Bolivar]* 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   f,  longifolius   Mold,  [Guarico] 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   var,  proliferus   Mold,  [Bolivar] 
Syngonanthus  densus    (KfJm,)  Ruhl,  [Bolivar] 
Syngonanthus  drouetii   var,  parviceps   Mold,  [Amazonas]* 
Syngonanthus  fertilis    (K8rn,)  Ruhl,  [Bolfvar] 


1983  Moldenke,  Sixth  summary  supplement  235 

Syngonanthus  fertllis   var,  glandulosus    (Gleason)  Mold.  [Amazonas] 

Syr.gonanthus  gracilis   var.  aureus  Ruhl,  [Boli^var  &  Gu^rico] 

Syngonanthus  gracilis   var.  hirtellus    (Steud.)  Ruhl.  [Guarico] 

Syngonanthus  gracilis   var.  tenuissimus   Ruhl,  [Anzo^tegui] 

Syngonanthus  heteropeploides   Herzog  [Bolivar] 

Syngonanthus  humboldtii    (Kunth)  Ruhl.  [Bolivar] 

Syngonanthus  macrocaulon   Ruhl.  [Amazonas] 

Syngonanthus  nitens    (Bong.)  Ruhl.  [Amazonas] 

Syngonanthus  simplex   (Miq.)  Ruhl.  [Guirico] 

Syngonanthus  xeranthemoides   var.  alpinus   Mold,  [Bolivar]* 

Vitex  capitata   f,  albiflora   Mold.  [Apure] 
GUYANA: 

Aegiphila  amazonica   Mold.  —  to  be  deleted 

Clerodendrum  rusbyi   Mold. 

Syngonanthus  macrocaulon   Ruhl. 
SURINAM: 

Paepalanthus  fasciculatus   f.  sphaerocephalus   Herzog 

Paepalanthus  polytrichoides   var.  glaber   Mold. 

Stachytarpheta  jamaicensis   f.  atrocoerule:"   Mold. 

Vitex  triflora   var,  coriacea   Huber 
ECUADOR: 

Aegiphila  novogranatensis   Mold.  [Esmeraldas] 

Aegiphila  novogranatensis   f.  grandifolia   Mold.  [Esmeraldas] 

Aloysia   scorodonioides   var.  detonsa    (Briq.)  Mold,  [Imbabura] 

Aloysia   scorodonioides   var.  orbicularis   Mold,  [Loja] 

Citharexylum  gentry i   Mold.  [Guayas] 

Lantana  fiebrigii   Hayek  [Tungurana] 

Lippia  lojensis   Mold.  [Loja]* 

Verbena  litoralis   H.B.K,  [Moreno-Santiago] 
PERU: 

Aegiphila  amazonica   Mold.  —  to  be  deleted 

Aegiphila  glabrata   f.  macrophylla   Mold.  [Loreto]* 

Duranta  coriacea   Hayek  [Plura] 

Duranta  pseudorepens   Mold,  [Cajamarca] 

Duranta  rupestris   Hayek  [Puno] 

Duranta  sprucei   Briq.  [Cajamarca] 

Lantana  cujabensis   Schau.  [Cajamarca  &  Pasco] 

Lantana  maxima   Hayek  [Cajamarca] 

Lantana   scabiosaeflora   H.B.K,  [Moquegua] 

Lantana  svensonii   f,  albiflora   Mold.  [Cajamarca] 

Lippia  alba    (Mill.)N.  E.  Br.  [Pasco] 

Lippia  americana   f,  hyptoides   (Benth.)  Mold.  [Lambayeque] 

Paepalanthus  stuebelianus   Ruhl.  [Piura] 

Petrea  rivularis   Mold.  [Loreto] 

Stachytarpheta  cayennensis    (L.  C,  Rich.)  Vahl  [Cajamarca  & 
Madre  de  Dfos] 

Verbena  weberbaueri   Hayek  [Cajamarca] 

Vitex  klugii   Mold.  [Pasco] 

Vitex  triflora   Vahl  [Madre  de  Djfos] 
BRAZIL: 

Aegiphila  amazonica   Mold.  —  to  be  deleted 

Aegiphila  crenata   Mold,  [Gci^s] 


236  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Aegiphila  paraguariensis   Briq.  [Roraima] 
Aegiphila  salticola   Mold,  [Amazonas] 
Aloysia  virgata    (Ruiz  &  Pav.)  A,  L.  Juss,  [Maranhfio] 
Aloysia  virgata   var.  elliptica    (Briq.)  Mold.  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Avicennia  schaueriana   f.  candicans   Mold,  [Alagoas] 
Bouchea  chascanoides   Mold.  [Bahia] 
Casselia  chamaedry folia   Cham.  [Maranhffo] 
Citharexylum  myrianthum   var,  bahiense   Mold,  [Bahia]* 
Clerodendrum  rusbyi   Mold,  —  delete  the  asterisk 
Duranta  vestita   var,  glabrescens   Mold,  [Parana] 
Eriocaulon  guyanense   K8rn,  [Amazonas] 

Eriocaulon  palludicola   Alv,  Silv,  [Minas  Gerais]*  orig,  spell, 
Eriocaulon  spruceanum   f,  fluitans   Herzog  [Araap^] 
Eriocaulon  tenuifolium   f.  viviparum   Mold.  —  delete  the  asterisk 
Ghinia  spicata    (Aubl.)  Mold.  [Alagoas] 
Lantana   achyranthi folia   Desf.  [Minas  Gerais] 

Lantana  aristata   var.  angustifolia    (Kuntze)  Mold.  [Distrito  Fed- 
eral] 
Lantana  bahiensis   Turcz.  [Redonda  Island] 
Lantana  camara   var.  woritziana    (Otto  &  Dietr.)  Lopez-Palacios 

[Distrito  Federal] 
Lantana  camara   f.  parvifolia   Mold,  [Santa  Catarina] 
Lantana  canescens   f,  parvifolia   Mold.  [Para]* 
Lantana  canescens   f,  pluripedunculata   Mold.  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Lantana  hypoleuca   Schau.  [Distrito  Federal] 
Lantana  lundiana   Schau.  [Distrito  Federal  &  Goias] 
Lantana  maxima   Hayek  [Par^] 

Lantana  pobliana   Schau,  [Rio  Grande  do  Norte] 
Lantana  punctulata   Mold.  [Alagoas] 
Lantana   tiliaefolia   Cham.  [Distrito  Federal] 
Lantana   triplinervia   Turcz.  [Distrito  Federal] 
Lantana   triplinervia   f .  armata   Mold.  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Lantana  undulata   Schrank  [Jo5o  da  Cunha  Island] 
Lantana   viscosa   Pohl  [Espirito  Santo] 
Leiothrix  amazonica   Mold,  —  delete  the  asterisk 
Leiothrix  flavescens   (Bong,)  Ruhl,  [Distrito  Federal] 
Lippia  alba   f,  intermedia   Mold.  [Amaz6nas  &  Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Lippia  elegans   Cham,  [Distrito  Federal] 
Lippia  glandulosa   Schau,  [Goi^s] 
Lippia  gracilis   Schau,  [Distrito  Federal] 
Lippia  lasiocalycina   Cham.  [Distrito  Federal] 
Lippia  origanoides   H.B.K,  [Minas  Gerais] 

Lippia  rotundifolia   var,  cordata   Mold,  [Distrito  Federal]* 
Paepalanthus  argenteus   var,  viridis   Mold,  [Minas  Gerais]* 
Paepalanthus  capanemae   Alv,  Silv,  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Paepalanthus  capillaris    (Bong,)  KOrn,  [Distrito  Federal] 
Paepalanthus  elongatus   var,  glabrescens   Mold,  [Distrito  Federal] 
Paepalanthus  formosus   Mold,  [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus  fulgidus   var,  zuloagensis   Mold,  — delete  the  "*" 
Paepalanthus  glaziovii   Ruhl,  [Goi^s] 
Paepalanthus  longicaulis   var,  glaber   Mold.  —  to  be  deleted 


1983  Moldenke,  Sixth  summary  supplement  237 

Paepalanthus  macropodus   var.  glaber    (Mold.)  Hold.  [Bahia  & 

Minas  Gerais] 
Paepalanthus  polytrichoides   var.  glaber   Mold,  [Roralma] 
Paepalanthus  pullus   Kyrn.  [Par^] 
Paepalanthus  saxicola   KBrn.    [Mato  Grosso] 
Paepalanthus  speciosus   var.  goyazensis   Mold.  [Distrito  Federal 

&  Goiis]* 
Stachytarpheta  chamissonis   var,  longipetiolata   Mold.  [GoiiCs]* 
Stachytarpheta  dichotoma    (Ruiz  &  Pav.)  Vahl  [Mato  Grosso] 
Stachytarpheta  gesnerioides   var,  simplex   (Hayek)  Mold,  [Distri- 
to Federal] 
Stachytarpheta   jamaicensis   f,  atrocoerulea   Mold,  [Espirito 

Santo  &  Matto  Grosso] 
Stachytarpheta  laevis   Mold,  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Stachytarpheta  maximiliani   var,  glabrata   Schau.  [Alagoas] 
Stachytarpheta   schottiana   var,  angustifolia   Mold,  [Rio  de 

Janeiro]* 
Syngonanthus  arenarius   var.  heterophyllus   (KHrn.)  Ruhl,  [Ama- 

z6nas] 
Syngonanthus  aurifibratus   Alv,  Silv,  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   var.  bellohorizontinus   Alv.  Silv.  — 

delete  the  asterisk 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   var.  gardnerianus   Mold.* 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   var.  hatschbachii   Mold.  [Distrito  Fed- 
eral, Parani,  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Santa  Catarina,  &  Sao 
Paulo]  —  delete  the  asterisk 
Syngonanthus  caulescens   var.  proliferus   Mold.  —  delete  the 

asterisk 
Syngonanthus  elegans    (Bong,)  Ruhl,  [Amazonas] 
Syngonanthus  elegantulus   var.  glabrifolius   Mold,  [Amazonas]* 
Syngonanthus  glandulosus   f,  epapillosus    (Mold,)  Meld,  [Ro- 

raima] 
Syngonanthus  gracilis   var,  tenuissimus   Ruhl,  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Syngonanthus  heterophyllus   Alv.  Silv.  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Syngonanthus  leprieuri    (KBrn.)  Ruhl.  [Amaz6nas] 
Syngonanthus  longipes   Gleason  [Distrito  Federal] 
Syngonanthus  nitens   f .  pilosus  Mold.  [Amazonas] 
Syngonanthus  xeranthemoides    (Bong.)  Ruhl, [Amaz6nas  &  Ronddnia] 
Syngonanthus  xeranthemoides   f,  brevifolius   Mold.  [Rio  de  Janeiro] 
Syngonanthus  xeranthemoides   var.  confusus    (KBrn.)  Meld.  [Goias] 
Tonina  fluviatilis   f.  parvi folia   Mold.  —  delete  the  asterisk 
Verbena   tenuisecta   f.  rubella   Mold.  [Mato  Grosso] 
Vitex  polygama   var,  warmingii   Mold.  [Rondonia] 
BOLIVIA: 

Aegiphila  buchtienii   Mold.  [El  Beni] 

Aegiphila  peruviana   Turcz.  —  to  be  deleted 

Aegiphila  peruviana   var.  oblongifolia    (Rusby)  Mold.  [El  Beni] 

Aloysia  boliviensis   Mold.  [La  Paz]* 

Aloysia   virgata    (Ruiz  &  Pav.)  A,  L.  Juss.  [El  Beni] 

Lantana  cujabensis   f.  scabrifolia   Mold,  [El  Beni] 

Priva  boliviana   Mold,  [El  Beni] 


238  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Vitex  pseudolea   Rusby  [El  Beni] 
PARAGUAY: 

Syngonanthus  caulescens   var.  hatschbachii   Mold, 
URUGUAY: 

Lippia  coarctata   Troncoso* 
LIBERIA: 

Clerodendrum  umbellatum   f.  scandens    (P.  Beauv.)  Mold, 
BURUNDI: 

Eriocaulon  striatum   Milne-Redhead 

Lantana  camara   f.  mutabilis    (Hook.)  Mold, 
SOUTH  AFRICA: 

Vitex  trifolia   var.  subtrisecta    (Kuntze)  Mold,  [Natal] 
COMORO  ISLANDS: 

Prenma  obtusi folia   R,  Br,  [Cosmoledo] 
IRAN: 

Verbena  rigida   Spreng, 
PAKISTAN: 

Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thellung  [Northwestern  States] 

Caryopteris  grata   Benth,  —  to  be  deleted 

Caryopteris  odorata    (Hamilt.)  B,  L.  Robinson  [Baluchistan, 
Hazara,  Lahore,  Rawalpindi,  Swat,  &  West  Punjab] 

Caryopteris  paniculata   C,  B,  Clarke  [Northwestern  States] 

Verbena   tenuisecta   f,  rubella   Mold,  [Rawalpindi] 
NEPAL: 

Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thellung 

Caryopteris  grata   Benth.  —  to  be  deleted 

Clerodendrum  lasiocephalum   C,  B,  Clarke 

Eriocaulon  xeranthemum   Heyne  —  not  "Mart," 
INDIA: 

Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thellung  [Assam,  East  Kashmir, 
Sikkim,  &  Uttar  Pradesh] 

Caryopteris  grata   Benth,  —  to  be  deleted 

Caryopteris  odorata   f.  albiflora    (Voigt)  Mold.  [East  Punjab 
&  Uttar  Pradesh] 

Eriocaulon  collinum   var.  nanum  Mold.  [Maharashtra] 

Eriocaulon  minutum   Lam.  [Gujarat] 

Eriocaulon  xeranthemum   Heyne  —  not  "Mart." 

Gmelina  arborea   Rox,  [Bombay  Island] 

Gmelina  arborea   f.  juv.  dentata   Mold.  [Siwalik  &  Jaunsar] 
BANGLADESH: 

Eriocaulon  xeranthemum   Heyne  —  not  "Mart." 
BURMA: 

Clerodendrum  colebrokianum   var.  henryanum  Mold,  [Upper  Burma] 

Eriocaulon  xerantheiaum   Heyne  —  not  "Mart." 

Petrea  volubilis   L.  [Tenasserim] 

Vitex  urceolata   C.  B.  Clarke  [Karenni] 
CHINA: 

Caryopteris  parvifolia   Batalin  —  to  be  deleted 

Clerodendrum  colebrokianum   Walp,  —  to  be  deleted 

Clerodendrum  colebrokianum   var.  henryanum  Mold.  [Anhwei  & 
YUnnan] 

Eriocaulon  alpestre   Hook,  f.  &  Thoms.  [Hupeh] 


1983  Moldenke,  Sixth  summary  supplement  239 

Eriocaulon  robustius    (Maxim.)  Mak,  [Hupeh] 
CHINESE  COASTAL  ISLANDS: 

Caryopteris   incana    (Thunb.)  Miq,  [Amoy] 
THAILAND: 

Clerodendrum  colebrokianum   var,  henryanum   Mold, 

Eriocaulon  xeranthemum   Heyne  —  not  "Mart." 
LAOS: 

Eriocaulon  nanellum   var.  laosense   Satake  —  to  be  deleted 

Eriocaulon  nepalense   var.  laosense   Satake* 
MALAYA: 

Clerodendrum  fastigiatum   (Hunter)  H.  J.  Lam  [Prince  of  Wales 
Island] 

Clerodendrum  inerme    (L.)  Gaertn.  [Prince  of  Wales  Island] 

Gmelina  asiatica   L,  [Malacca,  Negri  Sembilan,  Perak,  Prince  of 
Wales  Island,  &  Trengganu] 

Premna  cordifolia   Roxb.  [Prince  of  Wales  Island] 

Vitex  gamosepala   W.  Griff,  [Johore] 
PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS: 

Vitex  glabrata   var.  bombaci folia    (Wall.)  Mold,  [Mindanao] 

Vitex  tri folia   var.  simplici folia   Cham.  [Camiguin] 
GREATER  SUNDA  ISLANDS: 

Eriocaulon  australe     R,  Br,  [Sumatra] 

Eriocaulon  xeranthemum   Heyne  —  not  "l-Iart," 

Teijsmanniodendron  bogoriense   var,  pentaphyllum   Mold,  [Sumatra] 

Vitex  velutina    (Koord,  &  Val.)  Koord.  [Kambangan] 
MOLUCCA  ISLANDS: 

Avicennia   alba   Blume  —  to  be  deleted 

Avicennia  alba   var.  lati folia   Mold,  [Ceram] 
GILBERT  ISLANDS: 

Premna  obtusifolia   R,  Br,  [Aonteuma] 
AUSTRALIA: 

Dicrastylis  exsuccosa   var,  tomentosa   f,  lachnophylla   Munir 
[Western  Australia] 

Eriocaulon  hooperae   Mold.  [Western  Australia]* 
CULTIVATED : 

Aloysia  looseri   Mold.  [Brazil] 

Aloysia  polystachya    (Griseb.)  Mold.  [Costa  Rica] 

Aloysia   triphylla    (L'H^r.)  Britton  [Turkey] 

Aloysia  virgata   var.  elliptica    (Briq.)  Mold.  [Thailand] 

Avicennia  alba   Blume  [Texas] 

Avicennia  alba   var.  lati folia   Mold.  [Texas] 

Avicennia  bicolor   Standi.  [Texas] 

Avicennia   eucalypti  folia   Zipp.  [Texas] 

Avicennia  germinans   (L.)  L,  [Texas] 

Avicennia   germinans   var.  guayaquilensis    (H.B.K.)  Mold,  [Texas] 

Avicennia  marina   var,  resinifera    (Forst,  f,)  Bakh,  [Texas] 

Avicennia  marina   var,  rumphiana    (H,  Hallier)  Bakh,  [Texas] 

Avicennia   tonduzii   Mold,  [Texas] 

Callicarpa  longifolia   Lam,  [Michigan] 

Caryopteris  Xclandonensis   Simmonds  [California,  District  of  Colum- 
bia, Netherlands,  &  Washimgton] 

Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thellung  [Burma  &  England] 


240  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Caryopteris  grata   Benth,  —  to  be  deleted 

Caryopteris  incana    (Thunb.)  Mlq.  [Bulgaria  &  Hungary] 

Caryopteris  incana   f.  nana    (Dreer)  Mold,  [Japan  &  Pennsylvania] 

Caryopteris  incana   f.  superba    (Dreer)  Mold,  [Netherlands] 

Caryopteris  mongholica   Bunge  [France  &  Ireland] 

Caryopteris  odorata   f.  albiflora    (Voigt)  Mold.  —  delete  the 
asterisk 

Citharexylum  oleinum   (Benth.)  Mold.  [California] 

Clerodendrum  colebrokianum   Walp,  [Mexico] 

Clerodendrum  indicum   (L.)  Kuntze  [Trinidad] 

Clerodendrum  trichotomum   Thunb.  [Oregon] 

Duranta  repens   L,  [Turkey] 

Gmelina  arborea   Roxb.  [Cuba,  Dominican  Republic,  Fiji  Islands, 
Kenya,  Malaya,  Nicaragua,  Puerto  Rico,  Sabah,  Solomon 
Islands,  South  Africa,  &  Tanganyika] 

Gmelina  elliptica   J,  E.  Sm,  [China] 

Gmelina  leichhardtii    (F,  Muell.)  F.  Muell.  [Kenya  &  South  Af- 
rica] 

Gmelina  philippensis   Cham.  [Trinidad  &  Zimbabwe] 

Holmskioldia   tettensis    (Klotzsch)  Vatke  [Puerto  Rico  &  St. 
Croix] 

Lantana  camara   L,  [Turkey] 

Lantana  camara   f.  flava    (Medic.)  Mold.  [Maryland] 

Lantana  camara   f.  mista    (L.)  Meld.  [Maryland] 

Lantana  fiebrigii   Hayek  [Peru] 

Lantana  glutinosa   Poepp.  [Peru] 

Lantana  hispida   H.B.K.  [El  Salvador] 

Lantana  montevidensis    (Spreng.)  Briq.  [Arizona] 

Lantana  velutina   f.  violacea   Mold.  [Arizona] 

Lippia  alba    OliH.)  N,  E.  Br.  [Nicaragua] 

Lippia  alba   f.  intermedia   Mold.  [Austria] 

Premna  pyramidata   Wall,  [India] 

Premna   tomentosa   Willd.  [India] 

Tectona  grandis   f .  canescens   Mold,  [Venezuela] 

Verbena  canadensis    (L,)  Britton  [Florida  &  Ohio] 

Vitex  agnus-castus   L.  [Malawi] 

Vitex  agnus-castus   f,  latifolia    (Mill.)  Rehd,  [District  of  Co- 
lumbia, Florida,  &  Maryland] 

Vitex  glabrata   R,  Br.  [India] 

Vitex  negundo   var.  heterophylla    (Franch.)  Rehd,  [Maryland] 

Vitex  trifolia   var.  subtrisecta    (Kuntze)  Mold,  [Kwajalein  & 
Rita  Islands] 

II.  Additional  and  emended  rejected  names,  including  misspellings 
and  variations  in  accredition 

Acrocephalus   Benth.  —  in  the  Lamiaceae 
Aeghyphyla   H^ringer  =  Aegiphila   Jacq. 
Aegifila   Angely  =  Aegiphila   Jacq. 

Aegiphila  amazonica   Mold.  =  A,   integrifolia   var,  guyanensis 
(Mold.)  Lrfpez-Palacios 


1983  Moldenke,  Sixth  summary  supplement  2A1 

Aegiphila  Ibotskijana   Cham,  "A,   Ihotzkiana   Cham. 

Aegipbila  martinicensis   var.  martinicensis   [Jacq.]  =  ;i,  martini- 

censis   Jacq. 
Aegiphila  martiniquensis   Jacq,  *•  A.   martinicensis   Jacq. 
Aegiphila  oblongifolia   Rusby  =  A,  peruviana   var,  oblongifolia 

(Rusby)  Mold,* 
Aegipobylla   Heringer  •»  Aegiphila   Jacq. 
Apata   Ad.  ■=  Avicennia   L. 
Armenia  strum   Lem.  —  in  the  Goetziaceae 
Avicennia  africans   Rollet  ''A.   africana   P,  Beauv. 

Avicennia   tomentosa  0   campechiensis   H,B,K,  ■=  A,   germinans    (L.)  L, 
Avicennia   tomentosa^     owarensis   Walp,  =  A.  africana   P.  Beauv. 
Barbula   sinensis   Lour.  •=  Caryopteris  incana   f.  Candida    (Schneid.) 

Hara* 
Basistemon  brasiliense   Hold.  =  Citharexylum  brachyanthum    (A, 

Gray)  A,  Gray 
Callicarpa  petitandra   Roxb,  ■=  Geunsia   furfuracea    (Bakh,)  Meld, 
Caropteria   Grindal  «=  Caryopteris   Bunge 
Caropteria   P'ei  =  Caryopteris   Bunge 

Caropteria   glutinosa   Rehd,  ••  Caryopteris  glutinosa   Rehd. 
Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thell,  —  to  be  deleted 
Caryopteris  foetida   Thell.  =  C,  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thellung 
Caryopteris  grata   Benth,  ■=  C.  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thellung 
Caryopteris  grata   Benth,  &  Hook.  =  C.  foetida    (D.  Don)  Thellung 
Caryopteris  grata   Kurz  •=  C,  paniculata   C,  B,  Clarke 
Caryopteris  incana   f,  candicans    (Schneid.)  Hara  =  C,  incana   f. 

Candida    (Schneid.)  Hara 
Carypoteris  incana  Candida   Cy,  =  C,  incana   f.  Candida    (Schneid.) 

Hara 
Caryopteris  incana   var.  nana    (Dreer)  Mold,  =  C,  incana   f,  nana 

(Dreer)  Mold, 
Caryopteris  incania   Miq,  =  c.  incana    (Thunb.)  Miq, 
Caryopteris  mastacantbus   var,  alba   Bean  =  C.  incana   f,  Candida 

(Schneid,)  Hara 
Caryopteris  mastacanthus   var,  candicans   Bean  =  c.  incana   f.  Candida 

(Schneid.)  Hara 
Caryopteris  mastac,   Candida   Hort.  =  C.  incana   f.  Candida    (Schneid.) 

Hara 
Caryopteris  odorata    (D,  Don)  B,  L,  Robinson  =  C,  odorata    (Hamilt,) 

B.  L,  Robinson 
Caryopteris  paniculatas   P'ei  =  C.  paniculata   C,  B,  Clarke 
Caryopteris  parvifolia   Batalin  =  Plectranthus  parvifolia    (Batalin) 

W,  A,  Talbot,  Lamiaceae 
Caryopteris  rangutica    [Bean]  =  C.  incana    (Thunb.)  Miq. 
Caryopteris  wallichiana   Bunge  =  C„  odorata    (Hamilt.)  B.  L.  Robin- 
son 
Caryoptueris   P'ei  =  Caryopteris   Bunge 
Cbastanum   Mold.  =  Chascanum   E.  Mey, 

Chastanum  latifolium   Mold,  ■=  Chascanum  latifolium    (Harv.)  Mold, 
Chastanuin  latifolium   var,  transvaalense   Mold.  =  Chascanum  latifol- 
ium  var.  transvaalense   Mold. 
Cbloanthes  steochadis   Pv,  Br,  =  C,  stoechadis   R,  Br, 


242  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Citharexylum  subserratum   Auct.  =  C.  spinosum   L. 

Clerodendron  foetidum   D.  Don  •=  Caryopteris  foetida    (D.  Don) 
Thellung* 

Clerodendron  foetidum   Hamilt.  =  Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don) 
Thellung 

Clerodendron  granum   Jameson  =  Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thel- 
lung* 

Clerodendron  gratum   Benth.  =  Caryopteris  foetida    (D.  Don)  Thel- 
lung* 

Clerodendron  gratum   Wall,  =  Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thellung 

Clerodendron  odoratum   Buch.-Ham.  =  Caryopteris  odorata    (Hamilt.) 
B.  L.  Robinson 

Clerodendron  odoratum   Ham.  =  Caryopteris  odorata    (Hamilt.)  B.  L. 
Robinson 

Clerodendron  pithecobium   Standi.  &  Steyerm.  '^Gibsoniothamnus 
cornutus    (Donn.  Sm.)  A.  Gentry,  Scrophulariaceae 

Clerodendrum  epiphyticum   Sta'.ndl.  =  Gibsoniothamnus  epiphyticum 
(Standi.)  L.  Wms,,  Scrophulariaceae 

Clerodendrum  foetidum  D,  Don  =  Caryopteris  foetida   (D.  Don) 
Thellung* 

Clerodendrum  granum  Jameson  =  Caryopteris  foetida   (D.  Don)  Thel- 
lung* 

Clerodendrum  odoratum   (Ham.)  D.  Don  =  Caryopteris  odorata   (Ham^ 
lit.)  B.  L.  Robinson 

Clerodendrum  umbellalum  Angely  =  C.  umbellatum   Poir. 

Clerodendrum  umbellalum  var.  speciosum  Angely  =  C,  thomscnae   f . 
speciosum   (Teijsm.  &  Binn.)  Voss 

Congea  tuberosa   Roxb.  =  C.    tomentosa   Roxb. 

Cornutia  piramidata   Mold.  =  C.  pyramidata   L. 

Cornutia  piramidata   var.  isthmica   Mold.  =  C,  pyramidata   var, 
isthmica   Mold, 

Cytharexyllum  macrophyllum   Poir.  =  Citharexylum  macrophyllum 
Poir. 

Dematha   P,  Herm.  =  Gmelina   L. 

Eriocaulon  beyrichianum   Spcrleder  =  Lachnocaulon  beyrichianum 
Sporleder 

Eriocaulon  cabraliense   Alv,  Silv.  =  E,  cabralense  Alv.  Silv, 

Eriocaulon  diaguissence   R,  Bourdou  =  E.   sessile  Meikle 

Eriocaulon  elionorum   Shah  =  E,   minimum   Lam. 

Eriocaulon  fuligineum   C,  Wright  =  E,   fuliginosum   C,  Wright 

Eriocaulon  manfeense  Meikle  =  E,  mawfeense  Meikle 

Eriocaulon  melaleucum   Heyne  =  E,   leucomelas   Steud. 

Eriocaulon  nanellum   var,  laosense   Satake  =  E.  nepalense   var. 
laosense   Satake 

Eriocaulon  palludicola   Alv.  Silv.  —  to  be  deleted 

Eriocaulon  paludicola   Alv.  Silv.  =  E,   palludicola   Alv.  Silv. 

Eriocaulon  pubigerum   Kunth  •=  E.   pubigerum   Bong, 

Eriocaulon  puzulaefolium   Mart,  ■=  E,   luzulaefolium  Mart. 

Eriocaulon  pygmaeum   Soland.  ex  Smith  ■=  E,  pygmaeum   Soland. 

Eriocaulon  sericans   sensu  Hooker  =  E,   infirmum   Steud. 

Eriocaulon  sieboldianum   sensu  Hook,  =  E,   redactum   Ruhl, 


1983  Moldenke,  Sixth  summary  supplement  243 

Eriocaulon  xeranthemim   Mart,  ■»  E,   xeranthemum   Heyne* 

Eriocaulon  xeranthemum   Mart,  •=  E.   xeranthemum   Heyne* 

Eriocaulon  xeranthemum   Mart.  &  Wall.  "   E,   xeranthemum   Heyne* 

Gmelia   arbor ea   Qureshi  «=  Gmelina   arbor ea   Roxb. 

Gmelina  arborea   var.  arborea    [Rcxb.]  =  G.   arborea   Roxb. 

Gmelina  parvifolia   Sch,  ■■  G.  asiatica   L, 

Gmelina  rheedi   Hook.  ■  G,   arborea   f,  juv,  dentata   Mold.* 

Gmelina  rheedi i   Hook,  ■•  G.  arborea   f.  juv.  dentata   Mold,* 

Gmeline  pbilippense   Cham.  =  Gmelina  philippensis   Cham. 

Gramen  junceum  chamaemeli  capitulis,   aphyllis   Herm,  =  Eriocaulon 

quinquangulare   L, 
Lantana  balansae   f.  albiflora   Mold,  =  L.   balansae   f,  albiflora 

Osten  &  Mold. 
Lantana   fiebriquii   Hayek  =  ^«  ficbrigii   Hayek 
Lantana  hispida   var,  hispida    [H,B,K,]  =  L,  hispida   H.B.K, 
Lantana   involucrata   f.  alba   Stehle  =  L.  involucrata   f. 

kuhnholtziana   Stehle 
Lantana  involucrata   f.  nivea   Stehle  •=  L.   involucrata   f, 

kuhnholtziana   Stehle 
Lantana  languinosa   Mill,  =  L.  involucrata   var.  odorata    (L,)  Meld. 
Lantana  lanuginosa   Mill.  =  L.  involucrata   var.  odorata    (L.)  Mold, 
Lantana  peduncularis   var.  peduncularis   [Anderss.]  =  L.   peduncu- 

laris   Anderss, 
Lantana  rubela   Mold.  =  L.  rubella   Mold, 
Leiothrix  rufula   L,  C,  Rich,  in  Walp.  =  L,  rufula    (A,  St.- 

Hil.)  Ruhl. 
Lippia  macromera   Rels  &  Lipp  =  L.  micromera   Schau, 
Lippia  micromelum   Meijer  &  Sm.  =  L,  micromera   Schau, 
Lippia  nutan   Rob,  &  Greenra.  =  L,  bracteosa    (Mart,  &  Gal,)  Mold. 
Lippia  stoechadiifolia   H.B.K,  =  Phyla   stoechadi folia    (L,)  Small 
Lycium  maderaspatanum  indici  alpino  putati  aemulum,   foliis 

minoribus    (S  majoribus)    bijugis  &  grandioribus 

aculeis  horridum   Pluk,  =  Gmelina  asiatica   L, 
Paepalantbus  bahiensis    (Bong.)  Ruhl.  •=  P,  bahiensis    (Bong,)  Kunth 
Paepalanthus  fastigiatus    (Bong,)  Ruhl.  =  P.  fastigiatus    (Bong.) 

Kunth 
Paepalanthus  lingicaulis   var.  glaber   Mold.  =P.  macropodus   var. 

glaber    (Mold.)  Mold, 
Paepalanthus  longicaulis   var.  glaber   Mold.  =  P.  macropodus   var, 

glaber    (Mold,)  Mold. 
Paepalanthus  plumosus    (Bong.)  Ruhl.  =  P,  plumosus    (Bong.)  KHrn. 
Paepalanthus  polytrichoides   Benth,  =  P.  polytrichoides   Kunth 
Paepalanthus  polytrichoides   var.  glabra   Mold,  =  P.  polytrich- 
oides  var»  glaber   Mold, 
Paepalanthus  potyanthus   A'^gely  =  P.  polyanthus    (Bong.)  Kunth 
Paepalanthus  potyanthus   var.  villosus   Angely  =  P.  polyanthus   f, 

villosus    (Beauverd)  Mold. 
Paepalanthus  pubigerus   Kunth  =  Eriocaulon  pubigerum   Bong, 
Paepalanthus  riedelianus    (Bong.)  Ruhl.  =  P.  riedelianus    (Bong.) 

Ktirn, 
Paepalanthus  rigidus    (Bong,)  Ruhl,  =  P.  rigidus    (Bong.)  Kunth 
Paepalanthus  saxatilis    (Bong.)  Ruhl.  »  P.  saxatilis    (Bong.)  KHrn, 


244  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Paepalanthus  tortilis    (Bong.)  Ruhl.  =  P.  tortilis    (Bong.)  Mart, 

Paepalanthus  tuberosus    (Bong.)  Ruhl,  =  P.  tuberosus    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Paepalanthus  viliipes   Mold.  =  P.  villipes   Mold. 

Petraeovitex  philippinensis   Merr.  =  P.  trifoliata   Merr. 

Petraeovitex  temata   Hall.  f.  =  P,  trifoliata   Merr, 

Petrea  pubescens  klugii   Mold.  =  P.  pubescens   var.  klugii   Mold. 

Petrea  volubilis   Auct.  =  P.  racemosa   Nees 

Petrea  volubilis   var.  kohautiana    (Presl)  Stehle  =  P.  kohautiana 

Presl 
Philodice  cuyabensis   (Bong.)  Ruhl.  =  P.  cuyabensis   (Bong.)  KOrn. 
Pipalanthus   Kunth  =  Paepalanthus   Mart. 

Pipalanthus  pilosus   Kunth  =  Paepalanthus  pilosus    (H.B.K,)  Kunth 
Pityrodia  quadrangular is   Munir  =  P.  quadrangulata   Munlr 
Premma  parvifolia   Roth  =  Gmelina  asiatica   L. 

Premna  anthopotamia   Hand.-Mazz.  =  P.  ant ho pot arnica   Hand.-Mazz. 
Prunus  indica   sylvestris  fructu  flavo,  pyriforme   Burm.  =  Gmelina 

asiatica   L. 
Prunus  indica  sylvestriSf   fructu  flavo  pyriformi   Burm.  =  Gmelina 

asiatica   L. 
Recodia   Mold.  =  Recordia   Mold. 
Rhedera   Seymour  =  Rehdera   Hold. 
Stachytarpheta  hibrida   Mold.  =  s.  hybrida   Mold, 
Syngonanthus  fischerianum   (Bong.)  Ruhl.  •=  S,  fischerianus    (Bong.) 

Ruhl. 
Syngonanthus  nitens   var.  hirtelus   Ruhl,  =  s.   nitens   var.  hirtulus 

Ruhl. 
Taligalia   Robledo  •*  Amasonia   L.  f. 
Verbena  chacoensis  Mold.  =  V.   chacensis   Mold. 

Verbena  diffusa   var,  tenuifolia   Barratt  =  V,  Xengelmannii   Mold, 
Verbena  incarnata   Raf.  =  V.  urticifolia   f*  incarnata    (Raf.)  Mold. 
Verbena  officinalis   var.  halei    (Small)  Barber  =  V.  halei   Small 
Verbena   urticifolia  ^   floribus  rubicundis   Willd.  =  V,   urticifolia 

f.  incarnata    (Raf.)  Meld.* 
Verbena   urticifolia   var.  incarnata    (Raf.)  Mold.  =  V.  urticifolia 

f,  incarnata    (Raf.)  Mold. 
Vitex  altissima   Moon  =  V,  altissima   L,  f. 
Vitex  kurkovii   Mold.  =  V,  krukovii   Mold, 
Vitex  litoralis   Reis  &  Llpp  ■=  Verbena  litoralis   H.B.K, 
Vitex  pentaphylla   Merr.  =  V»   glabrata   f.  bombacifolia    (Wall.) 

Mold.* 
Vitex  philippinensis   Merr.  =  Teijsmanniodendron  pteropodum   f . 

cristatum   Mold.* 
Vitex  poara   Corbishley  =  V,  pooara   Corbishley 
Vitex  quinquefoliata   Merr.  =  V,   glabrata   f.  bombacifolia    (Wall.) 

Mold. 
Vitex  rotundifolia   var.  heterophylla    (Roxb.)  Mak.  =  V.  quinata 

(Lour.)  F.  N.  Will. 
Vitex  rotundifolia   var.  heterophylla    [Roxb.]  Mak.  =  V.  trifolia 

var.  subtrisecta   (Kuntze)  Mold. 
Vitex  sansibarensis   Vatke  =  V,   zanzibarensis   Vatke 
Vitex  sexdentata   Wall.  =  Caryopteris  foetida    (D.  Don)  Thellung* 


1983 


Moldenke,  Sixth  summary  supplement 


245 


Vitex  sex-dentata   Wall.  -  Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don)  Thellung 

Vitex  trifolia   Vabl  =  V.    triflora   Vahl 

Vitex  trifolia   sensu  Clarke  ■■  V,    trifolia   var,  simplici folia   Cham. 

Vitex  trifolia   var.  trifolia    [L,]  =  V.    trifolia   L, 

Volkameria   foetida   Buch.-IIam.  ■=  Caryopteris  foetida    (D,  Don) 

Thellung* 
Volkameria  foetida   Hamilt,  =  Caryopteris  foetida    (D.  Don) 

Thellung* 


ADDITIONAL  NOTES  ON  THE  ERIOCAULACEAE ,   XCII 
Harold  N.  Moldenke 


PAEPALANTHUS  BRASILIENSIS    (Itart.)  Mart, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.»  Phytologia  41:  476,  1979; 
Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  151  &  610,  1980, 

PAEPALANTHUS  BREVICAULIS   Alv,  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  137.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont,  1:  28—29,  pi,  12,  1928  (Ld,  N,  S), 

PAEPALANTHUS   BRITTONI   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  34,  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem,  2:  90  &  610,  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  BROMELIOIDES   Alv,  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  476  &  484.  1979; 
Monteiro,  Giulietti,  Mazzoni,  &  Castro,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S,  Paulo 
7:  [43],  45,  46,  52,  &  57,  fig,  51—56,  1979;  Rizzini,  Trat, 
Fitogeog,  Bras,  2:  141,  fig.  49.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  151 
&  610,  1980. 

Additional  illustrations:  Monteiro,  Giulietti,  Mazzoni,  &  Cas- 
tro, Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S,  Paulo  7 :  57 ,  fig.  51 — 56.  1979;  Rizzini, 
Trat.  Fitogeog.  Bras.  2:  141,  fig.  49.  1979, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Eiten  &  Eiten 
10922    (E— 2386544,  Ut — 3551138);  Irwin,  Maxwell,   S  Wasshausen 
20031    in  part  (W— 2861846), 

PAEPALANTHUS  BRUNNESCENS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  35,  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem,  2:  151  &  610,  1980, 

PAEPALANTHUS   BRUNNEUS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  35,  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  117,  122,  &  610,  1980, 


246  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  forested 
areas  and  on  igneous  outcrops,  at  150  m.  altitude,  in  both 
flower  and  fruit  in  May. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  SteyerraarA;, 
Davidse,   &  Guanchez  122533    (E — 2901604).   GUYANA:  Maguire  S  Fan- 
shawe  23020   (W— 1907817— isotype)  . 

PAEPALANTHUS  BRYOIDES    (Riedel)  Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  476.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151,  424,  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Brade  13604    [Herb, 
Jard.  Bot.  Ric  Jan.  25382]  (W— 2928659).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS: 
Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  572,  1841  (W) ;  Mold.  &  Sm.  in  Reitz,  Fl. 
Ilust.  Catar,  I  Erio:  55,  1976  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  BULBOSUS   Alv,  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  35.  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Mendes  Magalhaes  6 
(Ld— photo).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Silv.,  Fl, 
Mont.  1:  184—186,  pi.  119.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CABRALENSIS   Alv,  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  35,  1977; 
Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  220—222,  pi,  146,  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) , 

PAEPALANTHUS  CACHAMBUENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  35.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  146.  1983, 

Material  of  this  species  has  been  misidentif ied  as  and  dis- 
tributed in  some  herbaria  as  P.  blepbarocnemis   Mart,  and  the  two 
collections  cited  below  were  previously  regarded  by  me  and  cited 
by  me  as  P.  aegualis    (Veil.)  J.  F,  Macbr,,  a  very  closely  re- 
lated taxon. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Widgren   s,n,  [1845] 
(Mu,  N),   Sa-o  Paulo:  Brade  6584    (Mu,  N) ,   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  IL- 
LUSTRATIONS: Alv,  Silv,,  Fl,  Mont,  1:  50—52,  pi,  27,  1928  (Ld, 
N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CACUMINIS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  36.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAESPITITIUS   Mart, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  36,  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CALDENSIS   Malme 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  36.  1977;  Klein, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  247 

Sellowia  31:  132.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151,  A2A,  A25,  428, 
&  610.  1980. 

Additional  &  emended  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Regnell 
111,1268    [16/11/1864]  (W — 200760 — cotype).   Parana:  DusSn  s,n, 
[21.10.1908]  (H).   Santa  Catarina:  Klein  3406    (N) ,  3494    (N) ; 
Reitz  S  Klein   7903    (N) .   MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  pi.  74.  1928  (Ld);  Mold.  &  Sm.  in  Reitz,  Fl.  Ilust. 
Catar.  I  Erio:  44,  pi.  6,  fig,  21--25.  1976  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CALLOCEPHALUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  21.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151,  610,  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  29--31,  pi.  13.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CALLOCEPHALUS   var,  CILIATUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  21.  1976;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  610.  1980, 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont. 
1:  31--32.  1928  (W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CALLOCEPHALUS   var.  GLABER   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  139,  1973; 
Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  31.  1928  (N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CALLOCEPHALUS   var.  VILLOSUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  21—22.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  31,  pi.  13.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CALLOPHYLLUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  140.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  217—218,  pi,  144.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CALVoioES   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  140—141.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CALVUS   KHrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  36.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Hem.  2:  151  &  611,  1980, 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAMPTOPHYLLUS   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  36.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Hatschbach  encountered  this  plant  along  shaded  sandy  roadsides 
and  on  campo  rupestre  in  sandy  soil  among  rocks,  at  1100  m.  al- 
titude, in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March  and  July. 


248  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach  41530 
(Ld),  42866    (Ld,  W— 2931778). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAMPTOPHYLLUS   var.  GRACILIS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  142—143.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611,  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Schwacke  9440 
[Herb.  Jard.  Bot.  Rio  Jan.  63706]  (W— 2928660— isotype) , 

PAEPALANTHUS  CANASTRENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  143.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv, 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  228—229,  pi.  151,  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CANDIDUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  33.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl, 
Serr.  Min.  pi.  13.  1908  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CANESCENS    (Bong.)  KHrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  22,  1976;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Gibbs,  Abbott,   & 
Andrade   5176    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CANESCENS   f ,  ANGUSTIFOLIUS   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  145—146,  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CANESCENS   var,  ATRATUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  22.  1976;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem,  2:  151  &  611.  1980, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goias:  W.  R.  Anderson  6636    (W — 
2755385— isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPANEMAE  Alv.    Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  kld—kll,   1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  151  &  611,  1980, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Rio  de  Janeiro:  Araujo  &  Maciel 
4479    [Herb,  FEEMA  19832]  (N) ,  5006    [Herb,  FEEMA  22259]  (N) , 
MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Silv,,  Fl,  Mont,  pi.  68.  1928  (Ld); 
E.  Y.  Dawson,  Los  Angeles  Co,  Mus,  Contrib,  Sci,  7:  5,  fig,  1 
[left],  1957  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPAROSNSIS   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  477.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611,  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPILLACEUS   Klotzsch 

Additional  bibliography:  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov,  Belh, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  249 

43:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.]  179.  1927;  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  36—37 
(1977)  and  41:  384,  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  122,  151, 
424,  426,  428,  &  611.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  an  abundant  aquatic 
herb,  submerged  but  with  emergent  inflorescences,  in  running 
water  in  streams  and  streamlets  on  savannas  and  attached  to  soil 
at  the  base  of  rocks  in  shallow  running  water,  and  as  "predomin- 
ante  em  todo  curso  de  corredeiras,  infloresc.  marrom  claro",  at 
1210  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  January,  February, 
August,  October,  and  November.   Collectors  in  Guyana  report  it 
locally  common,  attached  to  and  rooting  on  rocks  in  rapids,  sub- 
merged in  30  cm.  of  water  and  locally  abundant  in  the  shallow 
lower  portions  of  streams,  describing  the  rhizome  as  brown,  the 
leaves  glossy-green  or  "translucent  blackish-green",  the  peduncles 
white,  the  bracts  black  or  blackish,  the  flowers  white,  and  the 
fruiting-heads  brown.   They  found  it  growing  at  550 — 1140  m.  al- 
titude, in  flower  in  July  and  October  and  in  fruit  in  July  and 
November. 

Knuth  (1927)  cites  the  following  collections  from  Venezuela: 
Bolfvar:  Scbomburgk  1222,      Roraima:  Connell   s  Quelcb  314,      State 
undetermined:  Appun  1217, 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Maguire  &  Maguire 
29153   in  part  (N) ;  Steyermark  58138   in  part  (N) ;  Steyermark, 
Guariglia,   Holmgren,  Luteyn,   s  Mori  126129    (Ld).   Bolivar:  Lu- 
teyn,   Lebrdn-Luteyn ,   s  Steyermark  6323    (N.  W — 2929413);  Moore, 
Ambrose,   Dietz,   &  Pfister  9836    (Ba,  Mi,  N) ;  W,   W,   Thomas  2529 
(N).   GUYANA:  Maas,  Mennaga,   Welle,   s  Green  5731    (Ld) ;  Persaud 
186    (N);  Tillett   s  Tillett  45793    (N) ;  Tillett,    Tillett,   S  Boyan 
43980   (N).   BRAZIL:  Amazonas:  Froes  25383   in  part  (N) ;  Rosa   s 
Lira   2280    (N) .  MOUOTED  CLIPPINGS:  Herzog,  Feddes  Repert,  Spec. 
Nov.  29:  208.  1931  (W) . 

PAEPALASTHUS  CAPILLACEUS   f.  PROLIFERUS    (Gleason)  Mold. 

Synonymy:  Paepalanthus  capillaceus   var.  proliferus   Gleason, 
Bull.  Torrey  Bot,  Club  58:  328.  1931.  Paepalanthus  capillaceus 
proliferus   Gleason,  in  herb. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  37  (1977)  and 
44:  384.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  122,  151,  424,  &  611. 
1980. 

Additional  &  emended  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Maguire 
&  Maguire  29153   in  part  (Bm,  Bo,  E,  G,  Ja,  N,  Ut,  Ve,  W) ;  Steyer- 
mark 58138   in  part  (N) ;  G,   H,   H,   Tate  552    (W— 1497494 — isotype), 
BRAZIL:  Amazonas:  Froes  25383   in  part  (N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPILLACEUS   var,  SPIRALIS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  29:  303.  1974; 

Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  122  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  GUYANA:  Waguire  S  Fanshawe  32292    (W — 

2168879~isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPILLARIS    (Bong.)  KHrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  37.  1977;  Mold,, 


250  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

H^ringer  and  his  associates  describe  this  plant  as  having 
pilose  leaves  and  white  inflorescences  and  have  found  it  grow- 
ing in  brejo,  flowering  in  April,   Their  collection,  cited  below, 
is  a  mixture  with  a  species  of  Cyperus, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Distrito  Federal:  Hdringer,  Fig- 
ueiras,  MendoiKpa ,   Pereira,  Salles,   &  Silva  4420   in  part  (N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPILLATUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  191,  1973;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  79—80,  pi.  46  &  47.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPILLIFOLIUS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  37,  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151,  425,  443,  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  synonymy:  Paepalanthus  filifolius  Mold.,  Phytol, 
Mem.  2:  425,  in  syn.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach,  An- 
derson, Barneby,  S  Gates  36456  (W— 2849694~isotype) .  MOUNTED 
ILLUSTRATIONS:  Original  drawings  of  type  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPITATUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  192.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Silv.,  Fl, 
Mont.  1:  164—165,  pi.  104.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CAPITO   KBrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  37,  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151,  427,  &  611.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CARACENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  193.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  151  &  611,  1980, 

PAEPALANTHUS  CARBON AE   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  37.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117  &  611,  1980. 

Davidse  found  this  plant  growing  "in  distinct  grassy  zones  be- 
tweel  morichal  and  savannas,  the  morichal  being  a  palm  swamp  with 
Mauritia  flexuosa   surrounded  by  Trachypogon   savanna  with  very 
widely  spaced  Cuartella   and  Bowdichia" ^   at  100  m.  altitude,  both 
In  flower  and  fruit  in  November.   He  speaks  of  the  "spikelets" 
being  white. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Gu^rico:  Davidse  4324  (E — 
2773096). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CASTANEUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  193.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  151  &  611.  1980. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  251 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS  &  CLIPPINGS:  Alv. 
Sllv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  249—251,  pi.  166.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CATHARINAE   Rulil. 

Additional  bibliography:  Klein,  Sellowla  31:  132.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytologia  Al:  477.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152,  424—426, 
&  611.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  at  700  m.  alti- 
tude, in  flower  in  October. 

Additional  &  emended  citations:  BRAZIL:  Parani:  Dusen  15783 
(Ml,  N,  Ws);  Hatscbbach  40448    (N) ;  J6nsson  1143a    (Ws). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CATHARINAE   var.  HATSCHBACHI    (Mold.)  Mold.  &  Sm. 
Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  477.  1978; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152,  424—426,  &  611.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CEARAENSIS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  38.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

The  Lisboa  4      [Herb.  Jard.  Bot.  Rio  Jan.  4764],  distributed 
as  P.  cearaensiSf   actually  is  P.  lamarckii   Kunth, 

PAEPALANTHUS  CEPHALOTRICHUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  34.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Sllv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  pi.  39  [prim.].  1928  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHAPADENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  304—305.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  232—233,  pi.  154.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHASEAE   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  197.  1973;  An- 
gely,  S.  Amer.  Bot.  Blbl.  2:  675.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
152  &  611.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHIAPENSIS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  197.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  65  &  611.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHIQUITENSIS   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt,  Bot,  A. 25:  379. 
1975;  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  38.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  175, 
428,  &  611.  1980. 

Anderson  describes  this  plant  as  an  herb  about  0.8  m,  tall, 
with  white  flower-heads,  and  encountered  it  in  brushy  swamps 
with  standing  or  gently  flowing  water,  probably  seasonally  dry 
(pampa)  and  in  adjacent  open  drainage  ditches,  in  flower  in  Feb- 
ruary- 


252  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  N6.  4 

Additional  citations:  BOLIVIA:  El  Beni:  W.  R,  Anderson  11992 
(N). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHLOROBLEPHARUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  198.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  247. 
1982. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  at  the  "mergens 
de  corrego  encachoeirado"  and  in  large  cracks  in  rocks  on  campo 
rupestre,  at  1000  m.  altitude,  in  flower  in  June,  and  both  in 
flower  and  fruit  in  July. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Mori   s  Boom  14458    (Ld,  N) . 
Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbach  41521    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHLOROCEPHALUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  35.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  pi.  178.  1928  (Ld,  N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHLORONEMA   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  198—199.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  121—123,  pi.  76.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHLOROPHYLLUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  199  &  200.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  80—82,  pi.  9  &  48.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHLOROPUS   Alv,  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  199—200.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  24—25. 
1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHRYSOLEPIS   Alv.  Si] v. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  38.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152,  425,  &  611.. 1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  256—258,  pi.  170  [prim.].  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CHRYSOPHORUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  38.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goiis:  Hatschbach  36733    (W — 
2850701).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont. 
1:176—178,  pi.  114.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  253 

PAEPALANTHUS  CILIATUS    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  38.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3: 
572.  IS-il  (W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CILIATUS   var.  GLABRESCENS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  202.  1973;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  213. 
1928  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CILIOLATUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389. 
1974;  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  35.  1976;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152 
&  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  pi.  29.  1928  (Ld,  N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CIPOENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  38.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  218—220,  pi.  145.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CLAUSSENIANUS   KBrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  477.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152,  369,  424.  &  611.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  fog-covered 
cerrado  and  "common  on  open  campos";  Heringer  and  his  associates 
refer  to  it  as  "very  ornamental  ,  growing  in  wet  cerrado. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Amazbnas:  Calderdn,  MonteirOf   S 
Guedes  2770    (Ld).   Distrito  Federal:  Heringer  16198    (N) ;  Herin- 
ger,  Figueirasr   Mendon^a,   Pereira,   Salles,    S  Silva   4716    (W — 
2926752).  Minas  Gerais:  Irwin,  Maxwell,   S  Wasshausen  19645    (W — 
2861725). 

PAEPALANTHUS  COLOIDES   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  477.  1979;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbacb  41366 
(W— 2840073). 

PAEPALANTHUS  COLUMBIENSIS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov. 
Beih.  43:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.]  179.  1927;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  477. 
1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  109,  117,  425,  &  611.  1980;  Mold., 
Phytologia  54:  148  &  149.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  a  rosulate  herb,  50 
cm.  tall,  growing  from  thick  underground  stems,  forming  dense  ro- 
settes to  20  cm.  in  diameter,  the  inflorescences  white  or  whitish, 
the  bracts  light-brown  or  brown  with  white  margins,  the  florets 


254  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

white,  and  have  found  it  growing  on  paramo  and  subparamo ,  in 
rocky  subparamo  grassland,  and  in  woodland  bogs,  at  1900 — 3450  m. 
altitude,  in  flower  in  March  and  May,  and  in  both  flower  and 
fruit  in  February  and  August, 

Knuth  (1927)  cites  Jahn  975   from  M^rida,  Venezuela.   The  Cas- 
tellano-Monasterio  120,   distributed  as  P.  columbiensis,   actually 
is  P.  diffisus   Mold.  The  Bernard!   6066,   Burbidge  75/408,  Core 
997,  Cuatrecasas  9514,  11969,   &  17841,  Cuatrecasas  S  Bariga   9878, 
Fosberg  &  Schultes  19217,   Killip  34047,   K^ie  5101,   Luteyn  S  al» 
7685,  Permell   6910,   and  Schultes  4058,   previously  cited  by  me  as 
P.  columbiensis,    seem  better  regarded  as  P.  andicola   KHrn. ,  while 
Garcia-Barriga  18034   and  Luteyn,  Dumont,   &  LebrSn-Luteyn  4720   are 
P.  andicola   var.  villosus   Mold, 

Additional  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Boyac^:  Cleef  9741    (W — 
2851299);  Cuatrecasas  10328    (W— 2819497);  Luteyn,   LabrSn-Luteyn, 
&  PabSn  E.   7685    (Au,  N) ,   Cauca:  Cuatrecasas  S  Lehmann  27389    (W — 
2615101),   Cundinamarca:  Barkley  &  Saldarriaga   C.  43036    (E — 
2190233);  Core  16    (W— 2105124);  Cuatrecasas  9528    (W— 1850815); 
Dwyer  &  Idrobo  8180   (E — 2773082);  Garcia-Barriga  17691    (W — 
2725828);  Luteyn,  Lebron-Luteyn ,   Espina  Z,,   s  Palacios  7743    (N) ; 
R.  E,   Schultes  11547    (W— 2198860,  W— 2198861),  18792    (W— 
2198910).   Norte  de  Santander:  Garcia-Barriga   &  Jaramillo  Mejia 
19969    (W — 2957946).   Santander:  Cleef,   Garcia-Barriga,   S  Jara- 
millo Mejia   3526    (W— 2850653,  W— 2850654). 

PAEPALANTHUS  COHANS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  478.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611,  1980. 

The  Eitens  encountered  this  plant  on  a  natural  open  rocky 
campo,  at  1250  m,  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Eiten  S  Eiten 
11027    (E— 2773095);  Hatschbach  40862    (W— 2850728).  MOUNTED  IL- 
LUSTRATIONS: Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  pi.  174.  1928  (Id,  N). 

PAEPALANTHUS  COMOSUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  22—23.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Anderson,  Stieber, 
&  Kirkbride  35885    (W— 2709582).   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRA- 
lONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont,  1:  129—130,  pi.  80.  1928  (Ld,  N, 
W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  COMP ACTUS   G,  Gardn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  23.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol,  Mem,  2:  152  &  611.  1980, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  G,  Gardner  5247 
(W— 1067047— isotype) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  COMPLANATUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  23.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  255 

Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  2A4— 2A6,  pi,  163.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CONDUPLICATUS   Kflrn, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  39.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152,  A26,  fi.  611.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CONDUPLICATUS   var.  PUBESCENS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  236.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  2A1. 
1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CONICUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  236.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  611.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  136--137,  pi.  85.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CONTASENSIS   Mold.,  Phytologia  A5:  A72 — A73,  pi.  2. 
1980. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  A5:  A72— A73,  pi.  2.  1980; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  6.  611.  1980. 

Illustrations:  Mold.,  Phytologia  A5:  A73,  pi.  2.  1980. 

Mori  and  his  associates  have  encountered  this  plant  on  campo 
rupestre,  at  1000  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  July. 

Citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,   Wayo,  Storr,   Santos,   & 
Pinheiro  in  Harley  19900    (Ld — type,  N — isotype,  W — 29363A3 — 
isotype);  Mori,   King,  Santos,   &  Hage  12385    (Ld,  N,  W — 285A257), 

PAEPALANTHUS  CONVEXUS   Gleason 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  Al:  A78  &  A81.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  152,  &  612.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia 
52:  19.  1982;  Tillett  &  Steyerm.,  Ernstia  9:  3.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  tufted,  AO — A5  cm. 
tall,  the  stems  very  short  or  elongated,  the  leaves  erect- 
ascending,  stiffish  to  subcoriaceous  or  coriaceous,  brittle, 
green  or  deep-green  on  both  surfaces,  with  white  margins^  or 
dull-green  above  and  paler  green  beneath,  sometimes  even  very 
lustrous  dark-green  above  and  medium-green  beneath,  glabrous, 
the  sheaths  gray-pubescent,  the  peduncles  lustrous,  medium  gray- 
tan,  the  heads  white  or  whitish,  the  phyllaries  (bracts)  gray- 
brown,  and  the  flowers  medium-gray.   They  have  found  it  growing  in 
Stegolepis-Brocchinia-Heliamphora   bogs,  along  exposed  wet  margins 
of  Bonnetia  roraimae   forests,  in  moist  spongy  ground  in  shallow 
parts  and  upper  slopes  on  zanjon,  in  humid  caatinga  forests, 
and  "frequent  on  open  slopes  at  base  of  cliffs^','  at  1300 — 3000  m. 
altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  January,  February,  August, 
October,  and  December. 

Material  has  been  misidentif ied  and  distributed  in  some  her- 
baria as  the  closely  related  P.  fraternus   N.  E.  Br.  and  as  Leio- 
thrix  turbinata   Gleason.   On  the  other  hand,  the  Silva   S  BrazSo 
60926,   previously  cited  as  typical  P.  convexus,   actually  is  the 


256  PHYTOLOGIA  Volo    54,   No.   4 

type  collection  of  P.  convexus   var.  major   Mold, 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark  58041 
(W— 1987372),  103892    (Ld,  N) ,  103948    (N) ;  Steyermark,   Brewer- 
Carias,    S  Liesner  124533    (E— 2901865);  G.   H^   H,   Tate  658    (W— 
1497558— isotype);  Tillett,  Colv4e,   S   aJo  752-199    (Ve) .   Bolfvar: 
Moore,  Ambrose,  Dietz,   s  Pfister  9793    (Ba) ;  Steyermark  58778    (W — 
1901785),  58876    (W— 1987398),  936S3  (W— 2584107),  93958    (W— 
2584306);  Steyermark,   Espinosa,   McDiarmid,    &  Brewer-Carias  115778 
(Ld),  115991    (Ld),  116119    (Ld),  116134    (Ac).   BRAZIL:  AmazSnas: 
Maguire,  Murca  Pires,   &  Maguire  60487    (N) ;  Rosa  s  Lira  2279    (Ld 
N,  N). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CONVEXUS   var.  MAJOR   Hold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Moldo,  Phytologia  26:  237„  1973; 
Moldo,  Phytolo  Mem.  2:  117,  152,  &  612.  1980o 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  having  stems  elongated 
to  50  cmo,  the  leaves  gray-green,  pubescent  with  white  hairs,  softj 
broader,  and  the  heads  dull-white.   They  have  found  it  growing  in 
Heliamphora   swamps,  on  semi-level  savanna-like  areas  with  bushes, 
on  the  shaded  slopes  of  wooded  grottos,  along  the  edge  of  sand- 
stone rock  formations  bordering  subsavannas  of  Mallophyton   and 
Chimantaeat   and  among  rocks  in  sandy  areas  near  rapids,  at  1200 — 
2480  m,  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  February  and  October » 

The  type  collection  was  previously  misidentified  as  typical 
P.  convexus   Gleason. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark  103955 
(Ld,  N) ;  Steyermark,   Guariglia,   Holmgren,  Luteyn,   S  Mori  126303 
(Ld),  126394    (Ld) .   Boljfvar:  Steyermark,   Huber ,   s  Carreno  Eo 
128871    (Ld),  128980    (Ld);  Wo   W,    Thomas   2507    (N) .  'BRAZIL:  Amazo- 
nas: Silva   S  Brazao   60926    (Ld — isotype), 

PAEPALANTHUS  CONVEXUS   var,  PARVICEPHALUS   Mold,,  Phytologia  52:  19, 
1982. 
Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  52:  19,  1982, 
Collectors  describe  this  plant  as  having  elongated  stems,  the 
leaves  grayish-green  above  or  "hojas  verdes  extendidas",  and  have 
found  it  growing  in  wet  places  below  rocks,  at  2580 — 2800  m,  alti- 
tude, in  both  flower  and  fruit  from  February  to  April, 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark,   Br ewer-Car las,   & 
Liesner  124418    (E — 2901864);  Steyermark  &  Delascio  129105    (Ld), 
129107    (Ld),  129192    (Ld) ;  Steyermark,   Guariglia,   Holmgren,   Luteyn, 
&  Mori   125939    (Ld),  126100    (Ld — type), 

PAEPALANTHUS  CONVEXUS   var,  STRIGOSUS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Biol.  Abstr.  64:  2433,  1977; 
Moldo,  Phytologia  37:  39.  1977;  Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  152  &  612. 
1980, 

Steyermark  and  his  associates  encountered  this  plant  at  2450  m, 
altitude,  in  flower  in  February. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark,   Guarag- 
lia,   Holmgren,   Luteyn,   S  Mori   126337    (Ld). 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  257 

PAEPALANTHUS  CORDATUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  39.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CORONARIUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  238.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  63—65,  pi.  36.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CORONARIUS   var.  CILIATUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  238—239.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  65, 
1928  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CORYMBOIDES   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  39.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CORYMBOIDES   var.  EPILOSUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  239.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  CORYMBOSUS    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  40.  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3: 
575.  1841  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  COSTARICENSIS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  40.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  81,  357,  &  612.  1980. 

Weston  encountered  this  plant  at  2800  m.  altitude,  in  flower 
in  July.  Material  has  been  misidentif ied  and  distributed  in  some 
herbaria  as  P,   kupperi   Suesseng. 

Additional  citations:  COSTA  RICA:  Cartago:  Weston  1537    (Lc). 

PAEPALANTHUS  COUTO^NSIS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  23.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  having  the  inflores- 
cences cream-color,  maroon  at  the  base,  and  have  found  it  growing 
on  natural  campos ,  flowering  in  September. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Santos,  Mori,    s  Mattos 
Silva   3363    (Ld) .   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv., 
Fl.  Mont.  1:  211—212,  pi.  139  &  140.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CRASSICAULIS   KBrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  478.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  109,  117,  129,  134,  &  612.  1980;  Mold., 


258  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Phytologia  50:  245.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  describe  the  inflorescence  of  this  plant  as 
"grayish-white"  and  refer  to  the  plant  as  a  "common  terrestrial 
on  rocks"  in  an  area  of  "sandstone  outcrops  with  sterile  white 
sand  overlying  black  sand  and  with  Ericaceae,   Weinmanniaf   and 
melastomes  abundant",  at  2550 — 2700  m.  altitude,  in  flower  in 
September  and  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March  and  June.  They 
have  also  encountered  it  in  shrub-dominated  areas  and  in  paramo 
areas  of  low  vegetation  and  scattered  large  boulders,   Callejas  & 
Gaviria  note:  "Hierba  abundante,  creciendo  en  suelos  iundados,  en 
suelos  secos  forma  asociaciones  con  Espeletia  occidentalis   var, 
antioguiensis" » 

Additional  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Antioquia:  Callejas  &  Gaviria 
864    (N).   Boyac4:  Melawpy  22    (W — 2916211),  Cundinamarca:  Cuat- 
recasas  9424    (W~1797351);  Ewan  16906    (W~2106332);  Fosberg 
21353    (W~2109056);  Fosberg  &  Villareal   20606    (W~2108764); 
Haught  5599    (W~1709775),  5732    (W~1709798);  Killip,   Garcia  Bar- 
riga,   &  Gutierrez  Villegas  38039    (W — 1855983);  Moore,  Ambrose,   & 
Dietz   9863    (Ba) .   ECUADOR:  Loja:  Balslev  1302    (Ld,  N) ;  Fosberg  S 
Giler  23099    (W — 2109839);  Liiteyn  S  Clemants  7973    (N) ;  Steyermark 
54409    (W — 1901691).   PERU:  Amazonas:  Hutchison  s  Wright  5541    (W — 
2508683);  Luteyn  &  Lebron-Luteyn  5532    (N,  W~2915258).   Caja- 
marca:  Lopez,   Sagastegui,   &  Ald6ve  6707    (W — 2848724). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CRATERIFORMIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  40.  1977; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612,  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo, 
Toward  Checklist  Fl,  Bahia  74.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  30  cm.  tall,  the 
"stems"  [-peduncles?]  and  leaves  erect,  pale  gray-green,  white- 
hairy,  the  leaves  1 — 2  mm.  wide,  the  involucral  bractlets  stra- 
mineous, the  heads  white  when  young,  gray  when  older.   They  have 
encountered  it  in  sandy  poorly  drained  soil  and  in  open  scrub  on 
white  sand  with  damp  areas  and  extensive  sedge  meadows  (brejo) 
partly  burned  over,  at  950 — 1000  m,  altitude,  in  both  flower  and 
fruit  in  February  and  March. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo,   Storr, 
Santos,    &  Pinheiro  in  Harley  18824    (Ld,  N) ;  Mori   &  Funch  13399 
(Ld,  N).   MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl, 
Mont.  1:  60—61,  pi.  34.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CRISTATUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  40  (1977)  and 
38:  36.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117  &  612.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  on  dry,  sandy, 
rocky  plateaus  and  forming  dull-green  clumps  in  sandy  openings 
near  streams,  at  2140 — 2200  m,  altitude,  in  both  flower  and 
fruit  in  January  and  February. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bolivar:  Steyermark,  Espin- 
osa,  McDiarmid,   s  Brewer-Car ias   225986 (Ld);  Steyermark,  Huber, 
S  Carreno  E,   128259    (Ld). 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  259 

PAEPALRNTHUS  CRYOCEPHALUS   Alv.  Sllv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Pbytologla  37:  AO.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  116—117,  pi.  72.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CUMBRICOLA   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  40.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117  &  612.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  an  herb  with  gray  in- 
florescences, have  encountered  it  at  1200  m.  altitude,  and  have 
misidentif led  and  distributed  it  to  herbaria  as  Syngonantbus   sp. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bol:(var:  Maas  &  Steyermark 
5392    (Ld);  Moore,  Ambrose,   Dietz,    &  Pfister   9813    (Mi), 

PAEPALANTHUS  CURURENSIS   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  245.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612,  1980. 

Calderon  and  his  associates  refer  to  this  as  a  very  delicate 
plant  growing  with  mosses  and  other  eriocauls  among  rocks  on  rocky 
river  edges.  They  found  it  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  June. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Amazonas:  Calderdn,  HonteirOf   & 
Guedes  2610    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  CUSPIDATUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  478.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  pi.  26.  1928  (Ld,  N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  CYLINDRACEUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  245.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl, 
Mont.  1:  130—131,  pi.  81.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) , 

PAEPALANTHUS  DAMAZIOI   Beauverd 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  246,  1973; 
Mold,,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612,  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Beauverd,  Bull.  Herb.  Boiss,, 
ser,  2,  8:  292,  1908  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  DASYNEMA   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  246 — 247. 
1973;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DECORUS   Abbiatti 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  247.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980, 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Abbiatti,  Notas  Mus.  La 
Plata  Bot,  pi.  1.  1948  (Ld). 


260  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  A 

PAEPALANTHUS   DECUSSUS   Ktirn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  247—248,  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  3  52  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DENNISI   Mold, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  248.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117  &  612,  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DENSIFOLIUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  478.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Hatschbacb  41299 
(N,  W— 2931642).  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont. 
1:  pi.  58  &  59  (Ld,  N) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  DENUDATUS  K8rn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  478—479.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  G,  Gardner  5252 
(W — 1067048 — isotype);  Hatschbacb  40906    (N,  W — 2850675);  Maguire, 
Maguire,    S  Murca   Pires  44749    (N) , 

PAEPALANTHUS  DESPERADO   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  38.  1976;  Mon- 
teiro,  Giulietti,  Mazzoni,  &  Castro,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7: 
44.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152  &  612,  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DIAMANTINENSIS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  250—251.  1973; 
Angely,  S.  Am.  Bot.  Bibl.  2:  671.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
152  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DIANTHOIDES   Mart. 

Additional  synonymy:  Papaelanthus  dianthoides  Mart,  ex  Domin, 
Ann.  Jard.  Bot.  Buitenz.  24  [ser.  2,  9]:  247,  sphalm.  1911. 

Additional  bibliography:  Domin,  Ann.  Jard.  Bot.  Buitenz.  24 
[ser.  2,  9]:  247.  1911;  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  40.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  152,  153,  429,  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DIANTHOIDES   var.  LANGSDORFFI   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  26:  251  &  252. 
1973;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980, 

PAEPALANTHUS  DICHOTOMUS   Klotzsch 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  40—41  (1977), 
49:  380  (1981),  and  50:  245  &  270.  1982;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
117,  122,  134,  153,  &  612,  1980;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A, 39: 
101.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  an  herb  or  subshrub 
forming  small  clumps  or  dense  tufts,  the  leaves  bluish-green, 
the  bracts  brown,  and  the  heads  "gray^fhite,  inner  side  grayish- 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  261 

brown",  and  have  found  it  growing  on  sandstone  savannas,  at  1150 
m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  October, 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Boli^var:  Huber  &  Alarcon  6677 
(Ld);  Steyermark  59209    (W — 1901807).   GUYANA:  Maas,  Mennega, 
Welle,   &  Groen   5696    (Ld), 

PAEPALANTHUS  DICHOTOMUS   var,  BRASILIENSIS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  29:  307.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DICHOTOMUS   var.  GLABRESCENS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  253.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  134  &  612,  1980, 

Huber  notes  regarding  this  plant:  "hierba  creciendo  en  pequeno 
cojin,  poco  frecuente  sobre  banco,  cabezuelas  blancas"  and  found 
it  growing  at  100  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  O,  Huber  4916    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  DICHOTOMUS   var,  PUMILUS   Mold.,  Phytologia  49:  385. 
1981. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  49:  385  (1981)  and  50:  245  & 
270.  1982;  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Hot.  A, 39:  101.  1982. 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bolivar:  Moore r  Ambrose,   Dietz,  S 
Pfister  9632    (Ba — isotype,  Ld — type). 

PAEPALANTHUS  DICHROMOLEPIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Synonymy:  Paepalanthus  duchromolepis   Alv.  Silv,  ex  Mold., 
Phytologia  50:  262,  in  syn.  1982. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  38.  1976;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50:  262.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  in  wet  sandy 
soil,  in  flower  in  October. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goiis:  Hatschbach  S  Kasper  41684 
(Ld,  N).   MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv,,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  pi. 
33,  1928  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  DIFFISUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  41.  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117  &  612.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  a  bright-green  rosette 
herb,  one-stemmed,  the  leaves  with  white  hairs  on  their  margins, 
the  peduncles  dorsiventrally  much  compressed,  bearing  sparse  white 
hairs,  the  involucral  bractlets  dark-brown,  the  florets  with  white 
hairs.   They  have  found  it  abundant  at  2200 — 2380  m.  altitude,  some- 
times ascending  to  3050  m. ,  in  flower  in  June,  September,  and  Octo- 
ber, and  in  fruit  in  June. 

Material  of  this  species  has  been  misidentif ied  and  distributed 
in  some  herbaria  as  P.  columhiensis   Ruhl. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  M^rida:  Castellano-Monasterio 
120    (N);  Jeffrey,    Trujillo,   s  Condon  2147    (Eu~59493).   Tachira: 
SteyermarJc  &  Rai>e   96953      (W~2585479);  Trujillo  8389    (Eu~48004). 


262  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol,  54,  No,  4 

PAEPALANTHUS   DIFFUSUS   Alv,  Sllv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  41,  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:153  &  612,  1980, 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv,  Sllv.,  Fl, 
Mont,  1:  208—209,  pi.  137,  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  DIPLOBETOR   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  41,  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  3  53  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DISTICHOPHYLLUS   Mart. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  479.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerals:  Hatschbach  27372 
(W— 2705862) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  DISTICHOPHYLLUS   var.  GARDNERI   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  257  &  258.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  DIVARICATUS    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Bong.,  Mem.  Acad.  Imp.  Sci. 
St.  Petersb.,  ser.  6,  1:  621,  622,  &  641.  1831;  Mold,,  Phytologia 
41:  479.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerals:  Anderson,  Stieber, 
&  Kirkbride   35454    (W— 2709583);  Hatschbach  41276    (W— 2840102) ; 
Maguire,   Mendes  Magalti&es,    &  Maguire  49246  CVI — 2435301).   MOUNTED 
CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  572.  1841  (W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  DIVARICATUS   var.  LATIFOLIUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  260.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Sllv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  209. 
1928  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  DIVERSIFOLIUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  260.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  47—48,  pi.  25.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  DUBIUS   KBm. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  41.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980, 

PAEPALANTHUS  DUIDAE   Gleason 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt,  Bot,  A,23:  389, 
1974;  Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  479,  1979;  Mold,,  Phytol,  Mem.  2: 
117,  153,  425,  &  612.  1980;  Tillett  &  Steyerm. ,  Ernstla  9:  3. 
1982;  Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  121,  1983, 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  forming  dense  mats  or 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  263 

dense  light-green  tufts,  the  leaves  spreading,  grass-green,  erect, 
subfleshy,  Jso6tes-like,  forming  dense  green  rosettes,  and  the 
heads  white-woolly.   They  have  encountered  it  at  the  edges  of 
forests  and  canyons,   in  wet  places  along  streams,  and  on  sand- 
stone ledges  of  forested  rocky  prominences  above  swampy  savannas, 
at  2300 — 2800  m.  altitude,  in  flower  in  October,  and  both  in  flo- 
wer and  fruit  from  January  to  April. 

Maguire  &  al,    65637   &  65638   are  said  by  the  collectors  to  rep- 
resent the  "long-leaved,  fertile"  form,  with  blackish  bracts  and 
white  heads,  while  their  no.   65639   is  a  "sterile  form,  caudex 
elongated,  leaves  thinner".  Steyermark  &  Delascio  129247   is  said 
by  the  collectors  to  be  "like  129191   but  the  leaves  much  larger". 

Material  of  P.   duidae   has  been  misidentif ied  and  distributed 
in  some  herbaria  as  Rondonanthus  roraimae    (Oliv.)  Herzog  with 
the  comment  "very  close  to  Paepalanthus  duidae   and  P.  jauensis" 
and  also  as  Syngonanthus  acopanensis   Mold.   On  the  other  hand,  the 
Tillett,   ColvSe,    S  al.    752-349   distributed  as  typical  P.  duidae, 
actually  is  the  type  collection  of  its  var,  parvifolius   Mold,  and 
Maguire,   Steyermark,   Brewer-Carias,  Maguire,   &  Espinosa   65639   is 
P.  jauensis   var.  caulescens   Mold. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Maguire,   Steyermark, 
Brewer-Carias,   Maguire,   &  Espinosa   65637    (N) ,  65638    (N) ,  65639 
(N);  Maguire,   Wurdack,   S  Bunting  36930    (W~2168986) ,  37123    (W~ 
2168988);  Maguire,   Wurdack,   S  Maguire  42279    (W) ;  Steyermark  58319 
(W — 1987379),  103920    (Ld,  N) ;  Steyermark,   Brewer-Carias,   s  Lies- 
ner  124366    (N) ;  Steyermark   S  Delascio  129109    (Ld) ,  129247    (Ld); 
Steyermark,   Guariglia,   Holmgren,  Luteyn,   &  Mori  126099    (Ld);  G, 
H.  H.   Tate  456    (W~1498522~isotype) ,  691    (W--1497A56) .   Bolivar: 
Steyermark,   Espinosa,  McDiarmidf   &  Brewer-Carias  115885    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  DUIDAE   var.  PARVIFOLIUS   Mold,,  Phytologia  54:  121, 
1983. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  121.  1983, 

Collectors  describe  this  plant  as  forming  dense  mats,  the  leaves 
narrow  and  green,  and  have  encountered  it  at  2580 — 2600  m.  altitude, 
in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  April. 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark  s  Delascio  129108 
(Ve),  129191    (Ld);  Tillett,  Colvee,    &  al.    752-349    (N~type) . 

PAEPALANTHUS   DUPATYA   Mart, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  38—39.  1976; 
Mold,,  Phytol.  Mem,  2:  153  &  612.  1980, 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Anderson,  Stieber, 
S  Kirkbride   36148    (W— 2709302)  . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELATISSIMUS   Alv.  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  33:  39,  1976;  Mold,, 
Phytol,  Mem.  2:  153,  425,  &  612.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  F] .  Mont.  1:  pi. 
"WI"  [=16],  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 


264  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELATUS    (Bong.)  KHrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  41.  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3: 
577.  1841  (W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELATUS   var.  CALVULUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  472 — 473.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATULUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  41.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS    (Bong.)  Ktirn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  479  (1979)  and 
43:  196—197.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153,  612,  &  613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goi4s:  Heringer,   Paula,  Mendonga, 
S  Salles  2333    (E — 2773079);  Irwin,   Grear,   Souza,   s  Santos  14564 
(W— 2755386);  Prance  S  Silva   58189    (W--2584610A) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS   var.  ANGUSTIFOLIUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  479.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  at  1100  m.  alti- 
tude. 

The  Hatschbach  43714,   previously  cited  by  me  as  this  taxon,  ac- 
tually represents  f.  graminif alius   Herzog  instead,  while  Hatsch- 
bach 36772   and  Hatschbach,  Anderson,   Barneby,   &  Gates  36394  are 
the  newly  described  var.  glabrescens   Mold. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goias:  Hatschbach  43079    (Ld); 
Irwin,   Grear,   Souza,   S  Santos  12251    (W — 2755391). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS   var.  CILIATUS   K8rn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  39.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3: 
512.  1841  (W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS   var.  GLABRESCENS   Mold.,  Phytologia  43: 
196.  1979. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  43:  196.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol. 
Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  on  wet  sandy  and  on 
rocky  campos ,  at  1250  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
February.   It  has  also  been  found  on  campo  rupestre  and  in  brejo, 
flowering  and  fruiting  in  March.  Heringer  and  his  associates  de- 
scribe it  as  an  "erva  semihante  a  capim".   Some  of  the  material 
cited  below  was  previously  regarded  by  me  as  var.  angustifolius 
Alv.  Silv. 

Citations:  BRAZIL:  Distrito  Federal:  Hdringer,  Filgueiras, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  265 

Mendonga,   s  Pereira   7108    (N,  W — 29A1A05).   Golaa:  Hatschbach 
36772    (Ld — isotype,  Ld — isotype,  Ld — photo  of  type,  W — 2839374 — 
type), 44760  (Ld);  Hatschbach,  Anderson,   Barneby,   &  Gates  36394 
(Ac,  W— 2833247). 

PAEPALANTHUS   ELONGATUS   f.  GRAMINIFOLIUS   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  41.  1977;  Hold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  612.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  in  sandy  soil 
of  campo  rupestre,  at  1000  m,  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit 
in  April  and  July, 

Material  of  this  taxon  has  been  misidentif led  and  distributed 
in  some  herbaria  as  var.  angustifolius   Alv,  Silv.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  Monteiro  S.    230   [Vianna  391;  Herb.  Dept.  Conserv.  Am- 
bient. FEEMA  8080],  previously  cited  by  me  as  f.  graminif alius, 
is  now  the  type  collection  of  var.  major   Mold. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Mori,   King,   Santos,    S  Hage 
12408    (Ld,  W— 2854252).   Goiis:  Hatschbach  43714    (W— 2932034); 
Irwin,   Grear,  Souza,   s  Santos  13298   in  part  (W — 2752350). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS   var.  LONGIBRACTEATUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  24.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  5.  612.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goias:  Irwin,   Grear,   Souza,   s 
Santos  12374    (W— 2755390 — isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS   var.  MAJOR   Mold.,  Phytologia  43:  196—197. 
1979. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  43:  196—197.  1979;  Mold.,  Phy- 
tol. Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Monteiro  S.  230  [Vianna  391; 
Herb.  Dept.  Conserv.  Ambient.  FEEMA  8080]  (Ld — type). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS   var.  MINOR   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  478.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS   var.  NIGER   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  309.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  80  cm.  tall,  the  in- 
florescence white,  and  have  encountered  it  in  brejo. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goias:  Heringer,   Paula,  Mendonga, 
&  Salles   2333 (n,   W— 2927087);  Irwin,   Harley,    S  Smith   32187    (W— 
2709633— isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ELONGATUS   var.  PUBESCENS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  309—310.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Golds:    W,  R.  Anderson  8044    (W — 
2755392),  Minas  Gerais:  Irwin,  Harley,   &  Onishi   29039    (W — 
2709592)/  Maguire,   Mendes  Magalhaes,   s  Maguire  49298    (U — 2435290). 


266  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  133.  1928  (N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  ENSIFOLIUS    (H.B.K.)  Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  479—480.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  110,  129,  134,  425,  &  613.  1980;  Mold., 
Phytologia  53:  264.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  species  as  a  large,  terrestri- 
al, rosette  plant,  the  flower-heads  white,  "often  on  long  stems" 
[■peduncles],  and  have  found  it  growing  "among  wet  herb  vegeta- 
tion between  dry  scrub  vegetation",  on  wet  slopes  in  areas  of 
"dry  grassy  slopes,  shrubby  mountain  slopes  and  elfin  forest",  on 
wet  slopes  in  areas  of  "grass  paramo  with  large  sloping  bogs 
toward  the  lakes  and  up  to  3  m.  tall  scrub  in  protected  places", 
in  marshes  in  elfin  forests,  and  "dominant  in  wet  springs  in 
areas  of  dry  scrub  1 — 3  m.  tall",  at  altitudes  of  2650 — 3450  m., 
in  both  flower  and  fruit  from  I'larch  to  May,  as  well  as  in  July, 
September,  and  December. 

Tillett  describes  the  plant  as  locally  frequent  in  and  at  the 
edges  of  bogs,  growing  singly  or  in  clusters,  the  roots  dark- 
brown  and  fibrous,  the  plants  erect,  to  3  dm.  tall,  clothed  with 
the  old  brown  leaves,  "the  green  leaves  [issuing]  from  a  knob, 
narrow-necked,  on  top  of  the  stem,  white  within  save  for  the 
tan  vascular  tissue,  the  leaves  soft-coriaceous,  with  a  slight 
bloom,  lustrous  medium-green  above,  lustrous  light-green  be- 
neath, the  peduncles  medium  yellow-green,  the  bracts  brown,  those 
immediately  subtending  the  flowers  olive,  the  flowers  gray-white". 

The  Calls jas  &  Gaviria  864,   distributed  as  P.  ensifolius,   ap- 
pears actually  to  be  P.  crassicaulis   Kilrn. 

Additional  citations:  ECUADOR:  Azuay:  Camp  E. 402    (W~2056925); 
Holm-Nielsen,   Jeppesen,  L^jtnant,   &  011gaard  3664    (Ac,  E — 
2773086),  5071    (Ac,  E~2773090).   Loja:  Balslev  1271    (N) ,  1410 
(Ld,  N);  Holm-Nielsen,   Jeppesen,   L^jtnant,   &  011gaard  3664    (Ac, 
E — 2773085);  MacBryde  308    (E — 2773075);  Madison  S  Coleman  2437 
(N);  011gaard  &  Balslev  9712    (Ac,  N) .   Zamora:  Maguire  &  Maguire 
44350   (N).   PERU:  Amazonas:  Boeke  2112    (N,  N,  N) ;  Tillett  673-339 
(W~2853939). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ERECTIFOLIUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  42.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  pi.  125  &  126.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ERECTIFOLIUS   var.  GLABER   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  481—482.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ERECTIFOLIUS   var.  GRANDIFOLIUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  482.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  192. 
1928  (N,  W). 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  267 

PAEPALANTHUS  ERIGERON   Mart. 

Additional  synonymy:  Paepalanthus  erigeron   "Mart,  ex  Koern." 
apud  Mold,  in  Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  7A.  1980. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  480.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153,  613,  &  628.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  & 
Mayo,  Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  74.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytologia  50: 
263.  1982. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  species  a.6   a  rosette  herb,  to 
30  cm.  tall,  the  leaves  rather  fleshy  and  gray-green  or  dark 
glossy-green  above  and  paler  beneath,  soft,  the  peduncles  to  40 
cm.  long,  and  the  frui tine-heads  brown.   They  have  found  it  grow- 
ing on  high  sandstone  bluffs  along  roadsides  and  in  the  shade 
of  overhanging  rocks,  among  rocks,  and  on  campo  rupestre,  at 
1000 — 1200  m.  altitude,  in  flower  in  July  and  October,  and  in 
fruit  in  February,  July,  and  October. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,   Mayo,   Storr, 
Santos,   s  Pinheiro  in  Harley  18753    (K) ,  18888    (Ld,  N,  W~2936339); 
Mori   12909    (Ld,  N) ;  Mori,   King,   Santos,    S  Hage  12561    (Ld,  W — 
2854284),  12679    (Ld,  W~2854285). 

PAEPALANTHUS  ERIOCAULOIDES   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  42.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  £.  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ERIOPHAEUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  42.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  6.  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  ESPINOSIANUS   Mold. 

Synonjmy:  Paepalanthus  espinosoides   Mold,,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 
425  in  syn.  1980. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  26:  484.  1973; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  129,  134,  425,  &  613.  1980;  Mold.,  Phytolo- 
gia 53:  264.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  cushion-forming  and 
have  found  it  growing  "in  small  springs  on  paramo  with  humid 
piramo  vegetation  and  abundant  Espeletia  hartwegiana" ,    "in  strong- 
ly wind-exposed  places  on  windswept  ridges  with  recently  burned 
grass  p6ramo8  and  adjacent  scrubby  forest",  and  "in  flush  bogs  in 
areas  of  dry  low  scrub  vegetation,  more  humid  in  small  hollows  and 
valleys",  at  2850 — 3500  m,  altitude,  in  flower  in  May  and  Septem- 
ber. 

Material  of  this  species  has  been  misidentif ied  and  distribu- 
ted in  some  herbaria  as  Eriocaulon   sp. 

Additional  citations:  ECUADOR:  Azuay:  Balslev  1535    (Ld,  N) . 
Carchi:  Holm-Nielssen,   Jeppesen,   L^jtnant,    s  011gaard  5277    (Ut — 
3525738).  Morona-Santlago:  011gaard  S  Balslev  9557    (Ac,  N,  N) . 
Santiago-Zamora:  Steyermark  54342    (W — 1901690 — isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  EURYPHYLLUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 23:  389. 
1974;  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  310.  1974;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2: 


268  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.   54,   No.   4 

153  &  613.   1980. 

Additional  citations:  Anderson,  Stieber,   &  Kirkbride  35679 
(W— 2709585). 

PAEPALANTHUS  EXIGUUS    (Bong.)  K8rn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  42.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153,  425,  &  613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Anderson,   Stieber, 
&  Kirkbride  35647    (W — 2709306).   Par£:  Secco  238    (Ld);  Secco  & 
al.   192    (Ld).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  574.  1841 
(N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  EXIGUUS   var.  LONGIFOLIUS   Beauverd 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  311—312.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem..  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Beauverd,  Bull.  Herb.  Boiss., 
ser.  2,  8:  293.  1908  (N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  EXTREMENSIS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  33:  40.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  163—164,  pi.  103.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  FALCIFOLIUS   KHrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  480.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153,  400,  &  613.  1980;  Mold,  in  Harley  & 
Mayo,  Toward  Checklist  Fl,  Bahia  74.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Renvoize,  Erskine, 
Brighton,   S  Pinheiro  in  Harley  15633    (W — 2791570).  Minas  Gerais: 
Maguire,  Mendes  MagalHaes,   S  Magvire  49299    (W — 2435334). 

PAEPALANTHUS   Fi^lLLAX  .Beauverd 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  314—315.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Beauverd,  Bull.  Herb.  Boiss., 
ser.  2,  8:  288—290.  1908  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASCICULATUS    (Rottb.)  K8rn. 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  J.  F,  Gmel.  in  L.,  Syst. 
Nat.,  ed.  13,  imp.  1,  2:  206  &  867.  1791;  Sweet,  Hort.  BrJt.,  ed. 
2,  597.  1830;  Loud.,  Hort.  Brit.,  ed.  1,  37  (1830)  and  ed.  2,  37. 
1832;  G.  Don  in  Loud.,  Hort.  Brit.,  ed.  3,  37.  1839;  G.  Don  in 
Sweet,  Hort.  Brit.,  ed.  3,  719.  1839;  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec. 
Nov.  Beih.  43:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.]  179—180.  1927;  Savage,  Cat. 
Linn.  Herb.  Lond.  21.  19-^5;  Anon.,  Kew  Bull.  Gen.  Ind.  111.  1959; 
Mold,,  Phytologia  41:  480—481.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  110, 
117,  122,  124,  126,  153,  425,  &  613.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  on  terra  firme, 
in  bare  sandy  areas,   and  on  savannas  and  sandy  campinas,  at  120 
m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  May,  July,  and  September 
to  November,  describing  it  as  a  locally  common  annual  to  15  cm. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  269 

tall.  Madison  and  his  associates  refer  to  it  as  a  tiny  terres- 
trial herb  with  white  flowers,  forming  turf  in  open  sandy  areas 
of  caatinga;  their  no,    6314   is  a  mixture  with  f,  sphaerocephalus 
Herzog,  as  are  also  Alencar  691,   Cid  &  al.    61,   Huber  &  Tillett 
6403,   Schultes  S  Cabrera   13110   6.  18068,   and  possibly  Baldwin   3467, 

Davidson  &  Martinelli  encountered  P.  fasciculatus   in  dis- 
turbed roadside  margins  in  tall  forests  on  terra  f irme ,  in  later- 
ized  clay  with  sand  deposits,  and  on  hot  white-sand  roadbanks. 
Pool  describes  the  inflorescence  heads  as  "white,  turning  light- 
brown".   ICnuth  (1927)  cites  an  unnumbered  Humboldt  &  Bonpland  col- 
lection from  Bolfvar,  Venezuela, 

Material  of  P.  fasciculatus   has  been  raisidentif ied  and  distrib- 
uted in  some  herbaria  as  P.  lamarckii   Kunth,   The  H.   L,   Clark 
6654,  distributed  as  typical  P.  fasciculatus,   actually  seems  to  be 
its  f.  sphaerocephalus   Herzog,  while  Maguire  &  Politi   28309   is  a 
mixture  with  Syngonanthus  macrocaulon   Ruhl. 

Additional  &  emended  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Amazonas:  Schultes   fi 
Cabrera  15531   in  part  (W~2171633),  16436   .(W— 2144120).   Vaup^s: 
Schultes,   Baker,   S  Cabrera   18068    (W — 2198891);  Schultes  S  Cabrera 
13110   in  part  (W~2171100),  14174   in  part  (W~2171374,  W~2198865), 
18068   in  part  (U — 2172057).  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  H,   L,  Clark 
6457    (Ld,  N);  Hujber  &   Tillett   6403   in  part  (Ld);  Liesner  3403 
(Ld);  Maas  &  Steyermark  5179    (Ut — 390371B) ;  Maguire  &  Wurdack 
34898   in  part  (W — 2168936);  Steyermark  &  Bunting  102685   in  part 
(W— 2622555);  Wurdack  s  Adderley  42913    (W~2320889).  GUYANA: 
Maguire  S  Fanshawe  23560   in  part  (W — 1907830).   SURINAM:  Maguire 
&  Stahel   23618    (W~1907848);  W.    W.    Thomas   2404    (Ld).   FRENCH 
GUIANA:  Halle  454    (Cy,  Cy) ;  Sastre  5498    (Cy) .   BRAZIL:  Amazonas: 
Alencar  691    in  part  (Ld,  N) ;  Baldwin  3467    (W~1878917);  Cid, 
Buck,   Nelson,  Almeida,  Mota,   s  Lima   61    in  part  (Ld,  N) ;  Davidson 
&  Martinelli  CD. 10000    (Ld) ;  Froes  28044    (W — 2341533);  Madison, 
Kennedy,  Monteiro,   &  Braga   6314   in  part  (N) ;  Ongley  &  Ramos   P. 
21770   in  part  (Ld);  Poole  1968   in  part  (Ld,  N,  W~2961628); 
Prance  23527    (N,  W — 2935283);  Prance,  Anderson,   &  Schubert  23501 
(N) ;  Prance,   Berg,   Bisby,   Steward,   Monteiro,    &  Ramos  17921    (W — 
2780466).   Amapi:  W.  A.   Fgler  47238    (W— 2435327).  MOUNTED  CLIP- 
PINGS &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Herzog,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov.  29:  205. 
1931  (N,  W);  R.  E.  Schult.,  Bot.  Mus.  Leafl.  Harv.  Univ.  16  (4): 
pi.  11.  1953  (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASCICULATUS   var.  ICANENSIS   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold".,  Phytologia  29:  321.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  &  613.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  in  low  scrub 
on  white  sand,  at  220  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in 
May  and  September. 

Material  of  this  variety  has  been  misidentif ied  and  some  even 
previously  cited  by  me  as  typical  P.  fasciculatus    (Rottb.)  Kunth 
or  its  f.  sphaerocephalus   Herzog  or  f.  tenellus   Herzog.   The 
Steyermark  S  Bunting  102696   collection  is  a  mixture  with  a  grass. 

Additional  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Vaupe^s:  Cuatrecasas  6976    (N, 


270  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No,  4 

N,  W — 1796732).  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark  s  Bunting  102696 
In  part  (Ld,  W — 2622554).   Bolivar:  Steyermark  89689    (Mi,  N,  W — 
2430107,  W — 2486398).   BRAZIL:  Amazonas:  Prance,  Ramos,   Farias,   s 
Philcox  4837    (Ac,  N,  W— 2573082A) .  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Herzog, 
Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov,  29:  205.  1931  (N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASCICULATUS   f.  PROLIFERUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  319  &  321—322. 
1974;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  153,  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASCICULATUS   f.  RIGIDUS   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  322.  1974; 

Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem,  2:  153  &  613,  1980, 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Herzog,  Feddes  Repert, 

Spec.  Nov,  29:  205.  1931  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASCICULATUS   f.  SPHAEROCEPHALUS   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  480.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  110,  117,  122,  153,  &  613.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  an  herb,  20 — 30  cm. 
tall,  forming  a  turf  in  open  sandy  areas,  terrestrial,  often  tiny, 
the  heads  hemispheric  and  light-tan,  and  the  bracts  dark-tan,  the 
actual  flowers  white.   They  have  found  it  growing  on  terra  firme, 
on  "campina  de  areia  branca",  in  full  sun  along  roadsides,  at  the 
edge  of  water  in  disturbed  forests,  on  white  sand  near  streams, 
and  forming  turf  in  open  areas  of  caatinga,  at  119 — 120  m.  alti- 
tude, in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  April,  May,  July,  and  October, 
Clark  reports  it  locally  abundant  in  loose  coarse  sand  in  a  region 
of  3.4 — 3.6  m.  rainfall  per  year. 

This  form  often  appears  to  be  merely  a  growth  stage,  abundantly 
mixed  with  the  typical  form  of  the  species  in  herbarium  collections, 
but  at  other  times  seems  to  represent  pure-stand  populations. 
The  following  are  some  of  the  collections  which  are  mixtures  of 
this  form  and  typical  P.  fasciculatus   (Rottb.)  K8rn.:  Alencar 
691,   Cid  S  al,    61,   Huber  S   Tillett   6403,   Madison  S  al,    6314,   and 
Schultes  S  Cabrera  13110   &  18068. 

Additional  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Vaup^s:  P4rez  Arbeliez  &  Cuatre- 
casas  6757    (W~1796727);  Schultes  &  Cabrera  12391b   (W~2198863), 
13110   in  part  (W~2171100,  W~2198879),  14173    (W~2198864), 
14174   in  part  (W~2198865),  15531    in  part  (W~2171633),  17194 
(W~2171843,  W~2198885),  18068   in  part  (W~2172057),  18347    (Ss, 
W~2172129,  W~2198899),  19554    (Ss,  W~2172582,  W~2198932); 
Zarucchi  1680    (W~2832501) ;  Zarucchi   S  Balick  1759    (W~2832409), 
VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  H.   L,   Clark  6654    (N) ;  O.   Huber  2586    (Ve) ; 
Hui>er  &  Medina   5646    (Ld);  Huber  &  Tillett  6403   in  part  (Ld); 
Liesner  6364    (Ld),  7473    (Ld) ;  Maguire  s  Wurdack  34898   in  part 
(W~2168936);  Maguire,   Wurdack,   S  Bunting  36420    (W~2168976); 
Steyermark  s  Bunting  102685   in  part  (W — 2622555),   Bolfvar:  Stey- 
ermark 90336    (W — 2430108),  GUYANA:  Cowan  S  Soderstrom  1737    (W~ 
2678028);  Maguire  s  Fanshawe  23001    (W~1907816),  23560   in  part 
(W~1907839),   SURINAM:  Maguire  23983    (W~1907851),  FRENCH  GUIA- 
NA: Hoock  s.n.    [19  Juillet  1955]  (Cy),  s.n.    [22  Mai  1957]  (Cy, 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  271 

Ld).   BRAZIL:  Amazonas:  Alencar   691    in  part  (Ld);  Baldwin   3222 
(W— 1878799),  3389    (W— 1878881) ,  3548    (W— 18789AA);  Cid,    Buck, 
Nelson,   Almeida,   Mota,    &  Lima   61    In  part  (N) ;  Lasseigne   21169   in 
part  (W — 2780463);  Madison,   Kennedy,   Monteiro,    &  Braga   6314   in 
part  (N,  W — 2889766),  6453    (N) ;  Nascimento  663    (Ld,  N) ;  Ongley  & 
Ramos  P. 21770   in  part  (N,  W — 2935293);  Poole  1968   in  part  (W — 
2961628);  Prance,   Coelho,  Maas,    s  Pinheiro  11659    (W — 2801671); 
Prance,  Maas,    Woolcott,  Monteiro,    &  Ramos  15682    (W — 2801666); 
Prance,   Ramos,   Farias,    S  Coelho  9069    (W — 2673076A);  Rddrigues  & 
Coelho  2574    (N) ;  Rodrigues,   CoSlho,   s  Monteiro  8590    (W — 2920841). 
Par£:  Cid,   Ramos,   Mota,    £  Rosas  1869    [Herb.  Inst.  Nac,  Peeq.  Amaz. 
96037]  (Ld);  Silva   S  Santos  4691    (N,  N) .   Rond8nia:  Cordeiro  s.n. 
[25  April  1976]  (E— 2466527).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Herzog,  Feddes 
Repert.  Spec.  Nov.  29:  205,  1931  (N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASCICULATUS   f .  TENELLUS   Herzog 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  480—481.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  122,  124,  153,  &  613.  1980. 

Recent  collectors  have  encountered  this  plant  in  low  restinga 
vegetation  over  white  sand  surrounded  by  hugh  forest  on  terra 
f irme. 

The  Schultes  S  Cabrera  14968   collection  is  a  mixture  with  P. 
lamarckii   Kunth  and  Syngonanthus  caulescens    (Poir.)  Ruhl. 

Additional  citations:  COLOMBIA:  Vaup^s:  Schultes  S  Cabrera 
14173    (W--2171373),  14968   in  part  (W— 2198877).  VENEZUELA:  Ama- 
zonas: Steyermark  57729    (W — 1901735).   Bolivar:  Maguire,   Steyer- 
mark,   S  Maguire  53609    (W — 2514909).  GUYANA:  Cowan  S  Soderstrom 
1748    (W— 2678025),   SURINAM:  B.  Maguire  24191    (W— 1907833), 
24298    (W— 1907836),  24677    (W— 1907842).   BRAZIL:  Para:  Campbell, 
Ongley,  Ramos,  Monteiro,    &  Nelson  P. 22539    (N,  W — 2935282); 
Davidson  &  Martinelli   s.n,    [30  June  1980]  (N) .  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS: 
Herzog,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov.  29:  205.  1931  (N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASCICULIFER   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Biol.  Abstr.  61:  4884.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  43.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  & 
613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl  Mont.  1:  73—74,  pi.  42.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASCICULIFER   var.  CAPILLIFOLIUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Biol.  Abstr.  61:  4884.  1976; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  43.  1977;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  153  & 
613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Goias:  Hatschbach  36839    (W — 
2849703— isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FASTIGIATUS    (Bong.)  K8rn. 

Additional  synonymy:  Faepalanthus  fastigiatus    (Bong.)  Ruhl., 
in  herb. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  325—326,  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 


272  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Ess.  Ilonog.  Erioc.  24, 
1831  (N,  W);  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  573.  1841  (N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  FERREYRAE   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  326.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  134  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  FILIPES   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  326.  1974;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  ] 22  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  GUYANA:  Maguire  S  Fanshawe  23021    (N — type,  W — 
1907818— isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FILOSUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  43.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  FIMBRIATUS   Alv.  Sllv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  326—327.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  197—198,  pi.  130.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  FLACCIDUS    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Additional  synonymy:  Paepalanthus  flaccidus   Bong,  apud  Ruhl, 
in  Wettstein,  Denkschr.  K.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien  Math. -Nat,  79:  87. 
1908. 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Bong.,  Mem.  Acad.  Imp.  Sci. 
St.  Petersb.,  ser.  6,  1:  636—637  &  643—644.  1831;  Ruhl,  in  Wett- 
stein, Denkschr.  K.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien  Math. -Nat.  79:  87.  1908; 
Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  43.  1977;  Monteiro,  Giulietti,  Mazzoni,  & 
Castro,  Bol.  Bot.  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7:  [43],  45,  46,  52,  &  57,  fig. 
63—68.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  1-4,  425,  &  613.  1980;  Mold, 
in  Harley  &  Mayo,  Toward  Checklist  Fl.  Bahia  74.  1980. 

Additional  illustrations:  Monteiro,  Giulietti,  Mazzoni,  & 
Castro,  Bol.  Bot,  Univ.  S.  Paulo  7:  57,  fig.  63—68.  1979. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  an  herb,  to  30  cm. 
tall,  forming  compact  hemispheric  mounts  when  in  flower,  with 
rigid  dark-green  leaves,  spreading,  glossy, yellow-green  peduncles, 
and  white  flowering-heads.   They  have  encountered  it  on  campo 
rupestre  among  dry  soil  vegetation  and  in  areas  of  closed  cerra- 
do  with  adjoining  grassland  and  marsh,  at  1000 — 1300  m.  altitude, 
in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  March  and  July. 

Additional  &  emended  citations:  BRAZIL:  Bahia:  Harley,  Mayo, 
Storr,  Santos,   &  Pinheiro  in  Harley  19790    (Ld,  N,  W — 2936324); 
Mori,   King,  Santos,   S  Hage  12285    (Ld,  W — 2854246).  Distrito  Fed- 
eral: Heringer  12138    [Herb.  Brad.  64010]  (Ja) .  Minas  Gerais: 
Irwin,   Fonseca,   Souza,   Reis  dos  Santos,   S  Ramos  28576    (W — 
2861723);  Widgren   s.n.  [1845]  (N) .  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth, 
Enum.  PI.  3:  512  &  579.  1841  (N,  W) . 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  273 

PAEPALANTHUS  FLAVICEPS   KHrn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologla  29:  329—330.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  FLAVORUTILUS   Ruhl. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  43.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  FOLIOSUS   Ktirn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  25.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  FORMOSUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  481.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  154,  &  613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Amazonas:  Maguire  &  Maguire 
35235    (W— 2168943,  W— 2168944,  W— 2168945),  35432    (W— 2168950,  W— 
2168951). 

PAEPALANTHUS   FRATERNUS   N.  E,  Br. 

Additional  bibliography:  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov. 
Beih.  43:  [Inlt.  Fl.  Venez.]  180.  1927;  Mold.,  Phytologia  41: 
478  &  481.  1979;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  122,  &  613.  1980; 
Mold.,  Phytologia  49:  380—381  (1981)  and  50:  245  &  270.  1982; 
Hocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  A. 39:  101.  1982;  Mold.,  Phytologia  54: 
66—67  &  220.  1983. 

Recent  collectors  describe  this  plant  as  forming  dense  clumps 
on  herb-covered  mounds  or  dense  tufts,  the  leaves  stiffly  coria- 
ceous, rich-green  on  both  surfaces,   and  the  flowering-heads 
white  or  whitish  to  whitish-gray,  surrounded  by  black  or  dark- 
maroon  involucral  bracts.   They  have  found  It  growing  along  the 
edge  of  sandstone  rock  formations  bordering  subsavannas  of 
Mallophyton   and  Chimantaea,    in  low  Mallopbyton  chimantensis 
scrub,  in  open  places,  especially  in  zanjon,  and  on  swampy 
savannas,  at  2300 — 2685  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit 
in  January,  February,  and  October, 

Material  has  been  mlsidentlf led  and  distributed  in  some  her- 
baria as  the  very  closely  related  P.  convexus   Gleason,   On  the 
other  hand,  the  Steyermark  93683   &  93958   and  Steyermark,   Espino- 
sa,  McDiarmid,   s  Brewer-Carlas  115991,   distributed  as  P.  fra- 
ternus,   actually  are  P.  convexus  Gleason,  while  Persaud  130   is 
P,  auyantepuiensis   Mold,,  Maguire,  Steyermark,   Brewer-Carias, 
Maguire,    &  Espinosa  65609   and  Steyermark,   Brewer-Carias,   Dun- 
sterville,   &  Dunsterville  112437  are   P.  fraternus   var.  marahua- 
censis   Mold,,  Steyermark,   Brewer-Carias,    S  Liesner  124407   is  P, 
fraternus   var,  radiatus   Mold,,  Steyermark  s  Wurdack  490   Is  P. 
fraternus   var.  spathulatus   Mold.,  Steyermark  58849   is  P.  per- 
plexans   Mold, 

Knuth  (1927)  cites  Connell   S  Quelch  96   &  659  and  Ule  s.n, 
from  Roraima,  Venezuela. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark  103839 
(Ld,  N,  N) .   Bolivar:  Huber  S  Steyermark  7158    (Ld);  Steyermark 


274  PHYTOLOGIA  Vole    54,    NOc    4 

58901    (W— 1987399),    93959    (W— 2584275);   Steyermark,   Espinosa,   Mc 
Diarmid,    S  Brewer-Carias  115818    (Ld),    115842    (Ld),    115857    (Ac), 
115886    (Ac,    Ld),    115896    (Ld);    Steyermark,   Huber ,   S  CarreJio  £<> 
128875    (Ld);   Steyermark  s  Nurdack  1045    (W— 2168529,   W— 2407799)  „ 

PAEPALANTHUS  FRATERNUS   var.  CHIMANTENSIS   Moldo,  Phytologia  54: 
66— 67„  1983„ 
Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  54:  66—67  &  234.  1983 „ 
Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bolfvar:  steyermark.   Ruber,   &  Carreno   E„ 

128944a    (Ld— type) » 

PAEPALANTHUS  FRATERNUS   var.  IIARAHUACENSIS   Mold.,  Phytologia  49: 

385.  1980. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  49:  385.  1981;  Hocking,  Ex- 
cerpts Bot,  A. 39:  101.  1982;  Moldo,  Phytologia  50:  245  &  270. 
1982o 

Collectors  refer  to  this  plant  as  forming  dense  clumps,  the 
flowering-heads  sordid-white,  the  leaves  green,  and  have  found 
it  growing  at  2000 — 2800  m,  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit 
in  February,  March,  and  September.  Material  has  previously 
been  confused  with  Po  convexus   Gleason  and  typical  P.  fraternus 
No  Eo  Br, 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Maguire,   Steyermark,   Brewer- 
Carias,  Maguire,   s  Espinosa   65609    (E — 2901867 — isotype,  E — 
1901871 — isotype,  Ld — isotype,  N — type);  Steyermark,   Brewer- 
Carias,   S  Liesner  124391    (E— 2901870) ,  124407    (E— 2901863); 
Steyermark  &  Delascio  129106    (Ld)„   Bolivar:  Steyermark,   Brewer- 
Carias,   Dunsterville,   S  Dunsterville  112437    (N) ;  Steyermark, 
Huber,   &  Carreno  Eo   128175    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FRATERNUS   varo  RADIATUS   Moldo,  Phytologia  49: 
385—386.  1981o 

Bibliography:  Mold„,  Phytologia  49:  385—386  (1981)  and  50: 
245  &  270o  1982;  Kocking,  Excerpt.  Bot.  Ao39:  101.  1982. 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Amazonas:  Steyermark,   Brewer-Carias, 

5  Liesner  124407    (N — type). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FRATERNUS   var.  SPATHULATUS   Moldo,  Phytologia  49: 

386.  1981. 

Bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  49:  386  (1981)  and  50:  245 

6  270.  1982;  Hocking,  Excerpt,  Bot.  Ao39:  101.  1982„ 

The  type  collection  of  this  taxon  was  previously  confused 
with  typical  P.  fraternus   No  Eo  Bro  and  so  cited. 

Citations:  VENEZUELA:  Bolfvar:  Steyermark  s  Wurdack  490 
(Ld — isotype,  Mu — isotype,  N — type,  W — 2168511 — isotype,  W — 
2407720— isotype). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FREYREYSII    (Billbo)    Kflrno 

Additional  &  emended  bibliography:  Bong.,  Memo  Acad.  Tmpo 
Sci.  Sto  Petersb.,  ser.  6,  1:  625—626.  634,  &  635.  1831; 
Mold,,  Phytologia  37:  44 o  1977;  Mold,,  Phytol.  Memo  2:  154  & 
613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Bong.,  Esso  Monog. 


1983  Moldenke,  Notes  on  Eriocaulaceae  275 

Erioc.  26.  1831  (N,  W) ;  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  502  &  57A.  1841  (N, 
W). 

PAEPALANTHUS   FULGIDUS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold,,  Phytologia  29:  390—391.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  117,  154,  &  613,  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  FULGIDUS   var.  ZULOAGENSIS   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  291.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

Steyermark  and  his  associates  describe  this  plant  as  subcaules- 
cent,  the  leaves  recurred,  shiny  dark-green  above,  pale-green  be- 
neath, the  "heads  white  with  black  [Involucral  bracts?]",  and 
have  found  it  growing  in  wet  soil  at  the  edges  of  forests,  at 
1850 — 2450  m.  altitude,  in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  February. 
The  area  of  collection  is  apparently  on  the  border  of  AmazSnas, 
Brazil,  and  Bolivar,  Venezuela,  so  the  taxon  probably  occurs  in 
both  countries. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Boli^var:  Steyermark,   Huber ,   & 
Carreno  E.   128937    (Ld). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FUNCKEANUS   Ktirn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Knuth,  Feddes  Repert.  Spec.  Nov, 
Belh.  43:  [Init.  Fl.  Venez.]  180.  1927;  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  391, 
1974;  Mold.,  Phytol.  Hem.  2:  117  &  613.  1980, 

Recent  collectors  have  found  this  plant  growing  at  1400  m.  al- 
titude, in  both  flower  and  fruit  in  September.   Knuth  (1927) 
cites  Funck  s  Schlim  809   from  Trujillo,  Venezuela. 

Additional  citations:  VENEZUELA:  Trujillo:  Benftez  de  Rojas 
1928    (Eu~48012). 

PAEPALANTHUS   FUSCOATER   K8rn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  391—392.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  FUSCOATER   var.  MINOR   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  392,  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  181. 
1928  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  FUSCUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  44.  197;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  243—244,  pi.  162.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS   GARDNERIANUS   Walp. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  44.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Walp.,  Ann.  Bot. 
Syst,  1:  889.  1848  (N,  W);  G.  Gardn.  in  Hook,  f..  Icon.  PI.  6 


276  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.   54,   No.   4 

[ser.    2,    2]:    pi.   528.   1843    (Ba). 

PAEPALANTHUS  GARIMPENSIS   Alv.  Silv, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  26.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613,  1980, 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  251—253,  pi,  167.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  GENICULATUS    (Bong.)    Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  44.  1977;  Mold,, 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154,  425,  &  613.  1980. 

Additional  citations:  BRAZIL:  Minas  Gerais:  Black  S  Mendes  Mag- 
alHSes  51-11846    (W— 2252979);  Murca  Pires  s  Black  2801    (W— 
2222486).  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3:  572.  1841  (N, 
W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  GENTLEI   Mold. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  481.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  74  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  GIBBOSUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  479.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol,  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl. 
Mont.  1:  142—144,  pi.  89.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) . 

PAEPALANTHUS  GLABRIFOLIUS   Ruhl, 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  37:  44.  1977;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  GLAREOSUS    (Bong.)  Kunth 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  35:  26.  1976;  Mold., 
Phytol.  Mem,  2:  154  &  613,  1980, 

Additional  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS:  Kunth,  Enum.  PI.  3: 
571.  1841  (N,  W). 

PAEPALANTHUS  GLAUCESCENS   K8rn. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  481.  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

PAEPALANTHUS  GLAUCOPHYLLUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  41:  481.  1979; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154,  425,  426,  &  613.  1980. 

Emended  citations:  MOUNTED  CLIPPINGS  &  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv. 
Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1:  23—23,  pi.  8.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) , 

PAEPALANTHUS  GLAUCOPODUS   Alv.  Silv. 

Additional  bibliography:  Mold.,  Phytologia  29:  482,  1974; 
Mold.,  Phytol.  Mem.  2:  154  &  613.  1980. 

Citations:  MOUNTED  ILLUSTRATIONS:  Alv.  Silv.,  Fl.  Mont.  1: 
pi.  2  &  63  bis.  1928  (Ld,  N,  W) .      [to  be  continued] 


DEPPEA  LUNDELLII  (RUBIACEAE) ,  A  NEW 
SPECIES  FROM  GUATEMALA 


John  D.  Dwyer 
Missouri  Botanical  Garden 
St.  Louis,  Missouri  63166 


DEPPEA  LUNDELLII  Dwyer,  sp.  nov.  —  Herbae  parvae 
caulibus  pluribus  ex  rhizomate  gracile  orientibus;  stipulae 
ad  1.7  mm  longae;  folia  opposita  laminis  oblongis  vel  obovato- 
oblongis,  ad  3.5  cm  longis  et  1.3  cm  latis,  venis  lateralibus 
4-6  (-7),  infra  in  costa  venisque  villosis;  petioli  ad  6.5  mm 
longi.   Flores  in  axillis  solitarii,  pedicellis  ad  1.5  cm 
longis;  calyx  lobis  0.5-1.0  mm  longis  praeditus;  corolla  alba 
tubo  vix  visibile  lobis  ad  3.5  mm  longis,  glabris.   Fructus 
maturitate  costis  sex  tenuibus  longistrorum  et  asymmetrice 
dehiscentes  pericarpio  apice  saepe  laciniato,  seminibus 
pluribus  reticulatis. 

Herbs,  the  stems  several,  arising  from  a  slender  wiry 
rhizome,  less  than  10.0  cm  long,  densely  f errugineous- 
villose;  stipules  persistent,  narrowly  triangular,  to  1.7 
mm  long,  densely  ferrugineous-villose;  leaves  opposite,  often 
with  several  pairs,  variable  in  length  at  a  node,  the  blades 
oblong  or  obovate-oblong,  to  3.5  cm  long,  to  1.3  cm  wide, 
deltoid  to  obtuse  at  apex,  acute,  attenuate-acute  or  cuneate 
at  base,  the  costa  slender,  prominulous  beneath,  the  lateral 
veins  4-6  (-7),  strongly  prominulous  beneath,  thinning  toward 
the  margin,  with  (0-)  1-2  veins  between  two  adjacent  lateral 
veins  arising  from  the  costa,  usually  2-4  pinnatiform  veins 
between  two  lateral  veins,  the  other  veins  invisible,  thin- 
chartaceous,  ±  concolorous,  occasionally  bullate  above, 
villose  on  costa  and  veins  below,  the  margin  ciliate,  the 
hairs  straight  or  curled.   Flowers  solitary  in  axils,  the 
pedicels  capillaceous,  to  2.5  cm  long,  0.25  mm  wide;  hypan- 
thium  ca  1.0  mm  long,  glabrous  or  glabrescent,  the  calycine 
cup  scarcely  measurable,  the  lobes  4,  to  1.5  mm  long,  gla- 
brous; corolla  white,  the  tube  to  0.35  mm  long,  the  lobes 
oblong,  to  3.5  mm  long,  glabrous;  stamens  4,  the  anthers  ca 
1.35  mm  long,  apiculate;  style  slender,  ca  3.5  mm  long,  the 
stigma  narrowly  clavate,  the  ovules  on  2  intrusive  axile 
placentas.   Fruit  when  immature,  oblong,  to  3.5  mm  long,  to 
1.0  mm  wide,  delicately  6-ribbed,  at  maturity  splitting 
unevenly  from  apex  toward  base,  laciniate  at  apex,  the  ribs 
in  strong  contrast  to  the  thin,  scarious  white  pericarp,  the 
cystoliths  abundant,  the  seeds  subrotund,  ca  0.2  mm  in  diam, 
reticulate. 

277 


278  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  A 

GUATEMALA;  Dept.  Baja  Verapaz :  Nino  Perdido,  bordering 
Rio  San  Jose,  8  km  north,  in  high  forest,  on  wall,  £.  L^. 
Lundell  &^  E.  Contreras  21025  (LL;  holotype,  MO)  .   He"rbT 
flowers  white. 

I  have  examined  almost  all  of  the  holotypes  of  Deppea 
and  am  certain  that  the  new  species  is  distinct.   Deppea  is 
a  genus  with  approximately  25  species  restricted  to  the 
tropics  of  Mesoamerica,  except  for  one  or  two  species  found 
in  northern  South  America.   The  center  of  distribution  of  the 
genus  is  southern  Mexico. 

The  species  is  named  in  honor  of  Dr.  C.  L.  Lundell  who 
has  collected  many  Rubiaceae  in  Guatemala,  as  well  as  in 
other  countries  of  Mesoamerica. 

Deppea  includes  subshrubs,  shrubs,  and  trees.   There  is 
no  species  so  reduced  in  stature  as  the  new  species.   There 
are  several  taxa  with  leaves  less  than  3.5  cm  in  length, 
e.g.  B.    microphylla  Greenman. 

The  fact  that  the  stipules  are  persistent,  the  corolla 
tube  extremely  short,  and  the  fruits  finally  dehiscent 
precludes  it  from  being  assigned  to  Hof fmannia  which  has 
consistently  axillary  inflorescences.   While  occasionally 
one  finds  a  collection  of  Deppea  with  a  few  of  the  flowers 
solitary,  this  is  an  unusual  circumstance.   The  few  fruits 
of  D^.  lundellii  observed  as  dehiscent,  split  irregularly  into 
2  ?  parts  from  apex  to  base;  at  least  one  fruit  is  laciniate 
at  the  apex,  presumably  a  unique  feature  of  the  new  species. 
D.  tenuiflora  Benth.,  e.g.  Breedlove  12006  from  Chiapas, 
Mexico  and  D^.  pubescens  Hemsley,  e.g.  Hinton  7402  from  Mexico, 
have  fruits  which  split  to  the  base.   The  minute  flowers  of 
D.  anisophylla  L.  Wms,  e.g.  Skutch  1539  may  have  withered 
fruit  as  a  skeleton-line  basket  of  4  ribs  from  which  the 
wall  proper  pulls  away  as  scarious  remnants.   The  young 
fruit  of  D.  lundellii  does  not  have  a  ringlike  structure 
connecting  the  ribs  as  they  converge  at  the  apex  of  the 
pericarp  as  in  D.  obtusif lora  Benth. ,  D.  hamelioides  Standi. 


CONTRIBUTION  TO  THE  LICHEN  FLORA  OF  URUGUAY  XIX 

Lichens  from  Rio  de  la  Plata  coast. 

(*) 
Hector  S.  Osorio.  ^  '' 

Departamento  de  BotSnica. 
Facultad  de  Humanidades  y  Ciencias. 
Montevideo     URUGUAY. 


Th 
ra  of 
Plata 
40°  S 
subpro 
(URU/8 
is  car 
U  n  i  V  e  r 
tional 
Di  rect 
cul  ty 

Th 
ment  o 
study 
are  at 
coast 
purpos 
verely 
te-wat 


is  is  t h 
the  coas 
within  t 
and  50°- 
gram  i  nc 
2/009)  w 
r  i  e  d  out 
s  i  d  a  d  d  e 
C  0  0  r  d  i  n 
or  of  th 
Prof.  C/ 


e  fir 
t  of 
he  1  i 
60°  W 
1  uded 
h  i  ch 
by  t 
la  R 
a  t  i  0  n 
e  Dep 
N  Mar 


St  pape 
the  Atl 
m i  t s  of 
. )  Such 

in  the 
the  fin 
he  Facu 
epubl i  c 

of  thi 
artment 
i  0  Boll 


e  coast  of  the  Rio  d 
f  Montevideo  was  cho 
because  the  suitable 

present  in  very  cri 
is  beeing  transforme 
es  and  al 1  the  easte 

affected  by  the  new 
ers  from  Montevideo 


r  dealing  with  the  lichen  flo- 
antic  Ocean  and  the  Rio  de  la 
the  Marsden  Square  413  (30°- 
long-term  planned  study  is  a 
"Plan  de  Ciencias  del  Mar" 
ancial  support  of  PNUD/UNESCO 
Itad  de  Humanidades  y  Ciencias, 
a,  Montevideo,  Uruguay.  The  Na- 
s  Program  is  undertaken  by  the 

of  Oceanography  of  this  Fa- 
var . 

e  la  Plata  (RPC)  in  the  Depart- 
ised  to  begin  this  florist ic 

habitats  for  the  lichen  growth 
tical  conditions.  A  part  of  the 
d  in  terraces  for  recreative 
rn  zone  of  the  same  will  be  se- 

system  of  drainage  of  the  was- 
City. 

ces  from  the  lichen  flora  from 
ts  in  the  Atlantic  coast  of 
ately  reduced  to  out  dated  and 

Patagonic  coast  of  Argentina 
icinity  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Bra- 
listed  species  (which  are  pre- 
arium  of  the  author)  is  pointed 
eady  reported  from  maritime  ha- 


The  literature  referen 
marine  and  maritime  habita 
South  America  are  infortun 
scarce  quotations  from  the 
(Grassi  1950)  and  in  the  v 
zil  (Vainio  1890). 

For  each  of  the  below 
served  in  the  private  harb 
out  if  this  species  is  air 
b  i  t  a  t  s  . 

The  zonation  scheme  used  in  the  present  paper  is  ba- 
sed on  Du  Rietz  (1932) , 

The  numbers  between  brackets  belong  to  the  author's 
numbering  system. 


(*)  POSTAL  ADDRESS 


Departamento  de  Botanica, 
Museo  Nacional  de  Historia  Natural 
Casilla  de  Correo  399. 
Montevideo    URUGUAY. 

279 


280  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.   4 

Bue.tl'La  moyitz\)-idzni>-iii    Mai  me. 

PUNTA  60RDA:  on  rocks,  middle  hygrohalin  zone  (7495). 
This  species  is  only  known  from  the  type  locality,,  a 
small  island  named  Isla  de  Flores  off  Rio  de  la  Plata 
coast  (Malme  1927/28,  Magnusson  1950).  Without  doubt 
this  habitat  is  located  in  a  maritime  zone. 

Caloplaca  armn-lcana   (Malme)  Zahlbr. 

RPC:  between  Punta  Shannon  and  Punta  Carretas,  upper 
hygrohalin  zone  (8193).  So  far  as  I  know  this  species 
is  reported  at  first  time  from  a  maritime  habitat. 

Caloplaca   c-Lnnabafi-ina    (Ach.)    Zahlbr. 

RPC:  between  Punta  Shannon  and  Punta  Carretas , upper  h^ 
grohal i  n  zone(81 92  ) . 

PAJAS  BLANCAS:  on  rocks,  aerohalin  zone  (349). 
In  a  former  paper  (Osorio  1967)  three  collections  of 
this  species  were  reported  from  the  locality  of  Pi- 
riapolis,  Maldonado  Department.  According  with  annota- 
tions taken  from  the  collector's  labels  and  deposited 
in  our  private  library  the  above  mentioned  samples 
growth  on  rocks  in  the  Rio  de  la  Plata  coast. 

Caloplaca    icAtiva    (Fr.)  Zw.  var.  contlqtxa    (Mass.)Oliv. 
PUNTA  GORDA:  on  perpendicular  S-faced  stones,  aeroha- 
lin zone  (7493).  This  species  is  reported  at  first  ti- 
me from  a  maritime  habitat. 

Caloplaca  -iublobulata    (Nyl.)  Zahlbr. 

PUNTA  GORDA:  on  rocks,  middle  hygrohalin  zone,  locally 
common  (7492).   Reported  at  first  time  for  Uruguay. 
Our  collections  possess  the  marginal  lobes  thick  and 
distinctly  effigurate;  the  protothallus  is  poorly  deve^ 
loped.  Dr.  A.  Fletcher  (pers.  comm.)  had  also  identi- 
fied this  species  among  some  collections  made  on  the 
oceanic  coast  of  Uruguay  near  the  boundary  with  Brazil 
(unpublished  records). 

Catlllafiia   chalijbcla    (Borr.)    Mass. 

PUNTA  GORDA:  on  stones,  aerohalin  zone  (7494).  Already 
reported  by  Fletcher  (1975a  &  b)  from  the  supralitoral 
zone  and  the  terrestrial  region. 

V.iplo&chli)tQ.i>    ochtiace.ui&    (Anzi)    Stein. 

RPC:    between    Punta    Shannon    and    Punta    Carretas,    on    rocks 
aerohalin    zone    (8300).    This    is    the    first    report  from   a 
maritime    habitat. 

Izcanoia    iai>ca   Miill.    Arg. 

RPC:  between  Punta  Shannon  and  Punta  Carretas,  rocks 
in  a  meadow,  aerohalin  zone  (8299).  In  the  Department 
of  Montevideo  there  are  two  collections  already  publi- 
shed from  maritime  habitats  (Magnusson  1950,  Osorio 
1966). 


1983  Osorio,    Lichen  flora  of  Uruguay  281 

Lec-tdea   montzv-idzn^i^    MLill.    Arg. 

PUNTA  GORDA:  rocks  in  a  meadow,  aerohalin  zone  (7496, 

7497). 
RPC:  between  Punta  Shannon  and  Punta  Carretas,  rocks 
in  a  meadow,  aerohalin  zone  (8189). 
This  is  the  first  report  from  a  maritime  habitat. 

Ochfiotzchia   o6o^ioana    Vers. 

PUNTA  GORDA:  on  perpendicular  S-faced  stones,  aeroha- 
lin zone  (7489). 

RPC:  between  Punta  Shannon  and  Punta  Carretas,  on  rocks 
upper  hygrohalin  zone  (8191). 

Verseghy  (1962)  published  two  collections  from  the  De- 
partment of  Maldonado  (Punta  Colorada  and  Punta  FrTa, 
Piriapolis)  gathered  in  maritime  habitats. 

Pafimotfizma   catnatam    (Ach.)  Hale. 

PUNTA  GORDA:  on  perpendicular  S-faced  stones,  locally 
common,  aerohalin  zone  (7491).  Lynge  (1929)  reported 
this  species  from  the  same  locality  but  no  indications 
about  the  habitat  are  given. 

ViiZadopaumdtla   papllloi,a    (Lynge  ex  Gyeln.)  Hale 

PUNTA  GORDA:  on  perpendicular  S-faced  stones,  aeroha- 
1  in  zone  (7490)  . 

RPC:  between  Punta  Shannon  and  Punta  Carretas,  on  rocks 
upper  hygrohaline  zone,  (8188).  In  Uruguay  this  spe- 
cies is  already  reported  from  a  maritime  habitat:  the 
island  Isla  de  Gorriti  off  the  Rio  de  la  Plata  coast, 
Department  of  Maldonado  (Osorio  1967). 

Kanthopa^mtlA^a   con^ip^fi^a    (Ach.)  Hale. 

RPC:  between  Punta  Shannon  and  Punta  Carretas,  on  rocks 
upper  hygrohalin  zone  (8190).  Fletcher  (1975a)  repor- 
ted this  species  from  a   maritime  habitat.  Miiller  Arg- 
gau  (1889)  reported  Pan.rml^a   conipzn.6a   var.  fiugulo^a 
from  the  small  island  Isla  de  Flores  but  this  old  i- 
dentification  needs  a  revision. 

Shortly  after  the  gathering  of  this  species  the  col- 
lection site   was  filled  up.  Therefore  this  is  the 
first  documented  example  of  the  uncertain  future  of 
the  lichen  flora   in  such  habitats,  at  least  in  the 
Department  of  Montevideo. 

SUMMARY. 
Thirteen  lichen  species  collected  in  the  Rio  de  la  Plata 
coast  are  listed.  Caloplaca   6ablobulata    is  added  to  the 
known  flora  of  Uruguay. 

Caloplaca   amzfiZcana,    Caloplaca    f,t6tX.va   var.  cont-igua, 
V-iploiichA.iita    ochxaczui^    and  Lccidza  montzvldQ.n&yiii    are  re- 
ported at  first  time  from  a  maritime  habitat. 


282  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G  I  A  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

LITERATURE  CITED. 


DU  RIETZ,  G.  E.  1932. 

Zur  Vegetati onbkol ogi e  der  ostschwedi schen  Kustenf el  sen . 

Beihefte  Botanischen  Centralblatt  49:  61-112. 

FLETCHER,  A.   1975a. 

Key  for  the  identification  of  British  marine  and  mariti- 
me lichens.  I.  Siliceous  rocky  shore  species. 
The  Lichenologist  7(1  )  :  1-52. 

_-    1975b. 

n.  Calcareous  and  terricolous  species. 

The  Lichenologist  7(2):  73-115. 

GRASSI,  M.   1950. 

Contribucion  al  Catalogo  de  ITquenes  argent inos.  I. 

Lilloa  24:  5-294. 

LYNGE,  B.   1925. 

On  some  South  American  lichens  of  the  genera  Pa^mzlA^a, 

Candzlania,    T 2.loi>(ihii,tzi>    and    Pyxlnt. 

Nytt  Ma gas  in  Naturvidenskapene  62:  83-97. 

MAGNUSSON,  A.   1950. 

Lichens  from  Uruguay. 

Meddelanden  Goteborgs  Botaniska  Tradg^rd  18:  2  13-237. 

MALME,  G.   1927/28. 

8ae££-tae  itineris  Regnelliani  primi. 

Arkiv  for  Botanik  21A  (14):  1-41. 

MULLER  ARGAU,  J.   1889. 

Lichenes  in  "Mission  Scientifique  du  Cap  Horn",  Botani- 

que  5:  141-1 72. 

OSORIO,  H.   1966. 

Contribution  to  the  lichen  flora  of  Uruguay.  II.  Addi- 
tions. ^ 

Comuni caciones  Botanicas  Museo  Historia  Natural  Montevi 
dec  4(45) :  1-7. 

OSORIO,  H.   1967. 

Contribution  to  the  lichen  flora  of  Uruguay.  III.  Some 
additional  new  localities. 

Comuni caci ones  Botanicas  Museo  Historia  Natural  Montevi- 
deo 4(46)  :  1-10. 

VAINIO,  E.   1890. 

Etude  sur  la  classification  et  la  morphologic  des  lichens 

d  u  B  r  e'  s  i  1  . 

Acta  Societatis  Flora  Fauna  Fennica  7:  1-247,  1-256. 

VERSEGHY,  K.   1962. 

Die    Gattung    Ochfioldchla. 

Nova  He dwigi a. Beihefte  1:  1-145. 


STEM  PUBESCENCE  IN  THE  SALVIA  AZUREA  VAR.  AZUREA  AND 
VAR.  GRANDIFLORA  COMPLEX 

K.  N.  Gandhi  and  R.  Dale  Thomas,  Department  of  Biology, 
Northeast  Louisiana  University,  Monroe,  LA,  71209 

Bentham  (1848) ,  while  describing  Labiatae  in 
DeCandolle's  Prodromus ,  distinguished  Salvia  azure a  Lam. 
with  glabrous  stems  from  S_^  pitcheri  Torr.  ex  Benth.  with 
tomentose,  pubescent  stems.   Further,  under  S_^  azurea 
he  described  a  var.  grandiflora.   S .  longifolia  Nutt. 
was  cited  as  a  synonym  under  var.  grandiflora  by  Bentham. 
He  remarked  that  although  Nuttall  described  the  stem  as 
small,  specimens  cultivated  from  Nuttallian  seeds  attained 
a  height  of  five  feet. 

Carl  Epling  (1939) ,  in  his  revision  of  Salvia, 
subdivided  the  S_^  azurea  complex  into  four  subspecies : 
media,  mexicana,  pitcheri,  and  typica.   He  attributed 
appressed,  retrorse  pubescence  to  the  stems  of  subsp. 
pitcheri  (Benth.)  Epl.  (mostly  western)  and  appressed, 
ascending  pubescence  (sometimes  nearly  absent)  to  the 
stems  of  subsp.  media  Epl.  and  subsp.  t3mica  Epl.  (both 
mostly  eastern  in  distribution) .   The  suosp .  media  is 
characterized  with  elliptic,  pubescent  leaves  and  the 
subsp.  typica  is  characterized  with  linear  to  lanceolate, 
glabrous  leaves .   He  cited  Louisiana  as  one  of  the  areas 
for  the  distribution  of  these  two  subspecies. 

In  his  description  of  S_^  azurea,  Epling  remarked 
that  although  the  single  characteristic  which  was  most 
reliable  for  the  segregation  of  eastern  and  western  forms 
was  the  pubescence  on  the  stem  (whether  retrorse  or 
ascending),  yet  even  here,  there  were  exceptional  specimens 
of  subsp.  pitcheri  from  one  collection  that  had  pubescence 
of  both  types. 

The  treatment  of  this  complex  by  others  has  varied. 
Femald  (1952)  treated  S_^  pitcheri  as  a  synonym  under 
S.  azurea  var.  grandiflora  which  he  characterized  as 
Having  short ,  recurving  pubescence  on  the  stem.  Gleason 
(1963)  did  the  reverse  of  Femald  and  made  S_^  azurea  var. 

frandiflora  a  synonym  under  S_^  pitcheri .  Correll  and 
ohnston  (1970)  cited  two  varieties  of  S .  azurea:  var. 
azurea  with  ascending  or  spreading  hairs  on  the  stem  and 
var.  grandiflora  Benth.  (including  S_^  pitcheri  Torr.  ex 
Benth.)  with  reflexed  hairs  on  the  stenT   They  also 
wrongly  attributed  the  epithet  S.  pitcheri  to  Nuttall. 

The  authors  made  a  study  o7~tne  occurrence  and  nature 
of  the  pubescence  on  more  than  70  specimens  of  this 
complex  that  are  on  deposit  in  the  Northeast  Louisiana 
University  Herbarium.   The  degree  of  pubescence  was 
variable  from  almost  none  to  dense.   The  pubescnece,  when 
present,  was  found  to  occur  in  the  following  pattern:  the 

283 


284  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

pubescence  on  the  leaf,  pedicel,  and  calyx  was  always 
ascending.   In  16  specimens  the  pubescence  on  the  stem  and 
rachis  was  mostly  ascending,  rarely  spreading.   In  40 
specimens,  the  hairs  on  the  rachis  were  ascending  but  re- 
flexed  on  the  stem.   In  5  specimens  the  hairs  both  on  the 
stem  and  on  the  rachis  were  reflexed.   In  11  specimens  the 
hairs  on  the  stem  were  found  to  be  in  a  mixed  condition 
such  as  ascending,  reflexed,  and  spreading.   All  such 
variations  were  found  at  one  internode  or  on  adjacent 
internodes .   In  these  11  specimens  the  hairs  on  the  rachis 
were  ascending  or  reflexed.   Basically  following  the 
interpretation  of  Correll  and  Johnston,  we  have  included 
all  such  specimens  that  are  nearly  glabrous  or  bearing 
ascending  and/or  spreading  hairs  under  the  variety  azurea 
and  the  specimens  bearing  reflexed  hairs  on  the  stem  under  I 
the  var.  grandi flora.   The  mixed  condition  of  hairs  on  the   ! 
stem  is  probably  due  to  the  hybridization  between  the  type 
var.  azurea  and  the  var.  grandiflora  and  such  specimens  are 
included  under  the  var.  grandiflora.   This  mixed  condition 
could  point  to  a  phenomenon  called  'character  displacement' 
(Luria  et.  al,   1981).   As  thus  delimited,  the  var.  azurea 
includes  forms  with  elliptic  and  pubescent  or  glabrescent 
leaves  and  forms  with  linear  to  lanceolate  and  pubescent 
or  glabrescent  leaves.   Hence,  we  could  not  follow  Epling 
who  classified  these  forms  as  subsp.  media  and  subsp.  typica 

We  are  thankful  to  Dr.  T.  P.  Ramamoorthy  (Depart- 
amento  de  Botanica,  Universidad  Nacional  Autonoma  de 
Mexico,  04510  Mexico,  D.F.)  for  valuable  suggestions. 

Literature  Cited 
Bentham  in  DeCandolle,  1848.   Prodromus  12:  302. 
Correll,  D.  S.  and  M.  C.  Johnston.   1970.   Manual  of  the 

Vascular  Plants  of  Texas.   Texas  Research  Foundation, 

Renner,  Texas.   1881  pp. 
Epling,  C.   1939.   A  Revision  of  Salvia:  Subgenus 

Calophae.   Repert.  Spec.  Nov.  Regni  Veg.  Beih. 

IIOT  191-195. 
Femald,  M.  L.   1950.   Gray's  Manual  of  Botany,  8th 

Edition.   American  Book  Company,  N.Y.   1632  pp. 
Gleason,  H.  A.   1952.   The  New  Britton  and  Brown 

Illustrated  Flora,  3rd  Printing.   3  volumes. 

Hafner  Publishing  Company,  Inc.,  New  York. 
Luria,  S.  E.,  S.  J.  Gould,  and  S.  Singer.   1981.   A 

View  of  Life.   Benjamin/ Cummings  Publishing  Co., 

Menlo  Park,  CA.   805  pp. 


NEOTROPICAL  MYRSINACEAE  ~  X 

Cyrus  Longworth  Lundell 

Director,  Plant  Sciences  Laboratory 

The  University  of  Texas  at  Dallas 

Richardson,  Texas  75083-0688 


AURICULARDISIA  AURICULATA  (Donn.  Sra.)  Lundell,  comb.  nov. 
Ardisia  auriculata  Donn.  Sm. ,  Bot.  Gaz.  24:  395.  1897, 

AURICULARDISIA  CHONTALENSIS  (Mez)  Lundell,  comb.  nov. 
Ardisia  chontalensis  Mez,  Pf lanzenreich  IV.  236:  90.  1902. 

AURICULARDISIA  CONOIDEA  (Lundell)  Lundell,  comb.  nov. 
Ardisia  conoidea  Lundell,  Wrightia  4:  56.  1968. 

AURICULARDISIA  GLANDULOSO-MARGINATA  (Oerst.)  Lundell, 
comb.  nov.   Ardisia  glanduloso-marginata  Oerst.,  Vid.  Medd. 
Kjoebenhavn  1861:  128.  1861. 

The  asymmetric  sepals  are  asymmetrical  and  inconspicu- 
ously auriculate.   Flower  size  varies  considerably  in  this 
taxon. 

AURICULARDISIA  MAMMOSA  (Lundell)  Lundell,  comb.  nov. 
Ardisia  mammosa  Lundell,  Wrightia  4:  60.  1968. 

AURICULARDISIA  NIGROPUNCTATA  (Oerst.)  Lundell,  comb. 
nov.   Ardisia  nigropunctata  Oerst.,  Vid.  Medd.  Kjoebenhavn 
1861:  127.  t.  2.  1861. 

AURICULARDISIA  PULVERULENTA  (Mez)  Lundell,  comb.  nov. 
Ardisia  pulverulenta  Mez,  Pf lanzenreich  IV.  236:  88.  1902. 

AURICULARDISIA  WEDELII  (Lundell)  Lundell,  comb.  nov. 
Ardisia  Wedelii  Lundell,  Am.  Midland  Nat.  29:  486.  1943. 

GRAPHARDISIA  OLIVERI  (Mast.)  Lundell,  comb.  nov. 
Ardisia  Oliveri  Mast.,  Hook.f.,  in  Bot.  Mag.,  t.  6357.   From 
a  cultivated  plant,  J.  D.  Hooker  f.  illustrates  and 
redescribes  Ardisia  Oliveri  Mast.,  Card.  Chron.  II.  680. 
1877. 

OERSTEDIANTHUS  CARLSONAE  (Steyermark)  Lundell,  comb, 
nov.   Ardisia  Carlsonae  Steyermark,  Ceiba  4:  301.  1955. 


285 


BOOK  REVIEWS 
Alma  L,  Moldenke 


"AN  INTEGRATED  SYSTEfl  OF  CLASSIFICATION  OF  FLOWERING  PLANTS"  by 
Arthur  Cronquist,  xviil  &  1262  pp.,  250  b/w  plates,  12 
photos  and  9  fig.   Columbia  University  Press,  New  York,  N.  Y, 
10025.   1981.   $120.00. 

This  excellent  text  is  based  upon  a  professional  lifetime 
productively  spent  in  the  field,  in  herbaria,  in  botanical 
libraries,  in  sharing  ideas  with  botanical  students  and  confreres 
(esp.  Takhtajan)  and  then  in  sorting  out  thoughts  to  produce  this 
book  that  should  prove  to  be  a  major  taxonomic  and  systematic 
guide  in  this  and  other  countries  for  quite  a  few  years  to  come. 
Using  the  modern  classif icatory  terms  the  dicots  are  placed  in 
the  Class  Magnoliopsida   with  6  subclasses  and  the  monocots  in 
Class  Liliopslda   with  5  subclasses  and  then  each  of  these  is 
divided  into  the  more  familiar  orders  and  less  than  400  families. 
Each  group,  through  the  families,  is  taxonomically  described  and 
provided  with  a  carefully  prepared  full  plate  drawing  with  dis- 
sected parts  of  a  type  or  typical  species.  Well  chosen  bibliography 
is  provided  after  each  subclass  section.   The  author  has  tended 
to  be  a  logical,  never  careless,  "lumper"  rather  than  a  "splitter" 
as  expressed  in  the  family  limitations.   It  is  a  pity,  especial- 
ly for  students,  that  the  price  of  the  book  has  to  be  so  large, 
but  it  is  really  justifiable  for  a  book  which  is  so  large 
quantitatively  and  qualitatively. 


"THE  GRASSES  OF  SOUTHERN  QUEENSLAND"  by  T.  C.  Tothill  &  J.  B. 

Hacker,  x  &  475  pp.,  149  b/w  pi.,  14  photos,  31  fig.,  2  tab, 
&  1  map.  University  of  Queensland  Press,  St,  Lucia,  London  & 
New  York,  N,  Y,  10023,   1983,   $32,50, 

This  valuable  study  was  published  for  the  Tropical  Grassland 
Society  of  Australia,   It  supersedes  ^'The  Grasses  of  Southeast 
Queensland"  of  1973,  covering  a  much  greater  geographical  range 
with  many  arid  zone  grasses  and  using  the  same  helpful  format. 
The  few  errors  in  the  earlier  work  have  been  corrected  and  the 
taxonomy  updated.   This  book  is  very  well  planned  "to  meet  the 
needs  of  agriculturalists,  ecologists  and  graziers  who  wish  to 
identify  the  grasses  that  they  encounter  or  with  which  they  are 
working"  and  to  serve  as  a  field  guide  for  amateur  naturalists. 
The  well  organized  introduction  shows  a  marked  map  of  the'  area, 
describes  and  photographs  the  typical  phytogeographical  areas, 
diagrams  and  explains  typical  grass  structures  and  gives  a 
workable  key  to  genera.   Keys  to  species  follow  these  descriptions 
where  more  than  one  species  is  recorded, 

286 


1983  Moldenke,  Book  reviews  287 

"FLORA  ILUSTRADA  CATARINENSE"  edited  by  Raullno  Reitz  for  the 
CNPq,  IBDF,  SAA,  U,  S.  National  Science  Foundation  In 
Washington,  D.C.,  U.S.A.  and  Herbarlo  "Barbosa  Rodrlgues"  In 
Itajal,  Santa  Catarlna,  Brazil.   It  plans  to  publish  180 
monographs  by  60  Brazilian  and  foreign  taxonomlsts  In  Part  I, 
Part  II  will  deal  with  the  various  phytogeographlcal  zones. 
Part  III  with  plant  associations.  Part  IV  with  history  of 
collections  and  collectors  and  Part  V  with  phytogeographic 
maps.   Paperbound.   Parte  I  GRAMINEAS  1,  Bambusa   to  44. 
Chloris   por  Lyman  B.  Smith,  Dieter  C.  Wasshausen  e  Roberto  M. 
Klein.  1981.   Parte  I  GRAMINEAS  45.  Deschampsia   to  84. 
Pseudechinolaena   por  Lyman  B.  Smith,  Dieter  C.  Wasshausen  e 
Roberto  M.  Klein.  1982.   Parte  I  GRAMINEAS  85.  Paspalum   to 
115.  Zea   por  Lyman  B.  Smith,  Dieter  C,  Wasshausen  e  Roberto 
M.  Klein.  1982. 
The  taxonomlc  and  economic  treatment  for  the  family  Is  In  the 
first  section,  as  well  as  a  glossary  and  a  key  to  the  tribes  and 
a  key  to  the  genera  and  species  alphabetically  up  through  Chloris- 
For  almost  every  species  in  these  three  parts  there  are  given 
scientific  and  local  common  names,  synonymy,  descriptions  in 
text  and  plates,  and  distributions  in  text  and  maps.   This  is  a 
huge  undertaking  that  has  herein  an  excellent  start,  fine  future 
prospects  and  great  intrinsic  value, 

"NATURE'S  SECOND  KINGDOM  -  Explorations  of  Vegetality  in  the 
Eighteenth  Century"  by  Franffois  Delaporte  translated  by 
Arthur  Goldhammer,  xll  &  266  pp.  &  7  b/w  photo  plates.   The 
MIT  Press,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts  02142.   1982.   $20,00. 

The  original  edition  was  entitled  "Le  Second  R^gne  de  la 
Nature"  and  was  published  in  Paris  in  1979.   I  am  quite  sure 
that  there  is  no  English-language  book  among  the  histories  of 
botany  and  biology  and  the  advanced  (historically  oriented  in- 
troductory chapters  of)  plant  physiology  texts  with  this  orien- 
tation in  this  detail.   Subsequently  the  contend  of  this  book 
will  prove  interesting  to  botanists  and  zoologists  and  the 
broader  labelled  biologists.  "Knowledge  of  animal  functions  pre- 
ceded knowledge  of  plant  functions,  or  vegetality,  for  one  very 
good  reason:  the  seekers  of  knowledge  were  animals. ... [who] 
sought  a  substitute  for  studying  their  own  nature".   Plants  were 
likened  to  upside-down  animals  whose  roots  served  as  mouths, 
etc.  Cartesian  thinking  claimed  that  "Man  is  a  living  and  think- 
ing machine,  whereas  animals  are  living  machines. .. .Plants. . .are 
only  machines  and  are  not  alive".  Additional  interpretations  of 
nutrition,  generation  and  movement  follow  as  developed  during 
the  eighteenth  century. 

"THE  ECOLOGY  OF  ANIMALS"  by  N.  P.  Naumov,  edited  by  Norman  D. 

Levlne,  translated  by  Frederick  K.  Pious,  Jr.,  x  &  650  pp., 
287  b/w  fig.  incl.  maps  &  75  tab.   University  of  Illinois 


288  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  4 

Press,  Urbana,  Illinois  61801.  1972.  $35.00. 

This  well  organized  text  was  first  published  as  "Ekologiya 
shivotmykh",  a  text  for  the  state  universities  of  the  U.S.S.R.   It 
is  richly  descriptive  in  approach  first  in  terms  of  individual 
animals,  then  as  populations  of  the  same  species,  and  finally  as 
associations  of  plants  with  animals,  prey  and  predators,  more  in- 
timately hosts  and  parasites,  biocenoses,  and  human  activity  and 
the  animal  world.  Naturally,  most  of  the  examples  of  ecological 
phenomena  are  Russian  in  origin  and  enriching  to  students  and 
faculty  using  American  and  British  texts.  There  is  a  very  full 
and  detailed  bibliography,  but  with  no  mention  of  Odum.   It  is  in- 
deed good  that  this  text  is  still  available  in  the  U.  S.  as  it 
certainly  enriches  teaching  materials  in  ecology  courses.  U.  S, 
funds  paid  for  this  translation. 

"THE  DAYS  OF  HENRY  THOREAU  -  A  Biography"  by  Walter  Harding,  xx 
&  498  pp.  *  36  b/w  photos.  Dover  Publications,  Inc.,  New 
York,  N.  Y.  10014.   1982.   $8.95  paperbound. 

This  "is  an  enlarged  and  corrected  edition  of  the  sixth  prin- 
ting (1970)  of  the  work  originally  published  by  Alfred  A.  Knopf, 
Inc.  in  1965,... The  new  material  in  the  Dover  edition  is  in  the 
Afterword  and  the  Notes  that  appear  at  the  end  of  the  book," 
This  book  is  only  one  of  several  articles  written  by  the  author 
about  Thoreau.   "Emerging  from  this  long  study  of  Thoreau,  I  find 
myself  most  impressed  by  Thoreau' s  aliveness.  All  his  senses  were 
thoroughly  awake  and  he  was  able  to  examine  the  worlds  of  both 
man  and  nature  with  a  keenness  and  clarity  that  have  made  him  one 
of  the  great  observers  of  the  American  scene."  This  is  a  very 
well  balanced,  detailed,  richly  documented,  and  interesting  biog- 
raphy. Of  Thoreau 's  many  writings  "Walden"  is  most  famous:  "it 
has  been  reprinted  in  more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  editions,  has 
been  translated  into  virtually  every  modern  language,  and  has  sold 
untold  millions  of  copies." 

"THE  HIGH  SIERRA"  by  Ezra  Brown  &  the  editors  of  Time-Life  Book§, 
184  pp.,  18  color  &  3  b/w  double  photo  plates,  96  color  &  9 
b/w  photos,  3  maps.   Time-Life  Books,  Inc.,  Alexandria, 
Virginia  22314.  1972,   $12,95. 

This  is  such  an  inspirationally  beautiful  book!   Such  exquis- 
ite photographs,  such  interesting  text  descriptive  of  times, 
places,  people  like  John  Muir,  and  events!   There  is  an  important 
chapter  on  "Preserving  What  Is  Left".   It  is  fortunate  that  this 
book  is  still  available.   It  makes  a  wonderful  gift  to  be  given 
or  to  give. 


W7 

/r^.       PHYTOLOGIA 

An  international  journal  to  expedite  botanical  and  phytoecological  publication 

Vol.  54  November  1983  No.  5 

FIFTIETH  JUBILEE  YEAR 

CONTENTS 

PEREZ  DE  LA  ROSA,  J.  A.,  Una  nueva  especie  de  pIno  de  Jalisco, 

Mexico 289 

NAIDU,  K.  C  Ani^lospcnn  flora  of  Samharu  Konda  of  Gudem, 

Visakhapatnani  District 299 

WARD,  D.  E.,  Chromosome  counts  from  New  Mexico  and  southern 

Colorado 302 

ROBERTSON,  J.  H.,  Greasewood  (Sarcohatus  vermiculatus  (Hook.) 

Torr.} 309 

LUER,  C.  A.,  New  species  of  Lepanthes  lOrchidaceae) 325 

LUER,  C.  A.,  Miscellaneous  new  species  in  the  Pleurothallidinae 

(Orcfiidaceae) 379 

OCHOA,  C,  A  new  taxon  and  name  chani^es  in  Solanum  (Sect. 

Petota) 391 

LUER,  C.  A.,  Trichosalpinx.  a  new  genus  in  the  Pleurothallidinae 393 

MOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  Notes  on  new  and  noteworthy  plants.  CLXXI 399 

MOLDENKE,  H.  N.,  Additional  notes  on  tlie  Eriocaulaceae.  XCllI  .  .  .  .  400 

MOLDENKE,  A.  L.,  Book  reviews 407 

Published  by  Harold  N.  Moldenke  and  Alma  L.  Moldenke 

303  Parkside  Road 
Plainfield,  New  Jersey  07060 


U.S.A. 


DBRAPy 

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received  after  a  volume  is  closed. 


Una   nueva   especie   de   pino   de   Jalisco,    Mexico 


Jorge  Alberto  Perez  de  la  Rosa 

Instituto  de  Botanica 

Universidad  de  Guadalajara 

(I  BUG) 

Apartado  Postal  139 

Zapopan,  Jalisco  45220 


SUMMARY 


P^na6  jaLiJiCana   is  described  as  ne\i   on  the  basis  of  material 
collected  in  the  municipalities  of  El  Tuito,  Talpa  de  Allende  and 
Mascota,  state  of  Jalisco,  Mexico,  where  it  grows  on  soils  derived 
from  grcinitic  rocks,  at  altitudes  between  850  and  1650  m.  The 
tfixon  belongs  in  the  subsection  OoaoJipao.,   according  to  the 
classification  of  Critchfield  ^   Little,  and  is  related  to  ViixuJb 
paXata,   P.   oocoApa   and  P.  P^AMilni. 


INTRODUCCION 


En  una  gira  organizada  en  los  meses  de  enero  y  febrero  de  1983 
que  realize  el  autor  acompanado  por  los  invest igado res  en  gramineas 
Francisco  Javier  Santana  Michel  (IBUG)  y  Rafael  Guzman  Mejia 
(COTECOCA)  a  la  Sierra  de  Cuale  en  los  municipios  de  El  Tuito  y 
Talpa  de  Allende  del  estado  de  Jalisco  se  colectd  un  ejemplar  el 
cual,  por  su  porte,  tamano  y  color  de  las  hojas,  asi  como  las 
dimensiones  aparentes  de  los  conos  hacia  suponer  que  se  trataba 
de  P^ia6  HzAAQAoi.  Martinez,  colectado  en  otros  lugares  de  la 
mencionada  sierra. 

Una  vez  ya  secos  los  ejenplares  en  el  Instituto  de  Botanica  se 
procedio  a  su  identificacion,  no  encontrando  en  la  literatura 
disponible  dates  suficientes  para  ubicar  la  planta  en  cuestion. 
Por  el  tamano  y  numero  de  las  hojas  se  asemeja  a  la  Seccion  Teocote 
de  Martinez  (1948),  mas  especificamente  a  P-cnoi  HeA,n.eJicii.     En 
Jalisco  se  nan  encontrado  ejemplares  de  esta  especie  con  3,  4  y 
hasta  5  hojas  por  fascicule  y  con  conos  de  similares  dimensiones  al 
individuo  de  la  Sierra  de  Cuale.  Una  revision  minuciosa  de  la 
apertura  de  las  escamas  del  cono  y  de  la  anatomia  de  las  hojas 
descarta  de  toda  relacion  con  la  especie  anteriormente  mencionada  y 
senala  semejanzas  con  los  miembros  de  la  Seccion  Serotinos  de 
Martinez  (op.  cit.),  pero  sin  que  coincida  con  ninguno  de  ellos  en 
particular. 

289 


290  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G  I  A  Vol.  54,  No.  5 

El  primer  lugar  donde  se  visualize  este  especimen  fue  en  el 
Km  5.5  de  la  terraceria  que  parte  de  la  carretera  Puerto  Vallarta  - 
El  Tuito,  hacia  la  mina  de  Zimapan.  En  un  segundo  viaje,  hecho  con 
la  finalidad  de  tomar  mas  datos  del  habitat,  se  encontro  que  la 
especie  se  distribuye  a  lo  largo  de  una  franja  de  28  Km  en  direccion 
E.  En  fecha  posterior  se  encontro  en  el  rancho  El  Saucillo, 
municipio  de  Mascota,  distante  60  Km  direccion  NE  de  la  primera 
local idad. 


P^nia,  jatiAcana     Perez  de  la  Rosa  sp.  nov. 


Arbor  12-25  m  alta,  coma  plus  minusve  compacta,  cortex  in 
tabulis  griseo-rubellis  dispositus.  Lignum  durum.  Folia  (3-)  4-5 
per  fasciculum,  12-16  cm  longa,  0.6-0.8  mm  lata,  viridi-lutea, 
fulgentia,  triquetra,  stomatibus  in  quaque  superficie  instructa; 
hypodermis  tenuis,  uniformis;  ducti  resiniferi  (1-)  2-3  (-5), 
septales,  raro  aliquot  intemi ;  fasciculi  fibrovasculares  2;  vagina 
persistens,  0.8-1.2  cm  longa.  Strobili  masculi  1.3-1.8  cm  longi, 
0.4-0.5  cm  lati.  Strobili  feminei  serotine,  persistentes  in 
pedunculis  0,8-1.4  cm  longis,  ochracei,  lucidi,  longe  conici,  acuti, 
35-60  g  pondo,  4.5-8.5  cm  longi,  3.5-5.5  cm  lati;  squamae  95-115, 
durae,  rigidae,  20-28  mm  longae,  13-16  mm  latae,  umbo  dorsalis, 
brunneo-luteus,  semi-tetragonalis,  1.1-1.4  cm  latus,  0.4-0.6  cm 
altus;  apophysis  applanata,  cuspis  non  prominens,  spina  minuta, 
decidua.  Semina  2  per  squamam,  semi-triangularia,  4-6  mm  longa, 
2-3  mm  lata,  castanea  pallida,  ala  articulata,  1.3-1.7  cm  longa, 
0.6-0.8  cm  lata. 

Arbol  de  15-25  m  de  altura,  de  copa  regular  y  mas  o  menos 
compacta,  tronco  hasta  80  cm  de  diametro;  corteza  en  placas  grises 
rojizas  de  1.5-3.5  cm  de  espesor.  Ramillas  algo  escamosas  de  color 
moreno  rojizo  o  rojo  amarillento,  con  la  insercion  de  los  fascicules 
foliares  poco  marcada,  cuando  estos  se  desprenden.  Madera  dura. 
Hojas  en  fascicules  de  4  y  5  (raramente  3) ,  siendo  mas  censtante  el 
numere  de  5,  de  12-16  cm  de  longitud;  de  0.6-0.8  mm  de  ancho,  de 
color  verde-amarillo  brillante,  triangulares,  rigidas  y  extendidas, 
colecadas  en  teda  la  ramilla,  de  apice  agudo  y  margenes  con 
numereses  dientecilles  muy  pequehes ;  los  estomas  estan  dispuestes  de 
2-3  hileras  en  las  caras  intemas  y  de  4-6  en  la  cara  externa. 

La  hipedermis  es  homomerfa  constituida  por  dos  hileras 
continuas  de  celulas.  Los  canales  resiniferos  varian  de  1-5,  mas 
comunmente  2-3  siendo  septales  y  en  ocasiones  se  presentan  1  6  2 
intemos.  El  cilindro  central  es  de  forma  triangular,  la  endodermis 
esta  integrada  por  celulas  engrosadas,  con  2  haces  fibrovasculares 
separados . 


1983 


Perez  de  la  Rosa,  Una  nueva  especie  291 


Fig.  1.  Anatomia  interna  de  la  hoja  de 
PyinuH)  jdtCiiCana  Perez  de  la  Rosa,  vista  en 
seccion  transversal. 


Las  vainas  son  persistentes,  de  base  decurrente,  de  0.8-1.2  cm 
de  longitud,  cayendo  junto  con  las  hojas,  son  de  color  amarillo 
castano  en  las  hojas  jovenes  y  gris  debil  en  las  adultas. 

Estrobilos  masculinos  de  color  amarillo  violaceo,  de  13-18  ma 
de  longitud  por  4-5  ram  de  ancho,  los  cuales  se  desarrollan  en  la 
base  de  las  nuevas  ramillas.  Los  estrobilos  femeninos,  maduran  en 
el  segundo  ano  despues  de  la  fecundacion,  son  serotinos,  persisten- 
tes, oblicuos,  largariiente  conicos,  puntiagudos,  de  color  ocre, 
lustrosos,  colgantes,  casi  simetricos  en  pedunculos  de  0.8-1.4  cm  de 
largo  y  0.5-0.7  cm  de  grueso  manteniendo  a  los  conos  maduros  en 
posicion  perpendicular  al  suelo,  se  desprenden  con  el  cono,  el  cual 
se  puede  encontrar  generalmente  solo,  a  veces  en  grupos  de  2  y 
ocasionalmente  en  grupos  de  3;  pesan  35-60  gr.,  su  longitud  es  de 
4.5-8.5  cm  y  el  diametro  de  3.5-5.5  cm  en  su  parte  media  cuando 
estan  abiertos.  Escamas  duras  y  rigidas  en  numero  de  95-115, 
ligeramente  concavas,  planas  en  su  cara  interna  y  convexas  en  su 
cara  externa,  de  color  moreno  palido  la  interior  y  ocre  intense  casi 
negro  la  exterior  hasta  el  umbo.  Umbo  dorsal  de  color  ca£€ -amarillo 
y  de  forma  semitetragonal ,  de  11-14  mm  de  ancho  y  de  4-6  mm  de 
altura  en  las  escamas  de  la  parte  media.  Apofisis  aplanada  de  color 
ocre  brillante,  en  su  parte  transversal  aquillada.  Cuspide  no 
protuberante ,  pequena,  de  color  castano  grisaceo  que  lleva  en  su 
extreme  una  pequena  espinita,  prontamente  caediza,  dirigida  hacia  el 
apice  del  cono.  Las  escamas  de  la  parte  central  del  cono,  son  las 
mas  desarrolladas  y  miden  20-28  mm  de  largo  por  13-16  mm  de  ancho; 
el  apice  de  la  escama  es  irregular,  terminando  generalmente  en  un 
angulo  obtuse. 


292 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    5 


Fig.    2.    P^nM   jcitliiCana  Perez   de    la   Rosa; 
estrobilo      femenino     maduro. 


>at 


Fig.  3.  Vistas  interna,  lateral  y  externa 
de  una  escama  de  la  parte  media  del  estrobilo 
de  P-inuA   jatli,cana     Perez  de  la  Rosa. 


Se  encuentran  dos  semillas  semitriangulares  en  la  base  interna 
de  cada  escama  de  color  castano  obscuro,  casi  negro,  de  testa  muy 
delgada,  miden  de  4-6  mm  de  ancho,  la  cubierta  seminal  es  de  color 
castano  claro;  poseen  una  ala  articulada  que  mide  de  13-17  mm  de 
largo  por  6-8  mm  de  ancho,  de  color  castano  obscuro,  el  cual  se 
distribuye  en  tonalidades  de  diferente  intensidad  a  lo  largo  y 
ancho. 


1983  Perez  de  la  Rosa,  Una  nueva  especle  293 

TIPO:  Jorge  Alberto  Perez  de  la  Rosa  370,  colectado  el  19  de 
abril  de  1983,  en  el  Km  25  de  la  brecha  que  entronca  I\ierto 
Vallarta  -  I-l  Tuito  hacia  la  mina  de  Zimapan,  municipio  de  F,l  Tuito, 
estado  de  Jalisco,  Mexico.  Altitud  1000  m,  bosque  mixto  de  pino  y 
encino,  suelo  profundo.  El  ejemplar  se  encuentra  depositado  en  el 
licrbario  del  Institute  de  Botanica  de  la  Universidad  de  Guadalajara 
(IBUCiJ  y  los  isotipos  se  distribuiran  a  los  siguientes  herbarios  del 
pais:  NIEXU,  ENCB,  CHAPA  y  en  el  extranjero  P,  K,  US,  MIQI,  UC  y  F. 

Otros  ejemplares  examinados: 

P.l  Saucillo,  brecha  Nlascota  -  San  Sebastian;  altitud  1500  m; 
Julio  14  de  1976;  Roman  Lamas  Robles  y  Ramon  Torres  56;  CREG,  IBUG. 
Bosque  de  P^noi  oocaApa   Schiede;  arbol  de  25  m  de  altura. 

Km  6  camino  de  terraceria  El  Tuito  -  La  Mina;  altitud  810  m; 

abril  6  de  1977;  Roman  Lamas  Robles  y  Ramon  Torres  178;  CREG,  IBUG. 

Bosque  de  P-inu^  ooccuipa   Schiede  y  P^nui  4p. ;  arbol  de  cortcza  delgada 
de  20  m  de  altura,  hojas  de  color  verde  limon. 

Km  5.5  del  camino  Puerto  Vallarta  -  El  Tuito  hacia  la  mina  de 
Zimapan,  municipio  de  El  Tuito;  altitud  900  m;  enero  31  de  1983; 
Jorge  A,  Perez  de  la  Rosa  314;  IBUG.  Bosque  mixto  de  pino  y  encino, 
suelo  profundo;  arbol  abundante  de  17  m  de  altura  y  35  cm  de 
diametro. 

Km  7  del  camino  l\ierto  Vallarta  -  El  Tuito  hacia  la  mina  de 
Zimapan,  municipio  de  El  Tuito;  altitud  900  m;  febrero  16  de  1983; 
Jorge  A.  Perez  de  la  Rosa  348;  IBUG.  Bosque  de  P^nui  Jatvicana, 
P.  maKAm^io-i  Moore,  P.  oocoApa   Schiede,  Clu&za  ^aZuiyuX   Donn.Ot-teAcui 
magnotti^-LLa  Nee  y  0.  eZttptA^ca  Nee,  suelos  arenosos ;  ejemplar  de 
9  m  de  altura  y  30  cm  de  diametro. 

Km  17  del  camino  Puerto  Vallarta  -  El  Tuito  hacia  la  mina  de 
Zimapan  municipio  de  El  Tuito;  altitud  930  m;  febrero  16  de  1983; 
Jorge  A.  Perez  de  la  Rosa  354;  IBUG.  Bosque  mixto  de  pino  y  encino, 
suelos  humedos,  profundos  y  de  origen  granitico;  arbol  abundante  de 
18  m  de  altura  y  55  cm  de  diametro. 

Km  27  del  camino  Puerto  Vallarta  -  El  Tuito  hacia  la  mina  de 
Zimapan,  municipio  de  Talpa  de  Allende;  altitud  1000  m;  febrero  16 
de  1983;  Jorge  A.  Perez  de  la  Rosa  355;  IBUG.  Bosque  mixto  de  pino 
y  encino,  suelos  profundos  y  humedos;  arbol  abundante  de  12  m  de 
altura  y  40  cm  de  diametro 

Km  30  del  camino  Puerto  Vallarta  -  El  Tuito  hacia  la  mina  de 
Zimapan,  municipio  de  Talpa  de  Allende;  altitud  1250  m;  febrero  16 
de  1983;  Jorge  A.  Perez  de  la  Rosa  359;  IBUG.  Bosque  mixto  de  Plnus 


294  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

oocoApa  Schiede,   (lueAcu^  i>aJU,Cyi  {ptia.  Nee,   Q^.  taufUna  Humb.   et  Bonpl . 
y  (I.  gZauceJice.yu>  Humb.   et  Bonpl.;  pino  escaso  de   16  m  de  altura  y 
55  cm  de  diametro. 

Ejido  Provincia,  Km  7.5  del  caniino  que  inicia  a  partir  de  la 
carretera  Puerto  Vallarta  -  El  Tuito  hacia  la  mina  de  Zimapan, 
municipio  de  El  Tuito;  altitud  1000  m;  19  de  junio  de  1983;  Jorge  A. 
Perez  de  la  Rosa  369;  IBUG.  Bosque  mixto  de  pino  y  encino,  suelos 
profundos,  bien  drenados  de  origan  granitico;  arbol  de  18  m  de 
altura  y  45  cm  de  diametro. 

Km  3  al  N  del  rancho  El  Saucillo,  camino  a  San  Sebastian, 
municipio  de  Mascota;  altitud  1650  m;  septiembre  11  de  1983; 
Jorge  A.  Perez  de  la  Rosa  383;  IBUG.  Bosque  mixto  de  FA.nu6  oocoApa 
Schiede,  P.  Votgliulana  Martinez  y  OujeAcai   zduoAdll   Trel . ,  Q.. 
ilLiptlca  Nee,  ^.  obtui,cLta  Humb.  et  Bonpl.  y  0.  magnotcl{plAM.  Nee; 
arbol  muy  escaso  de  5  m  de  altura  y  20  cm  de  diametro. 


HABITAT 

El  estado  de  Jalisco,  segun  Anonimo  (1981)  se  encuentra  dividido 
por  fracciones  de  cuatro  provincias  fisiograficas,  entre  la  que  se 
encuentra  la  Sierra  Madre  del  Sur,  la  cual  atraviesa  varies  estados 
del  Sur  Occidente  de  Mexico,  en  esta  entidad  limita  al  E  con  el  Eje 
Neovolcanico  y  al  W  con  el  Oceano  Pacifico.  Esta  sierra  en  su 
exposicion  W  forma  varias  cuencas  y  microcuencas,  las  cuales  tienen 
una  rica  flora  y  fauna.  Es  a  lo  largo  de  65  Km  en  el  fondo  de  estas 
cuencas  en  los  municipios  de  El  Tuito,  Talpa  de  Allende  y  Mascota, 
donde  se  localiza  PA^nm,  jaJLidcana     en  alturas  de  850  a  1650  m,  de 
clima  semitropical  y  en  algunas  ocasiones  francamente  tropical  como 
lo  demuestran  algunos  cultivos  ahi  introducidos  por  el  hombre,  tales 
como:  papaya  {Cajtlca  papaya   L.)  ,  cana  de  azucar  {SacchajLum 
0  £^cXnaAm   L.)  y  platano  (Uuda   4p.)  . 

En  el  Km  25  del  camino  que  parte  de  la  carretera  Puerto 
Vallarta  -  El  Tuito  hacia  la  mina  de  Zimapan,  se  encuentra  la  mayor 
poblacion  de  ?A.yiui>  jaLUcana   (localidad  tipica) ,  es  una  superficie 
de  aproximadamente  300  hectareas,  a  una  altura  sobre  el  nivel  del 
mar  de  930  m.  Este  pino  se  asocia  con  Vi.nai)  maxmino-i,   Ou£Acuii 
itoLLcA.  {ptia   y  CtuAza  ^atucyUX.   en  suelos  humedos,  profundos,  arenosos, 
de  origen  granitico;  las  areas  mas  secas  de  esta  localidad  se 
encuentran  pobladas  por:  Pa^hua  oocoApa,   (Iu2Acl&  maQnoLCL {pLLa,   Q.. 
elLcptica  y  Q^.  glau^eAcnyUi .     Anonimo  (op.  cit.)  senala  a  esta  zona 
como  de  clima  calido  subhumedo,  con  precipitacion  pluvial  de 
1000-1500  mm  anuales  y  una  temperatura  media  anual  de  22-26  C. 


1983  P(?rez  de  la  Rosa,  Una  nueva  especie  295 

La  distribucion  dc  este  pino  se  caracteriza  por  condiciones 
edaficas  bastantc  constantes,  sin  embargo,  en  la  parte  mas  alta  de 
la  cuenca  se  localize  una  poblacion  const ituida  por  un  pequeno 
numero  de  ejemplares  sensiblemente  mas  pequenos,  de  fuste  sinuoso  y 
hojas  de  color  verde  palido,  en  suelos  someros  de  ladera. 


DISCUSION 

Este  pino  por  tener  conos  persistentes,  serotinos  y  lustrosos, 
se  encontraria  ubicado  segun  Shaw  (1914)  en  la  Seccion  VA.plox.ylon, 
Subseccion  Pincute.^,   Grupo  JiU>igneJ>.     Para  Martinez  (1948)  estaria 
en  la  Seccion  ScAotA-noi, ,   Grupo  PatuZa,   cuyos  integrantes  poseen 
conos  oblicuos,  duros,  tenazmente  persistentes  y  brillantes.  Para 
Crithfield  y  Little  (1969)  se  ubicaria  en  el  Genero  P-cnuA,  Subg^nero 
P'Lnu6,   Seccion  PA.nu6,   Subseccion  OocoApan   a  la  cual  los  mencionados 
autores  adscriben  siete  especies:  P-tnu6  fuxdlaJia.   Don.,  P.  cuUmnuaXa 
Lemm. ,  P.  muAA^cata   Don.,  P.  pcUuixi   Schl .  et  Cham.,  P.  Gn.^q-ii 
Engelm. ,  P.  oocoApa   Schiede  y  P.  PfiingleX   Shaw,  caracterizadas  por: 
hojas  casi  siempre  3  (2-5) ,  hipodermis  normalmente  biforme,  por  lo 
comun  canales  resiniferos  medios,  algunas  veces  intemos  y  otros 
septales,  ramillas  primaverales  en  verticilos  de  2  a  muchas 
(multinodales)  o  solitarias  (uninodales) ,  estrobilo  casi  siempre 
oblicuo,  seinicerrado,  largamente  persistente,  escamas  con  espina  o 
protuberantes.  Los  miembros  de  esta  Subseccion  encuentran  una 
distribucion  geografica  unicamente  en  el  Continente  Americano: 
desde  el  suroeste  de  los  Estados  Unidos  de  Norteamerica  hasta  el 
limite  sur  de  este  genero  en  America  (Nicaragua) . 

Los  conos  sesiles  y  las  hojas  gruesas  en  numero  de  2-3  por 
fasciculo  lo  hacen  sensiblemente  distinto  a  P.iyni!>  GfiaQQ-ii,    P. 
mu/Ucata,    P.   aXZznuaXa  y   P.  fiadiajtcL   de  P.  jaJU^cana.     Al  parecer, 
un  mayor  numero  de  caracteristicas  similares  se  encuentran  en 
especies  geograficamente  mas  cercanas.  Asi  teneraos  P^na4  patula   var. 
long zpe.d LUC ulaXa,   que  muestra  semejanza  en  el  numero  de  hojas  por 
fasciculo,  en  hojas  muy  delgadas,  en  el  numero  de  canales 
resiniferos,  en  el  hipodermo  delgado  y  uniforme,  en  la  longitud,  la 
forma  y  el  pedunculo  del  cono;  sin  embargo  P.  jaLcicana   es  diferente 
por  tener  hojas  mas  pcquenas  y  erectas,  canales  resiniferos 
septales,  ocasionalmente  con  alguno  interno,  conos  solitaries  o  en 
pares  y  en  habitar  en  un  clima  semitropical-tropical.  P.  PAx)ig£e^ 
muestra  estrecha  afinidad  por  sus  canales  resiniferos  intemos  con 
algunos  medios  y  septales,  por  la  longitud,  ItT forma  y  el  pedunculo 
del  cono,  ademas  de  habitar  en  un  clima  similar;  aqui  las  diferencias 
consisten  basicamente  en  que  la  ultima  especie  aludida  muestra  hojas 
mas  delgadas  y  pequenas,  fascicules  de  4-5  hojas;  hipodermo  delgado 
y  uniforme.  P.  oocoApa   var.  mlch-ophijila   guarda  similitud  en  las 


296  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G  I  A  Vol.  5A,  No.  5 

dimensiones  de  las  hojas,  en  el  tamano  de  la  vaina  de  las  hojas,  en 
el  hipodermo  delgado  y  uni forme  asi  como  en  habitar  en  climas 
similares,  pero  por  su  parte  P-incu,  jcvLiAcana     difiere  en  el  numero 
de  hojas  por  fasciculo,  en  los  canales  resiniferos  septales  con 
alguno  intemo,  en  la  forma  del  cono  y  en  el  tamano  del  peddnculo. 
Martinez  (op.  cit.)  senala  en  la  distribucion  del  P-cnu^  ooccuipa   var. 
mlcKophytia   una  localidad  en  el  estado  de  Jalisco  conocida  con  el 
nombre  de  Cuale,  en  la  que  hace  la  observacion  de:  cono  largamente 
ovoide,  de  7  cm  de  largo  por  3  cm  de  diametro.  Tanto  las 
dimensiones  del  cono  como  la  localidad  hacen  pensar  que  el  ejemplar 
que  vio  el  mencionado  autor  pertenece  al  que  aqui  se  describe. 

V-Lnu^  jcttiAcana     prospera  en  los  municipios  de  El  Tuito  y  Talpa 
de  Allende  al  lado  de  P.  oocciApa  y   P.  maxm-lnoA.;   en  el  municipio 
de  Mascota  (a  mayor  altitud)  convive  con  P.  ooaoApa  y   P.  VoLQlcu>A,ana. 
En  ambas  localidades  nunca  llegan  a  mezclarse  las  poblaciones,  puSs 
las  especies  mencionadas  prosperan  en  condiciones  edaficas 
diferentes.  La  poblacion  disyunta  de  la  parte  alta  de  la  cuenca  en 
la  cual  habita,  hace  suponer  que  en  epocas  pasadas  el  area  del  taxon 
referido  cubrio  mayores  superficies  y  en  la  actualidad  se  encuentra 
en  contraccion. 

En  la  Subseccion  OocoApa^   se  encuentran  algunas  de  las  especies 
mas  cultivadas  en  el  mundo  como  PA.nM  n.acUata  y   P.  paXula;   estudios 
posteriores  podran  revelar  la  potencialidad  de  P.  jaLCicana     en 
programas  de  reforestacion. 


RESUMEN 

Se  describe  como  nueva  la  especie  Plnm  joLUiCana,     a  base  de 
materiales  colectados  en  los  municipios  de  El  Tuito,  Talpa  de 
Allende  y  Mascota,  Jalisco,  Mexico,  donde  prospera  en  suelos  de 
origen  granitico,en  altitudes  entre  850  y  1650  m.  El  taxon 
pertenece  a  la  Subseccion  OocoApaz,   segun  la  clasificacion  de 
Critchfield  y  Little,  y  esta  relacionado  con  P.  paXula,   P.   oocoApa  y 
P.  PfUyiglzA.. 


1983 


Perez  de  la  Rosa,  Una  nueva  especle 


297 




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298  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

LITERATURA      CITADA 


Anoniino.  1981.  Sintesis  Geografica  de  Jalisco.  Secretaria 
de  Programacion  y  Presupuesto,  Mexico,  D.F.  306  pp. 

Critchfield,  W.B.  ^  E.  L.  Little.  1960.  Geographic 
Distribution  of  the  Pines  o£  the  World.  U.S. 
Department  of  Agriculture,  Washington  B.C.   102  pp. 

.   1969.  Subdivisions  of 

the  Genus  P^CnM   (Pines)  .  Department  of  Agriculture, 
Washington,  D.C.  51  pp. 

Eguiluz  P.,  T.   1967.  Los  Pinos  del  Mundo.  Publicaciones 
especiales  No.  1.   E.N. A.  Chapingo,  Mexico.  75  pp. 

Martinez,  M.  1948.  Los  Pinos  Mexicanos.  Ediciones  Betas, 
segunda  edicion.  Mexico,  D.F.   361  pp. 

Mirov,  N.  T.   1967.  The  Genus  PA^nui,.     The  Ronald  Press 
Company.  New  York.   222-226  p. 

Shaw,  G.R.   1914.  The  Genus  P-inui) .     Publications  of  the 
Arnold  Arboretum  No.  5  Riverside  Press  Cambridge. 
U.S.A.  96  pp. 


AGRADECIMIENTOS 

Al  Ing.  Rafael  Guzman  mejia  (IBUG) ,  por  las 
sugestiones  hechas.  A  la  Biol.  Luz  Maria  Gonzalez 
Villarreal  (GREG) ,  por  la  transcripcion  mecanografica  y 
apoyo  moral.  Al  Dr.  Jerzy  Rzedowski  (ENCB) ,  por  su  amable 
ayuda  en  algunas  secciones,  asi  como  consejos  y  sugerencias 
al  trabajo  en  general.  Al  coraje  de  quien  ha  tenido  la 
virtud  de  encausar  las  me j ores  voluntades  por  el  conocimiento 
de  la  Botanica  en  la  Provincia  Mexicana,  Profesora  Luz  Ma. 
Villarreal  de  Puga  (IBUG). 


ANGIOSPERM    FLORA   OP   SAMBARU   KONDA   OF   GUDEM, 
VISAKHAPATNAM   DISTRICT 

K.    CHANDRASEKHARA      NAIDU 
Department  of  Botany,    Andhra  University,   Waltair,A.P. 

INTRODUCTION 

Samba rvi  Konda  a  huge  range  in  Gudem  Agency  is 
located  along  with  the  Easteim  Ghats   in  Visakhapatnam 
District  of  Andhra  Pradesh,    India    (long.    81°30'-82°15 ' 
E  and  lat.    17°15'-18°  n) .      The  forest   is   occupied  by 
the  tribel  pecple.      The  general   rainfall    for  the  area 
as  a  whole  ranges  between  45" -5?".      Sambaru  Konda  and 
the  surrounding  hill   ranges  constituting  chiefly  of 
crystalline  metamorphic   rocks.     The  hill   throughout 
the  region  under  study  are  covered  with  dense  flora 
and  characteristic  barren  top  where  mostly  grasses  and 
a   few  herbs  grow.      Lushington  visited  a  part  of  the 
Garden  area  of  the  Visakhapatnam  District  and  collec- 
ted a    few  specimens   in  early  of  this   century.      A  part 
of  it  and  the  surrounding  tract  were  next  visited    by 
Narayanaswami  of  the  Botanical   Survey  of  India   in   1920 
and  then  in  1949.      Later  in  1958  Seshagiri  Rao  studied 
the  Rampa  and  a  part  of  Garden  Agency  tracts   in  detail, 

ENUMERATION  OP   SPECIES 

The  identification  of  plant  materials  collected 
were  made  with  the  help  of    'Flora   of  Madras  Presidency' 
and  later  verified  by  the  Botanical   Survey  of  India. 

ACANTHACEAE:    Acanthus   ilicifolius,    Linn.;   Adhatoda  va» 
sica,    Nees;    Strobilanthes  circarensls.   Gamble. 

ACERACEAE:    Acer  obl ongum ,   Wall. 

ANACARDIACEAE:   Buchanania  Lanzan,    Spreng;   Mangifeira 
indica,    Linn;    Spondjas  mangifera,   Willd, 

ANONACEAE;    Anona   squamosa,    Linn.;   Anona   reticulata , 
Linn.;    Saccopetalxjm  tocnentosum.   Hook. 

APOCYNACEAE:   Al stonia   sch Claris,    R.   Br.;   Carissa  carand- 
as,    Linn.;   Carissa   spina rum,   Linn;  Holarrhena  antidy- 
senterica.   Wall.;    Ichnocarpus   frutescens,    R.Br. 

ARISTOLOCKIACEAE:    Arlstolochia  Indica,    Linn. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE:  Hemidesmus   indicus,    R.Br.;   Leptadenia 
reticulata ,  L. , 

BIGNONIACEAE:    Del ichandrone  falcata.    Seem;   Oroxylxim 
indicum.    Vent.  ~ 

299 


300  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

BIXACEAE:    C och Ipsp errmim   rellgiosxjm,    Linn.,    Flacourtia 
Ramontchi,    L.;    Flacourtia    sepiaria,    Roxb. 

BORAGINACEAE:   Cordia   obliqua,  Willd. 

CAESALPINIACEAE:   Bavthinia  purpurea ,   Linn.;   Bauhinia 
racemosa,    Lamk.;   Ba\3hinia  variegata/   Linn,;   Caesalpi- 
nia  digyna/    Rottl . ;   Cassia   fistula .   Linnl ;   Cassia   sia- 
mea,   Lamkl;   Cassia  tor a ,   Linn.;  Hardwickia  binata , Roxb . 

CAPPARIDACEAE:   Capparis   stylosa,    DC.;   Crataeva   religio- 
sa.    For St. 

CELASTRACEAE:   Celastrus  paniculata,  Willd.;   glaeoden- 
dron  glaucum,   Pers.;   Gymnosporia  montana,   Benth;   Pleu- 
rostylia   wightii,   W  &  A. 

COMBRETACEAE:    Anogeissus  acuininata,   V/all.;   Ccrnbretum 
decandrujn,   Roxb.;   Terminal ia  Arjuna,   W  &  A.;   Tenninalia 
bell erica »   Roxb.;   Terminalia  chebula ,   Retz. 

DIOSCOREACEAE:    Dioscorea   esculenta,   Burk.;    Dioscorea 
pentaphylla ,    Linn.; 

DROSERACEAE:   Drosera  burmanni,   Vahl . 

EBENACEAE:    Diospyros  chloroxylon,   Roxb.;    Diospyros  mela- 
noxylon,    Roxb.;    Diospyros  micrpphylla*   Bedd.;    Diospyros 
montana,   Roxb. 

EUPHORBIACEAE:   Bioschofia  javanica,   B ridel ia  tanentosa, 
Blume.;   Cleistanthus   gollinus,   Benth.;    guphorbia  tiru- 
celli,    Linnl;    Fluggea  leucopynis,   Willd.;   Givotia   rott- 
leriforrnis.   Griff.;  Mallotus  phllippinensis,  Muell.; 
Trewia  nudi flora,   Linn. 

HERNANDIACEAE:      Gyrocarpus  americanus ,   Jacq. 

LECYTHIDACEAE:   Barringtonia  acutangula,   Gaertn.;   Careya 
arborea ,    Roxb . 

LILIACEAE:    Aloe  vera,    Linn.;   Smilax  zeylanica,   Linn. 

LINACEAE:    Erythroxylon  monogynum,   Roxb.;  Hugonia  mystax, 
Linn. 

LOGANIACEAE:    Strychnos  Nux-vcrnica ,   Linn.;   Strychnos  pota- 
torum,  Linn. 

LYTHRACEAE:    Lawsonia   inermis ,   Linn.;  Woodfordia   fruticosa 
Kurz, 


1983  Naidu,    Flora  of    Sarabani   Konda  301 

MELIACEAE:    Amoora   Rohituka,   W  &  A.;   Cedrela   toona# 
Roxb.;   Clpadessa   fruticosa#   Bl,;   Chukrasia   taberlaris, 
Adr.   Juss.;    Soymlda    febrlfuga  Adr.   Juss . 

MERISPERMACEAE:   Tlnospora  cardifolia,   Miers.;   Cyclea 
peltata   Diels. 

MIMOSACEAE;    Acacia   ferruginea,    DC.;    Acacia  pennata, 
Willd.;    Acacia   sundra,    DC.;    Albizzia   odorattissima, 
Benth.;    Albizzia  marginata,   Merr.;   Mimosa   rubicaulis, 
Lamk.;    Picus  glomerata,    Roxb.;    Ficus  hispida,    Linn.i 
Ficus   retusa,    Linn.;    Ficus  tsiela#   Roxb.;   Streblus 
asper.   Hour. 

PAPILIONACEAE:    Dalberqia  la ti folia,    Roxb;    Dalbergia 
paniculata/    Roxb.;    Dalberqia   sissop,    Roxb.;    Dalberqia 
spinosa,   Roxb.;    Flemingia  chappar.   Ham.;    Indiqofera 
pulchelia,    Roxb.;   Mundul ea   suberosa,    Benth.;   Mucuna 
prurita7  Hook.;   Pterocarpus  marsupium,    Roxb. 

RHAMNACEAE:    Ventilaqo  maderaspatana,    Gaertn.;    Zizyphus 
ocnopl ia ,   Mill.;    Zizyphus  xylopyrus,   Willd. 

RUBIACEAE:   Coffea  arabica,    Linn.;   Gardenia  lucida, 
Roxb.;  Hymenodictyon  excel sum.   Wall.;   Mitraqyna  parvi- 
folia,   Korth.;   Pavetta   inica»   Linn.;   Randia  dumetoruin» 
Lamk. 

RUTACEAE:   Glycosmis  pentaphylla»   Correa.;   Limonia  crenu- 
lata,   Roxb.;  Murraya  konigii,   Spreng. 

STERCULIACEAE:  Helicteres   isora,   Linn.;    Stercvdia  urens , 
Roxb.;   Plerosperntum  acerifolium»   Willd, 

TILIACEAE:   Grewja  asiatica,   Linn.;  Grewia  pilosa.   Lam.; 
Grewia  hirsuta ,   Vahl . ;   Grewia  laevigata »   Vahl . 

VERBENACEAE:   Clerodendrum  canosulum,   Bak.;   Lam  tana  tri- 
folia,    Linn.;   Premna  hispida,   Benth. 

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE:     Tribulus  terrestris,   Linn.;   Seetzenia 
oriental is ,   Dene . 

REFERENCES 

Gamble,  J.S,  1886.  Indian  Forester  12^:  299. 

Gamble,   J.S.    1918.    Flora   of  the  Presidency^fJMadras. 
B.S.I.  Calcutta    (Reprinted  1967). 

Seshagiri  Rao,    R.    1958.  j.   Bombay  Nat.   Soc.   55:    449. 


CHEOMOSOME  COUNTS  FROM  NEW  MEXICO  AND  SOUTHERN  COLORADO 

Darrell  E.  Ward 

Department  of  Biology 

New  Mexico  State  University 

Las  Cruces,  New  Mexico  88003  U.S.A. 


The  counts  reported  here  are  the  result  of  general 
collecting  in  New  Mexico  and  southern  Colorado.  Most  agree  with 
previously  published  counts,  however,  a  few  are  unique  and  may 
provide  clues  suggesting  intraspecific  chromosomal  variation,  and 
the  majority  of  them  expand  the  cytogeographical  knowledge  of 
certain  species  into  this  area.  Floral  buds  were  collected  into 
modified  Carney's  solution  (4  chloroform:  3  absolute  ethanol:  1 
acetic  acid)  and  then  stained  in  Snow's  (1963)  hydrochloric  acid- 
carmine  stain.  Voucher  are  deposited  at  NMC;  dupes  of  some  are 
at  NY,  TEX,  MO,  or  UNM.  The  following  codes  for  collectors  are 
used  in  the  listing:  RJS  =  Robert  Soreng,  RWS  =  Richard 
Spellenberg,  T  =  Thomas  Todsen,  and  W  =  Darrell  Ward. 

ASTERACEAE  Acourtia  nana  (A.  Gray)  Reveal  &  King.  n=27.  NM, 
Luna  Co.,  N  end  of  Sierra  Rica  Mtns.,  2.5  air  km  ENE  of  right 
angle  in  U.S.-Mexican  boundary.     I^  k  £K£  80-002. 

Aster  coromutatus  (Torr.  &  Gray)  Gray  var.  commutatus.  n=15. 
NM,   McKinley  Co.,   3  km  S  of  Fort  Wingate,   roadside  of  NM-400. 

Aster  exilis  Ell.  n=5.  NM,  Grant  Co.,  Faywood  Hot  Springs,  N  of 
intersection  of  NM-61  and  US-180.     MS  6208. 

Bahia  absinthifolia  Benth.  var.  dealbata  (A.  Gray)  A.  Gray. 
2n=24ll  +  2B.  NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  5  km  E  of  Las  Cruces.  ^  81- 
065.  All  cells  examined  had  two  spherical  supernumeraries 
which  were  smaller  than  the  rest  of  the  chromosomes  present. 

Bahia  oppositifolia  (Nutt.)  DC.  n=24.  NM,  Harding  Co.,  3  km  W 
of  Mills.      RWS.  BJS  &  a  6006. 

Berlandiera  ly^gta  Benth.  var.  lyrata.  n=15.  NM,  Sierra  Co., 
NM-52  roadside,  30  km  NW  of  Cuchillo.     iS  i.  T  81-167. 

Bidens  tenuisecta  Gray.  n=24.  NM,  Luna  Co.,  roadside  of  NM-61, 
5.5  km  S  of  Faywood.    RKS  6211. 

Brickellia  simplex  Gray.  n=9.  NM,  Hidalgo  Co.,  Peloncillo 
Mtns.,  Skull  Canyon,    ii  h  T  81-412. 

Erigerop  colo-piexicanus  A.  Nels.  n=27.  NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  Organ 
Mtns.,  Dripping  Springs  Canyon,  17  km  E  of  Las  Cruces.  M 
81-076:   and  Harding  Co.,    16  km  NNW  of  Mills.  BK£  £i  al* 

6040.     Pollen  fertility  of  the  specimen,  as     determined  by 
cotton-blue  staining,    is  very  low   (19%  stained). 

Erigeron  divergens  Torr.  &  A.  Gray  var.  divergens.  n=lB.  NM, 
Dona  Ana  Co.,  0.8  km  W  of  Organ,  US-70  roadside.  K  &  EMS  81-020. 

302 


1983 


Ward,  Chroraosome  counts 


303 


Caiilaiclia  pulchfilia  Foug.  var.  pulchella.    n=17.    NM,  Dofia  Ana 

Co.,    Organ  Mtns.,    Aguirre  Springs  Recreation  Area,    8  km  SE  of 

Organ.     W  A  BLSiitti  Ql-0%. 
Qglinsoga  p^x^iicxfl  Cav.     n=16.     NM,   Grant  Co.,   Black  Range, 

near  NM-180,   9.5  air  km  SW  of  Emory  Pass.     W  80-022. 
Qitierrezia  glutinosa  (Schauer)  Sch.    Bip.    n=4.     NM,    Dona  Ana  Co., 

13  km  SE  of  Las  Cruces.     M  i  £iic£  81-108. 
liyjPfiDCilirJJt  wislizenii  Gray.      n=12.      NM,    Dofia  Ana  Co.,    US-70 

roadside,   1  km  W  of  Organ.     M2  k  BJ3  62JQi. 
liyiPfiDfiiys  acaulis  (Pursh)   Park.   var.   apizonica   (Greene)   Park. 

n=15.     NM,  Harding  Co.,   16  km  NNW  of  Mills.     fiSS  £t  aJL  6037. 
Leucelene  ericoides  (Torr.)  Greene.  n=16.     NM,  Guadalupe  Co.,  1 

km  N  of  Vaughn.     £W£i  RJ^  k  H  6086?  and  Grant  Co.,   11  km  NNW 

of  Buckhorn,    roadside  of  USFS-147.     £J£  i  W  2140. 
Machaeranthera  gracilis    (NUtt.)   Shinners.      n=2.     NM,    Hidalgo  Co., 

Peloncillo  Mtns.,   Skeleton  Canyon,   2.5  km  E  of  Arizona  border. 

RWS  6299. 
MacJia£X5iiil)£X5  giiiidfiXiiJld^fi    (Nutt.)   shinners.     n=8.     NM, 

McKinley  Co. ,  3  km  S  of  Ft.  Wingate  on  NM-400.     fii£  i  M  6193. 
Machaeranthera  linearis  Greene.     n=4.     NM,   Luna  Co.,   in  Columbus. 

RWS  6346. 
Machaeranthera  pinnatif ida   (Hook.)   Shinners  var.   ghihuahuana 

Turner   &  Hartman.     n=4.     NM,    Otero  Co.,    US-70    roadside,    22  km 

SW  of  Holloman  Air  Force  Base.     W  £t  sIm.  81-133. 
Melampodium  leucanthemum  T  &  G  var.  leucanthemum.  n=10.  NM,    Mora 

Co.,    16  km  W  of  Canadian  River  crossing  on  NM-120.     filS  1640. 
E^l^lQZi^  £pliajC£lata  (Torr.)  Cory.     n=12.     NM,  Quay  Co.,   US-54 

roadside,    8  km  NE  of  Logan.     MS  1934. 
Pectis  angustifolia  Torr.  var.  angustifolia. 

Co.,    9.5  km  WE  of  southern  Las  Cruces. 
Psilostrophe  tagetina   (Nutt.)   Greene.   n=16. 

roadside,   22  km  SW  of  Holloman  AF  Base. 
Senecio  douglasii  DC.   var.    longilobus   (Benth.)   Benson.      n=20. 

NM,    Dona  Ana  Co.,    5  km  E  of  Las  Cruces.     K  81-061. 
Senecio  fendleri  Gray.     n=23.     NM,  Lincoln  Co.,  on  a  N  ridge  of 

Sierra  Blanca  peak.     BJ2  i  S^  2018. 
Senecio    neomexicanus    A.     Gray    var.     roetcalfei    (Greene)    T.M. 

Barkley.     n=46.     NM,   Grant  Co.,   18  km  N  of  Mimbres.     K  81-046. 
Senecio  neomexicanus  A.Gray  var.  neomexicanus.  n=23.  NM,  Otero 

Co.,    White  Mtns.,   18  air  km  SE  of  Carrizozo.     M  k  RJ[£  81-059. 
Senecio  neomexicanus  A.   Gray  var.   tourney i   (Greene)  T.   M-    Barkley. 

n=22.     NM,    Sierra  Co.,   Black  Range,  Taylor  Canyon,   8         air  km 

NE  of  Gila  Cliff  Dwellings  National  Monument-  ^  k  1  81-184. 
Senecio  vulgaris  L.  n=20.  NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  Las  Cruces.  K  81-017. 
Stephanomeria  paucif lora   (Torr.)  A.  Nels.     n=8.     NM,   Dona  Ana 

Co. ,  13  km  E  of  Las  Cruces.     M  Si  5lL.  81-140. 
Thelesperma  megapotamicmn    (Spreng.)   Ktze.    n=ll.      NM,    Sierra  Co., 

30  km  NW  of  Cuchillo  along  NM-52.     M  k  I  81-168. 
Townsendia  grandiflora  Nutt.     n=9.     NM,  Harding  Co.,  3  km  W  of 

Mills.      RWS.RJS  k  H  5996. 
TiLiiis  californica  Kell.  n=27.     NM,   Dona  Ana  Co.,    5.7  km  E  of  Las 

Cruces.  M  k  MS  81-160;  and  13  km  E  of  LC.       K  £i  5lL.  81-136. 


n=12.     NM,    Dona  Ana 
K  k  Price  SlzOlZ. 
NM,    Otero  Co.,    US-70 
y  fit  5lL.  81-134. 


30A  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    5A,    No.    5 

Verbesina  encelioides   (Cav.)   Benth.    &  Hook.   var.   exauriculata 

Robins.  &  Greeniti.     n=17.     NM,   Dona  Ana  Co.  r   11  km  E  of  Las 

Cruces.     B  81-123. 
Viguiera  dentata  (Cav.)   Spreng.     n=17.     NM,   Luna  Co.,   N  end  of 

the  Florida  Mtns.     fiSS  6206. 
Zinnia  acerosa  (DC.)  A.  Gray.     n=10.     NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  11  km  E 

of  Las  Cruces.     M  &  EllSS  filrlli. 

BORAGINACEAE   Cryptantha   barbigera    (Gray)    Greene.      n=6.      NM, 

Hidalgo  Co.,    Peloncillo  Mtns,,    Guadalupe  Canyon.     £E£  5971. 
Cryptantha  pterocarya    (Torr.)   Greene.     n=12.     NM,    Hidalgo         Co., 

Granite  Gap,   roadside  of  US-80,  20  km  S  of  Road  Forks. 

RWS  6457. 
Cryptantha  jamesii  (Torr.)  Pays.  var.  multicaulis  (Torr.)  Pays. 

n=6.     NM,   Dona  Ana  Co.,   5.7  km  E  of  Las  Cruces. 

RWS  i  Siugfii  5954. 
Mertensia  f ranciscana  Heller.     n=12.     NM,   Lincoln  Co.,    White 

Mtns.,  Eagle  Creek,  5.6  km  WNW  of  Alto.    K  £i  5lL.  81-125b. 
Pectocarya   recurvata  Johnst.      n=12.     NM,    Hidalgo  Co.,         Granite 

Gap,   along  US-80,   20  km  S  of  Road  Forks.     MS  6454. 

BRASSICACEAE    Aisbls  fendleri   (Wats.)  Greene.     n=7.     NM,  Grant 
Co.,    19   km  N  of   Mimbres,    NM.      M  81-048;    and  Dona  Ana   Co., 
Dripping  Springs  Canyon,   18  km  E  of  Las  Cruces.     K  81-077. 
Descurainia   pinnata    (Walt.)    Britt.    var.    ochroleuca    (Wooton) 

Shinners.     n=14.         NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,   NMSU  campus.   Las  Cruces. 

M  81-038;  and  N  base  of  Mt.  Summerf  ord,  5  km  NE  of  Dona  Ana. 

K  &  SuberktQPP  81-035. 
Draba  h^lleriana  Greene  var.  blumeri  C.  L.  Hitchc.     n=9.       NM, 

Sierra  Co.,   Black  Range,   Diamond  Creek.     M  &  T  81-181. 
EJiaba  mogollonica  Greene.     n=16.     NM,   Grant  Co.,  Black  Range, 

upper  Mimbres  River  Valley,  17  km  N  of  Mimbres.     H  81-047. 
Dryopetalon  runcinatum  A.   Gray  var.    runcinatum.     n=12.       NM,   Dona 

Ana  Co.,  Organ  Mtns.,  Dripping  Springs  Canyon,  17  km  E  of  Las 

Cruces.     K  81-075. 
Lepidium  lasiocarpum  Nutt.  var.   rotundum  C.   L.  Hitchc.     n=16. 

NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  S  edge  of  Las  Cruces.    M  81-053. 
Lesquerella  AUX£fl   Wooton.      n=7.      NM,    Otero   Co.,    Sacramento 

Mtns.,  Cox  Canyon,  2.5  km  S  of  Cloudcrof  t.    MS  it  H  1651. 
liesquerelle  fendlerl    (A.   Gray)   Wats.     n=6.     NM,    Dona  Ana  Co.,    13 

km  SE  of  Las  Cruces.     H  i  2ll££  81-106. 
Lesquerella  valida  Greene.     n=5.     NM,   Lincoln  Co.,   White  Mtns.,   5 

km  E  of  Bonito  on  NM-37.     K  i  £I£  81-055. 
Nerisyrenia  camporupi  (A.  Gray)  Greene.     n=36.     Otero  Co.,  US-70 

roadside,  E  edge  of  Tularosa.     K  i  Suberkropp  81-031.     This 

octoploid    increases    the    large    aneuploid  assortment  of 

chromosome  counts  stated  in  Bacon   (1976). 
Sisymbrium  altissimupi   L.      n=7.     NM,    Sierra  Co.,   Black  Range, 

Taylor  Canyon.     Mil  filrl21. 
Sisymbrium  ixifi  L.     n=7.     NM,  Otero  Co.,  US-70  roadside,  E  edge 

of  Tularosa.     K  i  Suberkropp  81-032a. 


1983  Ward,  Chronosorae  counts  305 

Thl^spi  ippntanum  L.   var.   f^ndleri   (A.  Gray)  P.  Holmgren.     n=7. 
NM,  Grant  Co.,  Black  Range,  18  km  N  of  Mimbres,   NM.     ^  airfl42. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE  Arenaria  cfinlus^  Rydb.     n=22.     NM,   Otero  Co., 

Sacramento  Mtns,   8  km  NE  of  Cloudcrof  t.     £J£i  RWS.  i  1^  ^iM- 
Cerastium  arvense  L.   ssp.   striptum   (L.)   Ugborogho.     n=18.   NM, 

Lincoln  Co.,  White  Mtns.,  Eagle  Creek  Canyon,  6.4  air  km  WNW 

of  Alto.    ]d  i  Arsuffi  81-Q85. 
Cerastium  vulgatum  L.   var.   vulgatum.     n=  ca.  68.     New  MexicOf 

Lincoln  Co.,    White   Mtns.,    Eagle  Creek   Canyon,    5.6  air  km  WNW 

of  Alto,  NM.     M  £J;  alx  filrli2l3. 

EUPHORBIACEAE  ^jsiXsm  pottsii    (Kl.)    Muell.    Arg.    var.    pottsii. 
n=20.    NM,    Dona  Ana  Co.,    8  km  E  of  Las  Cruces. 

M  i  Price  Sirll^. 
Ditaxis  neomexicanus  (Muell.  Arg.)  Heller.     n=12.     NM,  Dona  Ana 

Co.,  13  km  SE  of  Las  Cruces.     H  h  £il££  81-109. 
Euphorbia  dentata  Michx.     n=14.     NM,    Luna  Co.,    roadside  of  NM-61, 

5.6  km  S  of  Faywood.     ^^  6216- 
Euphorbia  glyptosperma  Engelm.     n=ll.     NM,  Luna  Co.,  NM-61  hwy 

ca.   5.6  km  S  of  Faywood.     BMS  62ifi. 
Euphorbia   tyssopi folia  L.     n=6.     NM,    Luna  Co.,    roadside  of  NM-61, 

5.6  km  S  of  Faywood.     mi2  6212. 
Euphorbia  indivisa  (Engelm.)  Tides.     n=9.     NM,    Luna  Co.,    roadside 

of  NM-61,  5.6  km  S  of  Faywoood.     ^2  6212- 
Euphorbia  revoluta  Engelm.      n=10.      NM,    Grant  Co.,    W  edge  of 

Bayard.     JSiS  ^22Sl. 
Euphorbia  ^upina  Raf.     n=7.     NM,   Luna  Co.,   roadside  of  NM-61,   5.6 

km  S  of  Faywood.     SiS  6212. 

FABACEAE     AstiagallUS  bisulcatus  (Hook.)  Gray  var.  bisulcatus. 

n=ll.     NM, Union  Co.,   8  km  E  of  NM-120,   1.5  km  S  of  US-56. 

RWS  7033. 
Crotalaria  pumila  Ortega.     n=16.     NM,    Hidalgo  Co., 

Peloncillo  Mtns.,   Skeleton  Canyon.     MS  6121. 
J2filefl  purpurea  Vente.   var.   arenicola   (Wemple)   Barneby.     n=7.     NM, 

Harding  Co. ,   3  km  W  of  Mills.     RWS.  BIS  k  H  5i22. 
Desmodium  neomexicanum  Gray.     n=ll.     NM,  Grant  Co.,  W  edge  of 

Bayard.     SMS  6222. 
Desmodium  xfififij,   Schubert.      n=ll.      NM,    Grant  Co.,    W  edge   of 

Bayard.     MS  ^222. 
Hedysarum   boreale  Nutt.      n=8.      NM,    Harding   Co.,    10   km   N  of 

Mills  on  NM-39.     RWS.  BJSj.  Fletcher  i  Ei£]3£i  5Si21. 
Lathy r us   graminif olius    (Wats.)    White.      n=7.      NM,    Catron  Co., 

Mogollon  Mtns.,  10  km  S  of  Glenwood.     SJS  it.  W  2122. 
Lotus  neomexicanus  Greene.     n=7.     NM,   Dofia  Ana  Co.,    S  roadside  of 

US-70,  0.8  km  W  of  Organ.     W  &  RWS  81-019. 
Lupinus   plattensis   Wats.      n=24.      NM,    Union  Co.,    32   km   E  of 

Clayton,   roadside  of  US-56.     EdS  7050. 
Medicago  lupulina  L.     n=8.    NM,  Lincoln  Co.,  White  Mtns.,  on  the 

banks  of  Eagle  Creek,    5.6  km  WNW  of  Alta     M  i  ALSUfli  81-094. 


306  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Prosopis  velutina  Wooton.  n=14.  NM,  Hidalgo  Co.,  Peloncillo 
Mtns.,  Guadalupe  Canyon,  1.5  km  E  of  Arizona  border.     RWS  5%7. 

ESQL&lSS  iSEiillifiJLa  Pursh  var.  tenuiflQCfl.  n=10.  NM, 
Guadalupe  Co.,  24  km  N  of  Santa  Rosa.    RJS.  RWS  &  M  1615. 

Vicia  americana  Muhl.  var.  linearis  (Nutt.)  Wats.  n=7.  NM, 
Lincoln  Co.,  Eagle  Creek,  5.6  km  WNW  of  Alto.  iJ  £t  51..  81-129. 

HYDROFHYLLACEAE  Nama  hispidum  A.   Gray  var.   mentzelii  Brand.     n=7. 

NM,   Dona  Ana  Co.,   NMSU  campus.   Las  Cruces.     U  8J.-039. 
Phacelia  arizonica  A.  Gray.     n=ll.     NM,  Hidalgo  Co.,  Peloncillo 

Mtns.,  Guadalupe  Canyon,  1.5  km  E  of  Arizona  border.     RJSS  5968. 
Phacelia  bombycina  Wooton  &  Standley.     n=ll.     NM,  Hidalgo  Co., 

Peloncillo   Mtns.,    Guadalupe   Canyon,    1.5   km   E   of   Arizona 

border.     MS  5969. 

LAMIACEAE     Agastache  Qsn&   (Hook.)   Woot.   S>  Standi.     n=9.     NM,    Luna 

Co.,   N  end        of  Florida  Mtns.     MS  6205. 
Hedeoma  namilD  (Torr.)  Briq.  var  naiiiiiD.     n=18.     NM,  Dona  Ana  Co., 

8  km  E  of  Las  Cruces.     M  &  Price  81-116a. 

LINACEAE  LinuiD  vernale  (Wooton)  Small.  n=15.  NM,  Dona  Ana  Co., 
5.6  km  E  of  Las  Cruces.     RWS  &  ginger  5955. 

LOASACEAE  Mgntzelia  albicaulis  Dougl.  n=18.  NM,  Hidalgo  Co., 
Peloncillo  Mtns.,  Guadalupe  Canyon,  1.5  km  E  of  Arizona 
border.     MS  5972. 

MALVACEAE   Sphaeralcea   angustifolia    (Cav.)    G.    Don.    var.    cuspjdfltfl 

(Britt.)    Gray.      n=5.      NM,    Grant   Co.,    roadside   of   US-180, 

Mangus  Springs.    BUS  &  M  2118 
Sphaeralcea  cocci nea    (Nutt.)    i^db.    var.    cpccinea. 

n=10.  NM,  Guadalupe  Co.,  1  km  N  of  Vaughn.     RWS.  £J£  i  M  6080. 
Sphaeralcea  McightiJ  Gray.     n=10.     NM,   Sierra  Co.,   .4  km  N  of 

Elephant  Butte  Dam.     RWS.  R3S  i  iJedina  M21. 
Sids  filicaulis  Torr.   &  Gray.     n=6.     NM,    Dona  Ana  Co.,    US-70 

roadside,  1  km  W  of  Organ.     ^iS  &  MS  6200. 

NYCTAGINACEAE  Allionia  incarnata  L.  n=20.  NM,  Dona  Ana  Co., 
9.6  km  ENE  of  NMSU  campus.  Las  Cruces.  iJ  81-115.  Only  one 
previous  count,  n  =  ca.  58  from  Peru,  has  been  reported  for 
this  species    (Federov,    1969). 

OROBANCHACEAE  Conopholis  alpina  Liebm.  var.  mexicana  (A.  Gray) 
Haynes.  n=20.  NM,  Otero  Co.,  White  Mtns.,  Nogal  Canyon,  19 
air  km  SE  of  Carrizoza     M  &  BIS  81-060. 

PAPAVERACEAE  Corydalis  sni£^  Willd.  n=6.  NM,  Grant  Co.,  Black 
Range,  upper  Mimbres  River  Valley,  12  mi  N  of  Mirabres.  M  81- 
044. 

PQACEAE  Eiomus  tectorum  L.  n=7.  NM,  Lincoln  Co.,  White  Mtns., 
Eagle  Creek  Canyon,   5.6  km  WNW  of  Alto.     M  £t  ^0..  81-130. 


1983  Ward,    Chromosome  counts  307 

Glyceria  striata  (Lam.)  Hitchc.  n=10.  NM,  Lincoln  Co.,  White 
Mtns. ,  5  air  km  W  of  Alto,     ij  i  Atsufli  81-153. 

Hordeum  jubatum  L.   n=7.   NM,    Dona  Ana  Co.,    Las  Cruces.     K  81-037. 

Poa  trivialis  L.  n=7.  NM,  Lincoln  Co.,  White  Mtns.,  Eagle  Creek 
Canyon,   7  km  WW  of  Alto.     £J£  i  W  1M2. 

POLEMONIACEAE  fillia  mexicana  A.  &  V.  Grant.  n=18.  NM,  Grant 
Co.,  NM-61  roadside,  6.4  km  N  of  Faywood.  M  i  iianSfiD  81-067; 
and  Hidalgo  Co.,  Peloncillo  Mtns.,  Guadalupe  Canyon.  RWS 
5973.  The  collection  RWg  5973  was  found  growing  with  Q^ 
f lavocincta  A.  Nelson  ssp.  australis  (A.  &  V.  Grant)  Day  & 
Grant  (collected  as  RWS  5974),  and  had  small-  to  intermediate- 
sized  corollae.  One  plant  had  pollen  stainability  of  91%; 
another  plant  had  stainability  of  93%.  The  collection  from 
Faywood  (K  i  Hansen  81-067)  near  the  south  edge  of  the  Gila 
Wilderness  was  not  sympatric  with  congeners.  Two  classes  of 
pollen  grains  were  found;  one  type  was  spherical  with  570 
micron  diameter,  and  the  other  was  flattened  globes  measuring 
290  microns  in  diameter  and  240  microns  thick.  Of  the  larger 
type,  92%  stained  normally;  of  the  smaller  ones,  22%  were 
stainable. 

Ipomopsis  longif lor^  (Torr.)  V.  Grant.  n=7.  NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  5 
km  E  of  Las  Cruces.     ^  81-066. 

Ipomopsis    multiflora    (Nutt.)    V.    Grant.      n=7.      NM,    McKinley 
Co.,  3  km  S  of  Ft.  Wingate,  roadside  of  NM-400. 
K  &  £K£  81-495. 

Ipomopsis  pumila  (Nutt.)  V.  Grant.  n=7.  NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  5  km 
E  of  Las  Cruces.    ^  81-063. 

Microsteris  gracilis  (Dougl.  ex  Hook.)  Greene  var.  humilior 
(Hook.)  Cronq.  n=7.  NM,  Upper  Mimbres  River  Valley,  Grant 
Co.,  18  km  N  of  Mimbres.     W  81-049. 

POLYGONACEAE      Eriogonum   abertianum   Torr.    in    Emory    var. 

abertianum.     n=20.     NM,         Dona  Ana  Co.,    US-70  roadside,   1  km 

W  of  Organ.    m2  i  £JS  6199 
Eriogonum  abertianum  Torr.  in  Emory  var.  cyclosepalum  (Greene) 

Fosberg.     n=20.     NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  US-70  roadside,  1  km  W  of 

Organ.     RWS  &  RJS  6198. 
Eriogonum  havardii  S.  Wats.    n=20.    NM,  Guadalupe  Co.,  1  km  N  of 

Vaughn.     RWS.  £JS  i  W  6074. 
£uJli£ii  acetosella  L.     n=21.     NM,  Lincoln  Co.,  White  Mtns.,  Eagle 

Creek  Canyon,    5.6  km  WNW  of  Alto.     ^  St  al,.  01=121. 
Rumex  hyinenosepalus  Torr.     n=20.     NM,  Dona  Ana  Co.,  roadside  of 

US-70,   0.8  km  W  of  Organ.     iJ  i  MS  BlrQia. 

PRIMULACEAE     Androsace  occidentalis  Pursh  var.    occidental  is. 

n=10.  NM,  Grant  Co.,  18  km  N  of  Mimbres.  ij  81-041. 
^droSdCe   septentrionalis   L.    var.    subulifera  A.    Gray.      n=10.     NM, 

Lincoln  Co.,  White  Mtns.,   Eagle  Creek  Canyon,  6.4  km  WNW  of 

Alto.    ^  St  ^L.  01=02^. 


308  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

RANUNCULACEAE  FanunculUS  inamoenus  Greene  var.  inamoenus.  n=24. 
NM,  Lincoln  Co.,  White  Mtns.,  Eagle  Creek  Canyon,  5.6  km  WKW 
of  Alto,     a  &  Atsufii  81-Q93. 

ROSACEAE  Rosa  neomexicana  Cockl.  n=7.  NM,  Lincoln  Co.,  White 
Mtns.,  Villa  Madonna,   5  km  NW  of  Alto.    MS  52Si. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE     Besseya  plantaginea  (James)  Rydb.     n=24.     NM, 

Sierra  Co.,   Black  Range,   Taylor  Canyon.     M  k  1  81-187b. 
Castilleja   integra     A.   Gray.      n=24.     NM,   Dona  Ana  Co.,   Organ 

Mtns.,    18  km  SE  of  Las  Cruces.     £KS  i  £ing£i  5957. 
Castilleja   lanata  A.    Gray.      n=12.      NM,    Catron  Co.,    Mogollon 

Mtns.,  10  km  S  of  Glenwood.    £05  i  tf  2126. 
Castilleja   wootoni   Standi ey.      n=12.     NM,    Lincoln  Co.,    White 

Mtns.,  Eagle  Creek  Canyon,  5  km  NW  of  Alto. 

RJS.  RWS  &  M  2024. 
Linaria  texanp  Scheele.     n=6.     NM,   DoRa  Ana  Co.,   Organ  Mtns.,   14 

km  E  of  Las  Cruces.     K  81-083. 
Orthocarpus  luteus  Nutt.     n=14.     CO,  Saguache  Co.,  SW  corner  of 

county,   21  km  W  of  Colorado-114  on  Road  8EE.  MS  &  £J£  5821. 
Penstemon    albidus    Nutt.       n=8.      NM,    Union   Co.,    32    km    E   of 

Clayton  on  US-56.     £K5  7048. 
Penstemon  superfaus  A    Nelson.     n=8.     NM,    Hidalgo  Co.,    Peloncillo 

Mtns.,   Guadalupe  Canyon.     M£  5965. 
Schistophragma  intermedia  (Gray)  Pennell.     n=20.     NM,  Hidalgo 

Co.,  Peloncillo  Mtns.,  Skeleton  Canyon,  2,5  km  E  of  Arizona 

border.     MS  6222. 
Veronica  arvensis  L.     n=8.     NM,    Lincoln  Co.,    Eagle  Creek  Canyon, 

3.5  mi  WNW  of  Alto.     W  et  al.  81-132a. 
Veronica  americana  Schwein.  ex  Benth.     n=18.     NM,  Lincoln  Co., 

White  Mtns.,  3  air  mi  W  of  Alto.     K  i  Atsufii  81-154. 


Thanks  are  extended  to  Dr.  T.  M.  Barkley  for  confirming  the 
identities  of  the  Senecio  spp.  and  to  Dr.  Reed  Rollins  for 
confirming  my  identification  of  Lesquerella  valida  and  many  of 
the  other  crucifers. 


LITERATURE  QTED 


Bacon,  J.  D.  1978.  Taxonomy  of  Nerisyrenia  (Cruciferae). 
Rhodora  80:159-226. 

Fedorov,  A.  A.  [ed.]  196  9.  Chromosome  numbers  of  flowering 
plants.  Acad.  Sci.  U.S.S.R.,  Komarov  Botanical  Institute, 
Leningrad. 

Snow,  R.  1963.  Alcoholic  hydrochloric  acid-carmine  as  a  stain 
for  chromosomes  in  squash  preparations.     Stain  Technol.  38:9-13. 


GREASEWOOD  (SARCOBATUS  VERMICULATUS  (HOOK.)  TORR.) 

Joseph  H.  Robertson  -  University  of  Nevada-Reno,  Nevada 

TAXONOMY 

Nomenclature.  Big  greasewood,  black  greasewood.or  here  simply 
greasewood,  is  a  spiny  deciduous  shrub  with  simple,  fles,hy  leaves. 
It  is  a  member  of  the  worldwide  goosefoot  family  (Chenopodiaceae) 
with  14  genera  in  the  U.S.A.  Seepweeds  (Suaeda  spp.)  glass  worts 
(Sal  icornia  spp. )  and  pickleweed  (Allenrolfea  occidentalis) ,  all 
haTophytes,  are  its  close  relatives.  The  family  formula  is 

K^C°AVor  Ca^Co°S^"-P^  (45,65). 

The  genus  name  is  derived  from  the  Greek  "sarx"  meaning  flesh 
and  "batos"  meaning  bramble.  The  adjective  is  from  the  Latin 
"vermis"  meaning  worm  and  "cuius"  meaning  small. 

The  species  is  both  monoecious  and  dioecious.  The  worm-like 
staminate  aments  are  0.5-3.0  cm.  (0.2-1.2  in    long.  The  pistil- 
late flowers  are  either  solitary  or  in  small  clusters.  The  color- 
ful, winged  fruits  are  0.8-1.3  cm.  (0.3-0.5  in.)  long  and  broad. 
It  is  known  to  hybridize  with  other  goosefoot  genera  (21). 

Greasewood  attains  heights  of  h-^   m.  (I'5-IO  ft.).  The  wood  is 
hard  and  strong.  The  bark  varies  from  yellow  to  black.  It  is 
not  to  be  confused  with  other  "greasewoods" ,  creosotebush  (Larrea 
tridentata)  or  chamiso  (Adenostema  fasciculatum) ,  nor  with 
greasebush,  (Forsellesia  spinescens) (20,  35,  46,  67). 

DISTRIBUTION 

Greasewood  thrives  in  many  associations  from  Mexico  to  Canada 
but  prefers  the  cold  deserts  north  of  37  latitude.  It  is  esti- 
mated to  cover  over  4.8  million  ha.  (12  million  acres),  more  than 
any  other  phreatophyte  (64). 

Alkali  sinks  of  the  Great  Basin  are  encircled  by  zones  of  grease- 
wood.  It  is  a  minor  component  of  sandhill  vegetation  of  the 
Mississippi  Valley.  Neither  alkali,  salt,  nor  high  watertable  are 
absolute  requirements  (22).   It  is  found  among  other  succulents  of 
the  strand  above  tide  water  mark  in  southern  California  (3). 

When  native  shrub  communities  of  the  sagebrush-wheatgrass 
(Artemisia  sp.-Agropyron  sp.)  zone  are  ranked  in  importance  (sic) 
in  southeastern  Washington  and  adjacent  Idaho,  greasewood  stands 

309 


310  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G  I  A  Vol.  5A,  No.  5 

fifth  behind  Artemisia,  spiny  hopsage  (Grayia  spinosa)  ,  bitter- 
brush  (Purshia  tridentata)  and  sage  (Salvia  sp. )  (19).   It  is  the 
principal  phreatophyte,  other  than  riparian,  in  the  shadscale  zone 
of  western  Nevada  (8,43),  and  the  most  extensive  halophytic  type  of 
the  intermountain  region  (7,  12,  54).   It  forms  large  colonies  on 
alkali  plains  of  Utah  and  Nevada  with  creosote  bush,  rubber  rabbit- 
brush  (Chrysothamnus  spp.),  and  Artemisia  spp.  It  is  found  at  el- 
evations of  300  to  2400  m.  (1000-8000  ft.)(5,20).   Its  range  is 
more  extensive  than  that  of  big  sagebrush  (Artemisia  tridentata) 
in  western  North  America  (19,  58). 

EVOLUTIONARY  HISTORY 

The  origin  of  greasewood  and  its  first  appearance  in  western 
America  are  obscure.  Greasewood  pollen  and  grass  pollen  have  been 
dated  as  Eocene  epoch  or  50  million  years  ago. 

The  pollen  grains  of  greasewood  are  quite  distinct  from  those  of 
other  Chenopods  (40).  They  have  been  recovered  in  small  numbers 
with  other  pollen  samples  in  the  north  central  states  and  also  by 
high  level  air  sampling.  However,  existence  of  greasewood  in  the 
Lake  States  in  recent  time  is  doubtful. 

Numerous  paleobotanical  studies  focusing  particular  attention 
upon  fossils  of  differenct  periods  of  the  Cenozoic  era  make  no 
mention  of  greasewood.  nor  of  the  Chenopodiaceae  (3,  11,  14,  15, 
29,  38,  60,  78).  Fossl!  floras  of  four  western  states  have  been 
catalogued  to  include  150  species  in  37  families  without  any  cheno- 
pods (11). 

Ecoclinal  variation.  Taxonomists  differ  about  the  number  of 
species  of  greasewood  (76).  The  dwarf  form,  which  is  non-phreatic, 
darker  in  color,  more  pubescent,  with  broader  wings  on  the  fruits 
is  accepted  as  a  species,  S^.  baileyi  (6,66).  Others  prefer 
Sarcobatus  vermiculatus  var.  baileyi  while  others  insist  that  no 
consistent  morphological  differences  warrant  varietal  status  (1). 
No  biochemical  or  cytological  studies  are  available  to  clarify 
this  situation. 

The  "baileyi"  form  associates  with  shadscale  (Atriplex  conferti- 
fol ia) ,  bud  sagebrush  (Artemisia  spinescens),  winterfat  (Ceratoides 
lanata) ,  and  other  xeric  species  on  well -drained  slopes  in  about  20 
percent  of  Nevada  and  in  adjacent  California  (6). 

DEVELOPMENTAL  HISTORY 

The  gametophyte  chromosome  number  most  common  in  Chenopodiaceae 


1983  Robertson,  Greasewood  311 

is  9  (77).  The  number  in  greasewood  is  believed  to  be  13  (4,  Zl) , 
Tetraploid  and  Octoploid  populations  have  also  been  reported  (9). 

A  great  deal  of  information  is  lacking  about  the  ontogeny  and  phylo- 
geny  of  greasewood.  More  is  known  about  its  phenology  (57). 

Seed  cast  appears  scanty  when  compared  with  associated  shrubs. 
Wind  and  gravity  are  evidently  agents  of  pollination  and  seed  disper- 
sal, as  indicated  by  the  broad  wings  on  the  achenes ,  especially  of 
the  "baileyi"  form.  Staminate  flowers  are  high  on  the  plant  and  pol- 
len production  is  lavish  (72). 

Greasewood  seeds  germinated  well  at  constant  moderate  temperature 
11  C  (52  F)  in  Sh   days.  All  higher  temperature  regimes  inhibited 
germination,'  for  example,  at  constant  26  C  (79  F)  98%  of  the  seeds 
failed  to  germinate  while  2%   did  germinate  in  3  days.  Seeds  sub- 
jected to  an  8  hr./16  hr.  alternating  temperature  pattern  were  de- 
vitalized 80%  by  a  "day"  temperature  of  26  C  (79  F). 

Seeds  responded  to  moisture  stress  above  -10  bars  by  slower  but 
not  significantly  lower  germination  even  at  -16  bars.  Light  was  not 
found  to  influence  germination  (58a). 

Reproduction  by  seed,  in  the  writer's  opinion,  is  much  less  com- 
mon than  among  many  of  its  co-dominant  shrubs,  e.g.  sagebrush,  rab- 
bitbrush,  or  saltbushes  (Atriplex  spp. ).  Most  often,  upon  examina- 
tion, juveniles  prove  to  arise  from  adventitious  buds  in  roots  that 
have  been  exposed  or  mechanically  injured.  These  young  shoots  are 
herbaceous  and  succulent.  They  elongate  rapidly  and  sometimes  prod- 
uce seed  the  first  year  (17).   "Halogeton  looks  like  baby  grease- 
wood" (2). 

Greasewood  sprouts  readily  from  its  crown  or  its  widely  spreading 
roots.  The  deep  taproot  has  been  traced  to  5.7  m.(to  19  ft.). 
Coarse  roots  at  0.6-0.9  m.  (2-3  ft.)  have  been  found  associated  with 
4-5  m.  (15  ft.)  taproots  (10,  24,  34). 

Reproductive  development  and  vegetative  growth  of  greasewood  in 
5  stands  of  different  densities,  cover  percentages,  and  in  different 
association  on  5  different  soils  have  been  studied  recently.  Twig 
elongation  of  1-2  itbti.  per  day  occurred  in  June,  about  at  the  time  of 
the  opening  of  the  staminate  spikes.    Seasonal  stem  elongation 
ranged  from  7-10  cm.  (3-4  in.)  (57). 

The  rate  of  accumulation  of  phytomass  has  not  been  sufficiently  mea- 
sured. Shrubs  in  a  particular  habitat  type  tend  to  stabilize  at  a 
uniform  height  and  spacing. 


312  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  5 

Longevity  of  greasewood  may  be  assumed  to  be  great  for  two  rea- 
sons. It  regenerates  the  shoot  system  rapidly  after  removal  of 
same.  Individual  bushes  frequently  stand  on  hummocks  or  mounds 
created  by  wind  erosion  and  deposition  of  soil  and  litter,  pre- 
sumably over  a  long  time. 

ECOLOGY 

If  greasewood  is  considered  in  its  relation  to  light,  temper- 
ature, and  soil  moisture,  it  is  seen  to  be  narrow  in  its  light 
tolerance,  wide  in  hardiness,  and  sensitive  to  presence  and  chang- 
ing levels  of  ground  watertables. 

Greasewood  has  relatively  few  competitors  for  light,  owing  to 
its  stature  and  osmotic  pressure.  Its  shade  is  too  thin  to  sup- 
press subdominants. 

Greasewood  communities  are  most  common  in  valley  bottoms  which 
have  extreme  maximum  and  minimum  daily  and  annual  temperatures. 
Soil  surface  temperature  exceeds  71  C.  (160  F.)  briefly  in  July 
and  August  afternoons  in  such  areas. 

The  common  associates  of  a  species  are  useful  in  understanding 
its  ecology.  Greasewood  is  regularly  a  dominant  with  subdominant 
grasses,  e.g.  wildryes  (Elymus  spp. ) ,  Indian  ricegrass  (Orzopsis 
hymenoides) ,  squirrel  tail  (Si-tanion  hystrix),  saltgrass  (Dist- 
ichlis  strtcta) ,  alkali  grasses  (Puccinellia  sp.),  dropseeds 
(Sporobolus  spp.).  Winterfat  and  several  saltbushes  are  common 
subdominant  shrubs.  Bassia  hyssopifolia  is  a  palatable  forb  of 
alkaline  soil  often  present  in  these  communities. 

The  maximum  biomass  of  greasewood  in  relation  to  site  charac- 
ters is  unknown.  However,  it  is  apparent  that  its  leaf  reten- 
tion, height,  and  density  respond  to  the  levels  and  fluctuations 
of  the  ground  water  (43).  Where  greasewood  roots  cannot  tap  the 
capillary  zone,  the  shoot  tends  to  assume  the  dwarf  "baileyi" 
form  commonly  associating  with  shadscale.  Wolfberry  (Lyceum 
cooperi )  is  an  associate  here  (19).  These  well-drained  commu- 
nities sometimes  extend  onto  captured  dunes  bordering  alkali 
playas  (17). 

During  recession  of  Great  Salt  Lake  in  the  drought  years  of  the 
1930' s,  greasewood  was  observed  creeping  out  on  the  playas  (26). 

Seasonally  water  may  pond  on  the  surface  and  evaporate  without 
adding  to  the  watertable,  or  to  the  root  zone  in  tight  sodic  clay. 
Infiltration  rates  consistently  less  than  0.25  cm.  (0.10  in.)/hr. 
have  been  measured  in  the  barren  interspaces.  This  was  in  con- 
trast to  5.1  cm.  (2  in.)/hr.  in  the  hummocks  or  coppice  dunes 
crowned  by  greasewood.  The  rates  were  associated  with  exchange- 
able sodium  percentage  levels  (56). 


1983  Robertson,  Greasewood  313 

Edaphic  Relationships.  Agricultural  development  and  need  for 
information  for  land  use  planning  occasioned  several  classic  pio- 
neer studies  of  soil-plant  relationships  in  greasewood  and  adja- 
cent communities  (12,  16,  42,  61). 

Greasewood  has  a  wide  range  of  tolerance  for  saline  and  alka- 
li soils  (28,  47).  Soils  under  greasewood  in  salt  desert  in  Utah 
contained  a  higher  exchangeable  sodium  content  and  higher  pH  (9.25- 
9.83)  than  those  under  any   other  associated  shrub  (24,  50,  53). 
Not  all  studies  support  this  finding  (56).  Tissue  salt  content 
was  157%  as  much  as  in  Nuttall  saltbush  (Atriplex  nuttallii)  and 
93%  that  in  shadscale. 

Distribution  of  greasewood  is  believed  to  be  related  to  the 
amount  of  exchangeable  sodium  and  the  percent  of  water  retained  at 
field  capacity  (13).  Salt  content  of  soils  in  greasewood  communi- 
ties is  found  to  vary   from  500  to  16,000  ppm.  (0.05%-l .6%)(54) . 
The  plant  was  found  to  grow  in  a  zone  of  average  maximum  soil  mois- 
ture stress  of  -70  bars.  Massive  zonal  communities  were  mapped  in 
the  western  half  of  Nevada,  western  and  eastern  thirds  of  Utah, 
northern  Wyoming,  southeastern  Oregon,  southwestern  Idaho,  and 
southern  California  (10).  These  zones  are  typically  between  zones 
of  saltgrass  and  sagebrush  (18). 

In  S.  E.  Washington  cheatgrass  (Bromus  tectorum)  was  seen  to 
grow  more  luxuriantly  in  higher  density  in  greasewood  interspaces 
than  in  adjacent  interspaces  between  big  sagebrush  (Artemisia 
tridentata) .  Sampling  at  dm.  (4-in.)  intervals  to  1  m.  (3.3  ft. ) 
throughout  the  year  revealed  that  the  increase  in  available  mois- 
ture in  the  greasewood  soil  exceeded  that  in  the  sagebrush  in  the  4 
upper  dm.  (16  in.).  This  occurred  despite  a  higher  percolation  rate 
in  the  sagebrush  interspaces.  Less  transpiration  by  greasewood, 
owing  to  its  leafless  winter  condition,  contributed  to  a  favoraole 
moisture  relationship  whereas  the  evergreen  sagebrush  preempted  the 
scanty  accumulation.  The  shallow-rooted  cheatgrass  was  not  inhib- 
ited by  the  higher  salinity  and  exchangeable  sodium  below  2  dm. 
(8  in.)  (51). 

High  concentration  of  boron  was  found  to  be  a  factor  in  prevent- 
ing colonization  of  greasewood  interspaces  (56). 

A  soil  supporting  greasewood  and  salt  rabbitbrush  in  northern 
Nevada  was  classified  as  a  "mixed  (Calcareous)  mesic  Aquic 
Durorthidic  terriorthent"  (17).  Another  greasewood  soil  in  north- 
ern Nevada  was  classified  as  "a  member  of  a  fine-loamy,  mixed,  mesic 
family  of  Typic  Camborthids"  (62).  While  greasewood  tolerates  tight 
sodic  clays  and  wery   weak  drainage,  it  thrives  in  sand.  Among  the 
largest  plants  are  those  on  dunes  with  less  than  0.1%  salt  content 
in  the  first  3  dm.  (1  ft.)  (34).  In  a  greasewood-rabbitbrush  site 
in  northern  Nevada,  the  watertable  was  at  2.9-3.0  m.  (8-10  ft.). 
The  soil  texture  of  small  hummocks  was  loam  to  ^ery   fine  sandy  loam, 
whereas  soil  in  barren  interspaces  was  finer,  being  silt  loam  to 


314  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  5 

loam.  At  0.3-0.9  m.  (1-3  ft.)  the  siliceous  duripan  permitted  root 
passage  when  moist  (56). 

Vegetation  analysis  of  sites  on  clay  and  clay  loam  soils  in  Utah 
where  greasewood  comprised  45%  of  the  vegetation  found  few  associates 
-  commonly  five.  The  greasewood  plants  were  0.9-1.2  m.  (3-4  ft.) 
tall  with  a  density  of  5200/ha. (2100/acre) .  Vegetal  cover  ranged 
from  4.4%-29.5%  (22). 

Chemical  changes  in  the  soil  profile  are  directly  caused  by 
greasewood  (53).  When  greasewood  and  sagebrush  grow  in  mixture  in 
natural  communities,  the  basicity  is  higher  under  the  former.  Where 
growing  in  separate  communities  in  central  Utah  the  soil  pH  was  7.36 
in  sagebrush  and  9.21  in  greasewood  (12).  Around  Great  Salt  Lake 
it  is  an  indicator  of  black  alkali,  sodium  carbonate  and  moist  saline 
soil  (26). 

Soil  moisture  and  chemical  tests  in  a  greasewood-sagebrush  commu- 
nity revealed  both  higher  moisture  and  higher  sodium  contents  under 
greasewood  than  under  sagebrush  (48). 

Fire  Response.  One  record  of  response  to  fire  is  available  from 
northern  Nevada.  Stump  sprouts  were  0.75  m.  {Zk   ft.)  tall  in  the 
third  year  after  wildfire.  Return  to  full  vegetative  structure  was 
predicted  to  require  5-10  years  (62). 

Biotic  Relationships.  Suitable  habitats  for  mammals,  birds,  rep- 
tiles and  invertebrates  are  found  in  greasewood  communities,  seven- 
teen species  of  mammals,  37  of  birds  and  HI  of  invertebrates  were 
recorded  in  Utah.  Insect  populations  were  similar  to  those  in  sage- 
brush communities  (22,  72,  74). 

In  west  central  Utah  greasewood  communities  on  sandy  soils,  in- 
cluding captured  dunes,  are  favorable  habitats  for  as  many  as  nine 
species  of  rodents.  The  loamy  mounds  formed  by  the  shrubs  are  usu- 
ally perforated  by  burrows  where  seed  and  leaves  are  stored  (74). 

The  pests  and  diseases  of  greasewood  appear  not  to  have  attract- 
ed scientific  attention.  Old  bushes  are  usually  highly  interspers- 
ed with  dead  branches,  or  shoots,  possibly  caused  by  insects  or 
lower  organisms. 

Higher  herbivores  rarely  injure  greasewood  because  of  its  armor 
and  frequent  presence  of  more  palatable  forage.  However,  it  is 
food  for  the  Zuni  prairiedog,  painted  and  western  chipmunks,  jack- 
rabbit  and  porcupine  (74a). 

Interspecific  competition  in  greasewood  communities  is  circum- 
stantial, considering  the  wide  interspacing  and  paucity  of  vege- 
tation between  shrubs.  A  vigorous  growth  response  follows  release 
from  competition.  Higher  seed  production  and  a  prolonged  growth 
period  resulted  (57).   Subdominant  species  tend  to  be  more  abun- 


1983  KobertBon,  Greasewood  315 

ddnt  under  the  shrub  canopy  in  the  surface  litter.  This  observation 
of  mine  appears  to  contradict  the  records  of  salt  accumulation  from 
leaching  of  litter.  Shade,  litter,  and  wind  deposits  may  be  compen- 
sating factors. 

PHYSIOLOGY 

The  ability  of  greasewood  to  survive  several  weeks  of  flooding  or 
ponding  while  behaving  normally  as  a  phreatophyte  suggests  that  its 
roots  have  capacity  for  anaerobic  respiration.  However,  it  is  by  no 
means  a  hydrophyte,  shown  by  its  demise  when  the  watertable  stands 
at  the  surface,  doubtless  a  function  of  time  and  temperature  (36). 

The  efficiency  of  greasewood  in  carbon  assimilation,  reserve  food 
storage,  and  rates  of  biomass  accumulation  have  not  been  reported. 

Seven  elements  tend  to  concentrate  in  greasewood  organs.  Samples 
of  greasewood  tissue  analyzed  at  Malad,  Idaho,  contained  higher  con- 
centrations of  sodium,  potassium,  chloride,  sulfate,  calcium,  mag- 
nesium and  boron  (in  order  of  diminishing  quantity)  than  the  soil  in 
which  it  was  growing.  Although  the  leaves  contained  the  greatest 
concentration,  the  woody  parts  still  contained  more  of  these  ele- 
ments than  the  underlying  7.6  cm.  (3  in.)  depth  of  soil  (54). 

CHEMICAL  CONTROL 

Physiology  of  growing  plants  is  subject  to  many  chemical  distur- 
bances. Foliar  application  of  herbicides  has  often  not  been  an  ef- 
fective method  of  control  (44).  However,  recent  investigations  have 
disclosed  that  a  kill  as  high  as  72%  is  possible  by  spraying  a  mix- 
ture of  2,4-0  (2,  4-dichlorophenoxy  acetic  acid)  and  Picloram  (4- 
amino-3,4,6-trichloropicQtjinic  acid) .  Careful  attention  mustbegivai 
to  phenology  and  soil  moisture  content.  Higher  resistance  was  en- 
countered near  the  initiation  and  end  of  active  growth  and  deple- 
tion of  available  moisture.  Resproutinq  shoots  are  most  susceptible. 
Respraying  with  2,4-D  at  a  rate  of  3.3  kg/ha.  (3  lb. /a.)  gave  92- 
100%  control  (17). 

ECONOMIC  CONSIDERATIONS 

The  economic  roles  of  greasewood  are  principally  as  an  indicator 
of  land  use  potential  and  as  range  forage.  The  values  range  from 
positive  to  negative  depending  upon  use  or  need. 

Land  Use  Indicator.  From  the  beginning  of  western  settlement 
greasewood  has  been  considered  a  reliable  indicator  of  the  agricul- 
tural constraints  of  the  land  (27,  68).  It  thrives  on  both  saline 
and  sodic  soils.  Big  greasewood  sites  are  more  amenable  to  use 
than  are  the  drier  "Bailey  greasewood"  lands.  However,  preparation 


316  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  5 

for  cultivation  usually  requires  deep  drainage  and  much  leach- 
ing by  repeated  irrigation. 

In  dry  saline  sites  available  water  at  considerable  depth  is 
reached  by  the  taproot  (34,  54,  70).   In  Big  Smoky  and  Steptoe 
valleys  of  eastern  Nevada,  zones  of  greasewood  are  underlain  by 
watertables  seldom  at  more  than  10.5  m.  (35  ft.),  but  in  some 
places  at  15  m.  (50  ft.)(42).  Attempts  to  establish  grasses  by 
clearing  greasewood  and  irrigating  from  shallow  wells  have  not 
succeeded  (56). 

Nevada  research  revealed  annual  evapotranspiration  of  3650  to 
4260  m  /ha. (1.2-1.4  acre  ft. /acre)  near  Winnemucca  with  the 
watertable  adjusted  at  1 .8-2. 3m. (6-7^2  ft.)(55).  In  Escalante 
Valley,  Utah,  the  E/T  between  May  and  October  was  61cm. (24  in.) 
from  a  watertable  71  cm. (28  in.)  below  the  surface  (75).  Else- 
where seasonal  transpiration  alone  was  recorded  as  6.6.  cm. (2.6 
in.)(70). 

Range  Forage.  Generally  greasewood  alone  or  with  codominant 
rubber  rabbitbrush  is  regarded  as  of  slight  or  no  value  as  for- 
age (56).  Among  California  browses  its  value  for  sheep  and  goats 
is  good,  for  deer  poor,  for  cattle  fair  to  poor,  and  useless  for 
horses  (59).  Utilization  is  restricted  by  the  presence  of  strong, 
sharp  thorns.  Nevertheless,  in  the  Great  Basin  it  is  locally  a 
valuable  browse  (35) . 

Laboratory  analysis  of  summer  and  fall  samples  in  Arizona  show- 
ed protein  21%,  nitrogen-free  extract  39%,  crude  fiber  19%  and 
ash  18%  ((5).  The  leaf  ash  tends  to  be  high  in  sodium  and  pota- 
ssium, e.g.  24%  and  22%.  respectively  (2).  Leaf  samples  in  sum- 
mer in  Nevada  contained  15.4%  crude  protein  and  0.83%  extractable 
oil  (39). 

Utilization  of  greasewood  on  winter  range  in  Montana  was  com- 
pared with  that  of  sagebrush,  winterfat  and  shadscale.  Three  in- 
tensities of  utilization  were  studied.  Under  heavy  utilization, 
the  descending  rank  was  winterfat,  greasewood,  shadscale,  and 
sagebrush.  Removal  of  greasewood  twigs  was  56%  at  546  m.(600  yd.) 
from  water  and  10%  at  1092  m.(1200  yd.) (33). 

Chemical  analysis  of  greasewood  forage  during  winter  in  Montana 
revealed  it  to  contain  8%  to  9%  crude  protein,  which  was  lower 
than  that  present  in  sagebrush,  winterfat  or  shadscale.  At  the 
same  time  it  ranked  lowest  in  phosphorus,  having  declined  to  5  mg. 
/gm.(0.5%)  by  late  winter  (33).  However,  it  is  more  heavily 
grazed  in  the  winter  when  more  inviting  forage  is  less  available. 


1983  Robertson,  Greasewood  317 

In  addition  to  a  reduction  in  food  value  in  the  winter,  grease- 
wood  also  is  potentially  mechanically  injurious  to  browsers. 
Protein  supplementation  on  the  range  magnifies  the  danger.  Hungry 
sheep  are  at  particular  risk  in  greasewood  communities.  If  0.68 
kg.  (1^2  lb.)  of  leaves  are  consumed  in  a  short  time,  depression, 
kidney  lesions,  and  death  may  result.  Bovines  are  relatively 
safe  under  the  same  conditions  because  of  their  lower  preference 
(25,  32).  Nevertheless,  the  oxalate  content  has  resulted  in 
death  of  cattle  and  horses  as  well  as  sheep.  Oxalates  tend  to 
concentrate  in  the  foliage  as  it  matures.  Soluble  oxalates  in 
leaves  on  a  dry  weight  basis  range  from  10%  to  22%(37,  41,  69). 

Other  Economic  Uses.  The  wood  is  hard,  fibrous  and  green. 
The  Hopi  Indians,  despite  the  thorns,  used  greasewood  for  fuel 
and  as  dibbling  sticks  (31,  35). 

Its  potential  for  fuel  is  of  interest.  Using  a  sample  collect- 
ed by  the  author  the  University  of  Nevada,  Reno,  animal  nutrition 
laboratory  found  that  its  dry  wood  yielded  5262  Kcal/kg. (9491  Btu/ 
lb.).  Ash  was  only  3.82%. 

A  growth  ring  technique  for  estimating  the  biomass  of  sage- 
brush-grass sites  has  been  proposed  (63).  It  may  be  applicable  to 
greasewood  sites. 

An  active  research  program  seems  warranted  to  learn  the  poten- 
tial of  greasewood  and  associated  shrubs  for  generation  of  energy. 
Prime  stands  must  be  mapped  and  relation  of  cover  to  biomass  and 
to  energy  content  must  be  determined.  Remote  sensing  techniques 
for  mapping  could  be  used  (63). 

A  method  has  been  reported  whereby  the  green  biomass  of  small 

desert  trees  can  be  estimated  using  linear  regression.  Stem 

diameter  and  height  were  entered  in  the  cone  equation.  Factors 
were  derived  for  conversion  to  dry  biomass  (23). 

Greasewood  on  high  yielding  sites  was  included  in  a  study  of 
energy  biomass  in  the  intermountain  United  States.  The  average 
biomass  of  large  greasewood  plants  was  44.8  kg.  (98.6  lb,) 
which  was  higher^than  other  species  in  the  study.  Energy  value, 
was  4584  Kcal ./m  (15206  Btu/yd),  higher  than  that  of  rubber 
rabbitbrush  (Chrysothamnus  nauseosus).  Estimated  potential 
yield  was  97,395  kg. /ha. (86780  lb. /a.)  The  mature  wood  of 
greasewood  was  higher  in  energy  and  lower  in  ash  and  sulfur  than 
the  young  twigs  (73) . 


318  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  5 

If  harvesting  equipment  embodying  mowers,  conveyors,  compactors 
and  transport  could  be  adapted  or  designed,  using  steam  power, 
greasewood  might  be  a  valuable  addition  to  a  diversified  energy 
base  in  the  Intermountain  West. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 


The  author  is  indebted,  to  several  colleagues,  especially 
Bruce  A.  Roundy,  Range  Scientist,  ARS,  for  reviewing  this 
manuscript,  and  to  Yerda  M.  Robertson  for  typing  and  encourage- 
ment during  its  preparation. 

J.  H,  Robertson 

Prof,  of  Range  Ecology  Emeritus 


1983  Robertson,  Greasewood  319 

LITERATURE  CITED 

1.  Abrams,  Leroy.   19^^.   Illustrated  flora  of  the  Jkcific 

states.   Stanford  Univ.  Press,  Vol.  11:9*^. 

2.  Anonymous  sheepman,  Gurrie,  Nevada,  June  19^3«   Personal 

communication, 

3.  Axelrod,  D.  I.   1950.   Classification  of  Madro-tertiary 

flora.   Contrib.  to  paleobotany.   Carnegie  Inst.  Pub. 
590. 

^■.        Bassett,  I.  J.  and  C.  W.  Crompton.   1970.   In  Lttve,  A. 

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320  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.  54,  No.  5 

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51.  Rickard,   W.    H.      I967.      Seasonal  soil  moisture  patterns  in 

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1983  Robertson,  Greasewood  323 

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NEW  SPECIES  OF  LEPANTHES  (ORCHIDACEAE) 

C.  A.  Luer* 


In  the  following  new  descriptions  of  species  of  Lepanthes,  the  sheaths  of 
the  secondary  stems  are  referred  to  as  "lepanthiform,"  a  concept  derived 
from  the  peculiar  morphology  of  the  sheaths  typical  for  the  genus.  The  sec- 
ondary stems  are  enclosed  by  a  series  of  tubular,  ribbed,  more  or  less  imbri- 
cating sheaths  with  oblique,  more  or  less  dilated,  margined  ostia,  and  the  ribs 
and  margined  ostia  are  grossly  or  microscopically  ciliate  or  scabrous,  occa- 
sionally glabrous.  Lepanthiform  stems  are  also  found  exclusively  in  Lepan- 
thopsis  (Cogn.)  Ames  and  Trichosalpinx  Luer. 

The  flowers  are  described  from  the  customary  resupinate  position,  al- 
though the  flowers  are  often  looked  upon  by  authors  as  non-resupinate.  The 
position  is  purely  arbitrary,  depending  upon  from  which  perspective  the 
flower  is  viewed  on  a  pendent,  horizontal,  or  erect  rachis.  When  the  flower 
reclines  upon  the  leaf,  either  dorsally  orventrally,  the  lateral  sepals  are  usuaUy 
pointed  toward  the  surface  of  the  leaf,  indicating  a  resupinate  position,  even 
though  the  leaf  may  stand  erect,  in  which  case  the  flower  becomes  non- 
resupinate  if  viewed  from  "behind,"  Therefore,  the  unpaired  middle  sepal 
is  described  as  dorsal  in  the  following  descriptions  of  new  species.  The  dorsal 
sepal  is  three-veined  unless  stated  otherwise;  the  lateral  sepjils  are  two-veined 
unless  stated  otherwise. 

The  floral  parts  are  often  vividly  multicolored,  but  these  colors  are  not 
diagnostic.  The  colors  vary  greatly  from  population  to  population,  and  even 
among  plants  within  a  limited  area.  The  colors  given  in  the  descriptions  ap- 
ply only  to  that  particular  plant.  The  degree  of  pubescence  of  the  floral  parts 
is  also  variable,  depending  upon  the  magnification.  Even  "glabrous"  parts  be- 
come cellular  pubescent  under  strong  magnification. 

The  petals  are  commonly  transversely  oblong  or  bilobed.  The  "upper" 
lobe  is  the  lobe  toward  the  dorsal  sepal,  the  "lower"  lobe  is  the  lobe  toward 
the  lateral  sepals.  The  "length"  is  the  short  distance  from  side  to  side;  the 
"width"  is  the  longer  dimension  from  tip  to  tip. 

The  lip  of  most  species  is  so  highly  specialized  that  certain  features  re- 
quire descriptive  terminology  for  standardization  of  descriptions.  In  section 
Lepanthes,  by  far  the  largest,  the  lip  is  divided  into  two  halves,  or  lobes,  each 
of  which  consists  of  a  blade,  or  lamina,  borne  by  a  more  or  less  wedge-shaped, 
erect  "connective."  The  united  bases  of  these  connectives  form  the  "body" 
with  an  anterior  "sinus,"  the  angle  of  junction;  posteriorly  the  body  is  con- 
nate to  the  under  surface  of  the  footless  column.  The  free  hmbs  of  the  con- 
nectives, one  to  either  side  of  the  column,  carry  the  blades  to  parallel  posi- 
tions beside  or  above  the  column.  The  "apex"  of  the  blade  is  the  end  nearer 
the  anther,  or  toward  the  lateral  sepals;  the  "base"  of  the  blade  is  the  end  to- 
ward the  dorsal  sepal.  The  "appendix,"  the  extremely  modified  middle  lobe 
of  the  lip,  is  a  tiny  organ,  often  intricately  sculpted,  somewhere  on  the  under 
surface  of  the  body  of  the  joined  connectives,  or  more  often  at  the  sinus.  It 
commonly  protrudes  beyond  the  sinus,  usually  beneath  the  stigma,  and 
sometimes  in  direct  contact  with  it.  The  appendix  seems  to  act  as  a  lure  for  a 
pollinator. 

*    The  Majrie  Selby  BotanicaJ  Gardens.  811  S.  Palm  Avenue,  Sarasota,  FL   33577 

325 


326 


PHYTOLOGIA 


Vol.    54,    No.    5 


The  column  may  be  slender  or  stout.  It  is  footless  except  on  rare  occa- 
sions when  a  rudimentary  foot  may  develop.  The  anther  lies  dorsally  or  apic- 
ally  with  an  apical  rostellum,  or  occasionally  subapically  with  the  rostellum 
pointed  downward.  The  stigma  may  protrude  apically  or  it  may  be  completely 
ventral.  It  may  be  round,  transverse,  or  rarely  horseshoe-shaped  as  in  Pleuro- 
thallis  or  Stelis.  The  two  poUinia  are  separate  from  the  viscidium  of  the 
rostellum.  ^.^ig^^ 

,  under  surface  of  column 


anther  appendix         'sinus 


Lepanthes  acarina  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  minuta  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  ovato  paulo  longiore,  flore  rubro 
minimo,  sepalis  serrulatis  acutis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli  laminis  lunatis,  appen- 
dice  pubescenti  sigmoidea. 

Plant  minute,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect, 
10-25  mm  long,  enclosed  by  3-6  close  lepanthiform  sheaths,  microscopically  scabrous. 
Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  elliptical-ovate,  obtuse,  7-10  mm  long,  4-6  mm  wide,  the  rounded 
base  contracted  into  a  petiole  ca.  1  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  successively  few-flowered 
raceme  3-4  mm  long,  borne  by  a  capillary  pedicel  up  to  10  mm  long;  floral  bract  and  ped- 
icel ca.  1  mm  long;  ovary  1.5  mm  long;  sepals  red,  minutely  serrulate-ciliate  on  the  mar- 
gins and  ribs  externally,  the  dorsal  sepal  broadly  triangular,  subacute,  2.3  mm  long,  2.5 
mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  acute, 
2.5  mm  long,  2.66  mm  wide  together,  connate  1  mm;  petals  red,  transversely  oblong,  0.5 
mm  long,  1.75  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  oblong,  oblique,  obtusely  angled,  the  lower  lobe 
smaller,  narrowly  oblong,  obtuse;  lip  red,  the  blades  of  the  lateral  lobes  lunate,  glabrous, 
1  mm  long,  the  connectives  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  lip,  the  appendix 
pubescent,  constricted  above  the  middle  with  the  apical  portion  deflexed;  column  stout, 
1  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

ETYMOLOGY:  From  Acarina,  the  order  of  the  mites,  in  reference  to  the  little,  red, 
prickly  flowers. 

TYPE:  ECUADOR:  PICHINCHA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  near  Rio  Silante,  Finca  Can- 
chacato,  alt.  ca.  2000  m,  28  Oct.  1979,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4399  (Holotype: 
SEL);  nearTandapi,  alt.  1300  m,  Oct,  1982,  A.  Hirtz  3  72  (SEL);  MORONA-SANTIAGO; 
cloud  forest  between  Gualaceo  and  Limon,  alt.  2650  m,  29  Oct.  1982,  C.  Luer,  R.  Esco- 
bar &  A.  Pozo  8220  (SEL),  BOLIVIA:  COCHABAMBA:  Prov.  of  Charasco:  Monte  Puncu 
along  Rio  Lope  Mendoza,  alt.  2400-2600  m,  1  Feb.  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer.  R.  Vdsquez  & 
E.  Besse  5819  (SEL);  LA  PAZ:  Prov.  of  Nor  Yungas:  west  of  Coroico,  alt.  2550  m,  27  Jan. 
1983,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer.  R.  Vasquez  &  E.  Besse  861 1  (SEL),  COLOMBIA:  ANTIOQUIA: 
Munic.  of  Cocorna:  forest  in  quebrada  near  Rio  Cocorna,  alt.  1600  m,  24  April  1983, 
C.  Luer.  R.  Escobar  et  al.  8810  (SEL);  Munic.  of  Frontino:  Alto  de  Cuevas,  alt.  2050  m, 
14  May  1983,  R.  Escobar  2602  (SEL);  Munic.  of  Jardin:  Alto  de  Ventanas,  alt.  2800  m, 
25  May  1983,  R.  Escobar  2726  (SEL);  Munic.  of  Sonson:  Tres  Cruces,  alt.  2750  m,  30 
April  1983,  C.  Luer.  R.  Escobar  et  al.  8903  (SEL);  Munic.  of  Yarumal:  Alto  de  Ventanas, 
alt.  2100  m,  20  May  1983,  R.  Escobar  2614  (SEL);  NORTE  DE  SANTANDER:  Munic. 
of  Toledo:  Alto  de  Santa  Ines,  alt.  2100  m,  23  May  1982,  C.  Luer.  R.  Escobar  &  D.  Por- 
tillo  7962  (SEL). 

This  species  is  distinguished  by  the  little,  red,  prickly  flower  held  above  the  little 
ovate  leaf.  The  sepals  are  minutely  serrulate,  the  dorsal  broadly  triangular,  the  blades  of 
the  lip  are  lunate  and  between  them  the  appendix  is  proportionately  large,  pubescent,  and 
deflexed  upon  itself  above  the  middle. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  327 

I^panthes  aculeata  l.ucr,  sp.  nov. 

Phmla  parva  caespitosa,  foliis  ovatis  acutis  superficie  scrobiculata  et  aculeata,  race- 
mo  congesto  folio  breviore,  scpalis  subaequalibus  ovatis  oblusis  ciliatis,  pelalis  transverse 
bilobatis  lobis  inaequalibus,  iabelli  laminis  falcatis,  appendice  loriformi  pubescenti. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender, 
3-9.5  cm  long,  enclo.sed  by  7-17  close,  ciliated  lepanthiform  sheaths  with  widely  dilated 
oslia.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  ovate,  acuminate,  acute,  17-27  mm  long,  10-14  mm  wide, 
the  under  surface  covered  by  numerous  small  depressions  and  excavations  with  the  ele- 
vated ridges  echinate-pubescent,  the  margins  erose-scabrous,  the  rounded  base  abruptly 
contracted  into  a  petiole  1-2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  successively  flowered 
raceme  up  to  8  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  ca.  5  mm  long  along  the  back 
surface  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  0.75  mm  long;  pedicel  1.25  mm  long;  ovary  1.5  mm  long; 
sepals  green,  suffused  with  red,  subequal,  broadly  ovate,  obtuse,  shortly  ciliate,  connate 
basally,  the  dorsal  .sepal  2  mm  long,  1.75  mm  wide,  the  lateral  sepals  1.5  mm  long,  1.75 
mm  wide;  petals  redorange,  transversely  bilobed,  0.8  mm  long,  2.66  mm  wide,  the  upper 
lobe  oblong,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  smaller,  narrowly  oblong,  oblique,  obtuse;  lip  red- 
orange,  the  blades  oblong,  1.3  mm  long,  the  apices  uncinate,  acute,  the  bases  rounded, 
the  connectives  broadly  cuneate,  lifting  the  blades  above  the  column,  connate  to  the 
under  surface  of  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  strap-shaped,  pubescent, 
hinged  to  the  sinus;  column  0.75  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

ETYMOLOGY:  From  the  Latin  acuteatus.  "covered  with  prickles,"  in  reference  to  the 
under  surface  of  the  leaf. 

TYPE:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  north  of  Baeza,  alt.  ca.  1500  m, 
10  Aug.  1978,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  A.  Hirtz  &  A.  Andreetta  3203  (Holotype:  SEL);  same 
area,  all.  1650  m,  30  Oct.  1979,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4482  (SEL);  MORONA- 
SANTIAGO:  near  Rio  Calagras,  alt.  1650  m,  4  Nov.  1982,  C.  Luer,  R.  Escobar  &  D. 
D'Alessandro  8279  (SEL). 

The  under  surfaces  of  the  leaves  of  this  species  are  minutely  but  deeply  rugose  with 
the  elevated  ridges  erose  and  spiculate.  The  sepals  are  broadly  ovate,  about  equal  in  size 
and  shape  and  shortly  ciliate.  The  connectives  of  the  lip  lift  the  blades  well  above  the  col- 
umn, and  the  hinged  appendix  protrudes  from  the  sinus. 

Lepanthes  agglutinata  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  ovato  acuminate  breviore,  racemo 
congestissimo,  sepalis  late  ovatis  breviter  acuminatis  minute  denticulatis.  petalis  transverse 
oblongis  pubescent ibus  cum  processo  mediano,  Iabelli  laminis  lunat  is  diaphan is  agglutinat is, 
connectivis  anticis,  corpore  angusto,  appendice  grandi  oblonga  ciliata  cum  glande  apicali. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  11-16  cm  long,  enclosed  by  13-16  microscopically  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths. 
Leaf  erect,  thinly  coriaceous,  purple  beneath,  ovate,  long-acuminate,  6-8.5  cm  long,  1.8- 
2.7  cm  wide,  the  rounded  base  contracted  into  a  petiole  3-4  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a 
very  congested  raceme  up  to  25  mm  long  of  successive  flowers,  borne  by  a  filiform  pedun- 
cle up  to  25  mm  long  along  the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  3.5  mm 
long;  ovary  2  mm  long,  winged;  sepals  translucent,  carinate,  with  minutely  denticulate 
margins,  acute,  shortly  acuminate,  the  dorsal  sepal  broadly  ovate-triangular,  5.5  mm  long, 
5  mm  wide,  connate  1.5  mm  basally  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  oblique,  the 
apices  diverging,  5.5  mm  long,  3  mm  wide,  connate  1.5  mm ;  petals  green  with  purple  mar- 
gin, shortly  pubescent,  transversely  oblong,  1.5  mm  long,  4.75  mm  wide,  with  a  1  mm 
long  process  from  the  outer  margin  at  the  midvein,  the  lobes  oblong,  obtuse,  the  lower 
lobe  smaller;  lip  green,  the  blades  lunate,  1.75  mm  long,  membranous,  glabrous,  adherent 
medially  over  the  column,  the  connectives  narrow,  attached  to  the  apical  portions  of  the 
blades,  the  body  narrow,  connate  to  the  base  of  the  column,  the  appendix  1  mm  long,  ob- 
long, ciliate,  concave,  truncate-retuse,  with  a  ciliated,  apical  gland;  column  1.5  mm  long, 
the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latina^g/udna^us,  "glued  together,"  referring  to  the  bladesof  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  ZAMORA-CHINCHIPE:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  near  the  river  above 
Valladolid,  alt.  ca.  2000  m,  21  Feb.  1982,  D.  D'Alessandro  165  (Holotype:  SEL)  C.  Luer 
illustr.  9075. 

This  species  is  another  relative  of  the  common  and  widespread  L.  mucronata  Lindl., 
but  L.  agglutinata  is  distinguished  by  the  larger  habit,  diverging  lateral  sepals,  narrow 
connectives  attached  near  the  apice  of  the  membranous  blades  of  the  lip,  a  narrow  body, 
and  a  large  appendix  with  an  apical  gland. 

The  lunate,  membranous  blades  of  the  lip  are  agglutinated  medially  over  the  column 
to  form  a  flat,  elliptical  surface,  a  set  of  characters  found  in  L.  mucronata  and  its  relatives. 


328  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Lepanthes  allector  Luer  &  Escobar,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva  debilis  caespitosa,  racemo  congesto  paucifloro  folio  ovato  acuminato 
breviore,  sepalis  glabris,  petalis  transverse  oblongis  pubescentibus,  labelli  laminis  oblongis 
ciliatis,  appendice  loriformi  cum  glande  bi-alata  pubescent!. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose.  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  suberect, 
2.5-5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-9  close,  minutely  scabrous  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  sub- 
erect,  thinly  coriaceous,  ovate,  acuminate,  acute,  20-30  mm  long,  8-12  mm  wide,  the 
rounded  base  contracted  into  a  petiole  2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  densely  few-flowered 
raceme  ca.  2  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  5-9  mm  long  up  the  back  side  of  the 
leaf;  floral  bract  1.3  mm  long,  pedicel  1.5  mm  long;  ovary  2.5  mm  long;  sepals  yellow, 
suffused  with  purple  basally,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  obtuse,  3.1  mm  long,  2.75 
mm  wide,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  acute,  3  mm  long,  2  mm  wide,  connate  1  mm; 
petals  yellow-orange,  suffused  with  red,  transversely  oblong,  long-pubescent,  0.66  mm 
long,  2.66  mm  wide,  the  apices  rounded;  lip  white  with  red  margin,  the  blades  ovate,  1.3 
mm  long,  the  apices  acute,  incurved,  ciliate,  the  bases  rounded,  the  connectives  broadly 
cuneate  with  an  obtuse  angle  on  the  anterior  margin,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the 
column  at  the  base,  the  appendix  a  2-winged,  pubescent  gland  carried  by  an  S-curved, 
straplike  band  from  the  sinus;  column  1  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

ETYMOLOGY :  From  the  Latin  allector,  "an  enticer,"  in  reference  to  the  intricate  appendix. 

TYPE:  ECUADOR:  MORONA-SANTIAGO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Gualaceo 
and  Limon,  alt.  2050  m,  29  Oct.  1982,  C.  Luer,  R.  Escobar  &  A.  Pozo  8229  (Holotype: 
SEL). 

This  little  species  with  an  inflorescence  shorter  than  the  ovate,  acuminate  leaf  is 
most  notable  for  the  angled  margins  of  the  connectives  of  the  lip  between  which  the  ap- 
pendix protrudes.  The  appendix  consists  of  a  pubescent,  bi-alate  gland  borne  by  an  S- 
shaped  strap. 


Lepanthes  amabilis  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  amabilis,  vaginis  caulium  longiciliatis  ostiis  valde  dilatatis,  racemis 
paucis  subdensis  folio  elliptico  brevioribus,  sepalis  denticulatis  ovatisbrevicaudatis,  petalis 
oblique  bilobis,  labelli  laminis  lunatis  convexis,  appendice  parva  pubescent!  in  sinu  fisso. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose ;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  relatively 
stout,  erect,  7-14  cm  long,  enclosed  by  9-10  long-ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths  with  widely 
dilated  ostia.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  eUiptical,  acute,  4.5-6.5  cm  long  including  the  0.5 
cm  long  petiole,  2-2.5  cm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  the  petiole.  Inflorescence  a  sub- 
dense,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  35  mm  long,  borne  behind  the  leaf  by  a  filiform 
peduncle  10-15  mm  long;  floral  bract  2.5  mm  long,  echinate;  pedicel  2.5  mm  long;  ovary 
2.5  mm  long;  sepals  cream-colored,  suffused  with  purple  along  the  midveins,  carinate- 
spiculate,  ovate,  acute,  shortly  caudate,  the  dorsal  sepal  8  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  connate 
to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1.5  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  oblique,  denticulate,  connate  3  mm,  8 
mm  long,  6  mm  wide  together;  petals  cream,  edged  in  red,  glabrous  or  cellular,  obliquely 
bilobed,  1  mm  long,  3.75  mm  wide,  the  lobes  about  equal,  oblong  with  rounded  ends;  lip 
cream,  edged  in  red,  glabrous  or  cellular,  the  blades  lunate,  convex,  2.5  mm  long,  the  apices 
narrowly  obtuse  and  incurved  beneath  the  apex  of  the  column,  the  bases  rounded,  the 
connectives  broadly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column  above  the  middle,  the  sinus  cleft,  with 
a  small,  round,  pubescent  appendix;  column  2.5  mm  long,  the  anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  amabilis,  "lovely,"  referring  to  the  pleasing  qualities  of  the 
species. 

Type:  PERU:  AMAZONAS:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Leimebamba  and  Balsas, 
alt.  3050  m,  25  Aug.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  W.  Koeniger  &  H.  Koeniger  5426  (Holotype: 
SEL). 

This  pretty  species  may  be  distinguished  by  the  unusually  hirsute  and  unusually 
dilated  lepanthiform  sheaths;  the  ovate  leaves  with  shorter  racemes;  the  relatively  large, 
purple-striped  flowers;  denticulate  sepals;  and  convex,  lunate  blades  of  the  lip  with  a 
small  appendix  in  a  cleft  sinus. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  329 

Lepanthes  antiopa  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planla  mediocris  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  ovato  acuminato  breviore,  racemo 
congeslo,  sepalis  purpureis  flavolimbatis  acuminatis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli 
laminis  obl»ngis  glabris,  appendice  vestigiali. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  4-8.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  101  2  close,  ciliate,  lepanthiform  sheaths  with  widely 
dilated  ostia.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  ovate,  acuminate,  acute,  3-5.5  cm  long,  1-2  cm  wide, 
ciliate  along  the  veins  beneath,  the  base  broadly  cuneate  into  a  petiole  1  mm  long.  Inflo- 
rescence a  congested,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  8  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform 
peduncle  5-13  mm  long  behind  the  leaf,  floral  bract  1  mm  long,  pedicel  2.5  mm  long, 
ovary  3  mm  long,  sparsely  papillose;  sepals  dark  purple,  edged  in  yellow,  the  margins  en- 
tire, spiculate  along  the  veins  externally,  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  concave,  obtuse,  acumin- 
ate, 6  mm  long,  3  mm  wide,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblong,  acute,  acuminate,  6.25  mm 
long,  2  mm  wide,  connate  1.5  mm;  petals  purple,  transversely  oblong,  1  mm  long,  3.75 
mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  subtruncate,  the  lower  lobe  narrowly  triangular,  narrowly  ob- 
tuse; lip  purple,  the  blade  oblong,  convex,  2.2  mm  long,  the  ends  rounded,  the  connec- 
tives cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  base  of  the  column,  the  appendix  re- 
duced to  a  small,  shallowly  concave,  rounded  prominence;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  an- 
ther dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:   Names  for  Nymphalis  antiopa  L.,  The  Mourning  Cloak,  a  butterfly  familiar 
to  all  who  have  ventured  into  the  temperate  forests. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  COTOPAXI:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  west  of  El  Corazon,  alt.  1200 
m,  18  Feb.  1979,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4020  (Holotype:  SEL). 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  colors  of  the  flowers  of  Lepanthes  are  extremely  varia- 
able,  the  sepals  of  this  particular  plant  are  purple  with  broad,  yellow  margins,  reminiscent 
of  the  color  pattern  of  the  Mourning  Cloak.  Otherwise,  the  species  may  be  identified  by 
the  short  racemes  of  flowers  with  acuminate  sepals,  obtuse  petals  and  lip,  and  a  vestigial 
appendix. 


Lepanthes  aries  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  oblongo  acuminato  subaequilonga, 
racemo  congesto  disticho,  sepalis  ovatis  acuminatis  serrulatis  pubescentibus,  petalis  trans- 
verse oblongis  acuminatis  ciliatis,  labelli  laminis  oblongis  basibus  elongatis  obtusis  recur- 
vatis,  appendice  minuta  trilobata  pubescenti. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  coarse.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  8-15  cm  tall,  enclosed  by  8-11  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect, 
thinly  coriaceous,  oblong,  acute,  acuminate,  5-6.5  cm  long,  1.5-1.8  cm  wide,  the  base 
cuneate  into  a  petiole  5  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  distichous  raceme  up  to  23 
mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  45  mm  long  along  the  back  of  the  leaf;  flo- 
ral bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  2.5-3.5  mm  long;  ovary  2  mm  long;  sepals  orange-brown 
with  thin  yellow  margins,  serrulate,  shortly  pubescent,  ovate,  acute,  acuminate,  the  dorsal 
sepal  7.5  mm  long,  3.75  mm  wide,  connate  basally  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lat- 
eral sepals  connate  4  mm,  7.25  mm  long,  4.5  mm  wide  together;  petals  red-brown,  ciliate, 
transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1.5  mm  long,  5  mm  wide,  the  lobes  elliptical,  acuminate, 
acute,  the  lower  lobe  smaller;  lip  rosy  brown,  the  blades  oblong,  3  mm  long,  the  apices 
short,  obtuse,  ciliate,  the  bases  long,  obtuse,  recurved,  the  connectives  broadly  cuneate, 
connate  to  the  column  above  the  middle,  the  appendix  minutely  pubescent,  3-lobed,  one 
lobe  beneath  2  lobes  above  at  the  sinus;  column  2.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the 
stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:    From  the  Latin  aries,  "a  ram,"  referring  to  the  recurved  bases  of  the  blades 
of  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  IMBABURA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest,  Selva  Alegre  west  of  Otavalo, 
alt.  2730  m,  1  May  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  A.  Hirtz  et  al.  6044  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  species  is  characterized  by  the  congested  inflorescence  nearly  as  long  as  the 
ovate,  acuminate  leaf;  the  serrulate,  pubescent  sepals;  the  petals  acuminate  at  both  ends; 
and  the  blades  of  the  lip  with  elongated,  recurved  bases. 


330  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G   I  A  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Lepanthes  auriculata  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  grandis  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  elliptico  longi-acuminato  breviore 
racemo  densifloro  longi-pedunculato,  sepalis  glabris  acuminatis,  petalis  transverse  bicunea 
tis,  labelli  laminis  ellipticis  auriculatis,  corpore  protrudenti,  appendice  oblonga  pubescenti 

Plant  large,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  coarse.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender,  20 
30  cm  tall,  enclosed  by  12-16  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  thinly 
coriaceous,  elliptical,  acute,  long-acuminate,  11-13  cm  long,  4.5-5  cm  wide,  minutely  cili 
ate  along  the  veins  beneath,  the  rounded  base  contracted  into  a  petiole  5  mm  long.  Inflo 
rescence  a  dense,  successively  flowered  raceme  at  least  to  5  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform 
peduncle  up  to  40  mm  long  behind  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  1.25  mm 
long;  ovary  4  mm  long,  narrowly  winged;  sepals  yellow,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  triangu- 
lar, acute,  acuminate,  9  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1.5  mm, 
the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  9  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  connate  3  mm,  the  apices  acute, 
acuminate,  diverging;  petals  yellow,  suffused  with  purple,  transversely  bilobed,  1.25  mm 
long,  5  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  cuneate  with  the  apex  subtruncate-rounded,  the  lower 
lobe  similar  but  smaller  and  narrower;  lip  yellow,  edged  in  purple,  the  blades  elliptical, 
longitudinally  concave,  2  mm  long,  the  apex  narrowly  rounded,  the  base  rounded,  the 
connectives  broad,  short,  oblique,  connate  to  the  midpart  of  the  under  surface  of  the  col- 
umn, the  body  protruding  and  rounded,  the  appendix  short,  oblong,  pubescent;  column 
2  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:    From  the  Latin  auriculatus,  "shaped  like  an  ear,"  in  reference  to  the  appear- 
ance of  the  blades  of  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  ZAMORA-CHINCHIPE:  epiphytic  near  the  river  above  Valladolid,  alt. 
ca.  1800  m,  21  Feb.  1983,  D.  D'Alessandro  164  (Holotype:  SEL),  C.  Luer  illustr.  9076. 

This  large  species  may  be  distinguished  from  its  numerous  relatives  by  the  large, 
long-acuminate  leaves;  the  glabrous,  acuminate  sepals;  the  cuneate,  bilobed  petals;  the 
auriculate  lobes  of  the  lip,  and  a  protruding  appendix.  The  last  feature,  however,  is  visible 
only  when  the  column  is  lifted  from  between  the  lobes  of  the  lip. 


Lepanthes  aurita  Luer  &  Escobar,   sp.  nov. 

Planta  perparva  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  ovato  obtuso  breviore,  racimo  con- 
gestissimo,  sepalis  glabris  ovatis  acutis,  petalis  grandibus  transverse  oblongis,  labello  lam- 
inis anguste  oblongis,  appendice  late  oblonga  cum  glande  terminali  parva. 

Plant  very  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  15-20  mm  long,  enclosed  by  3-4  close,  microscopically  scabrous  lepanthiform 
sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  convex,  elliptical-ovate,  obtuse,  10-12  mm  long,  6-9  mm 
wide,  the  base  broadly  cuneate  into  a  petiole  1  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  dis- 
tichous, successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  4  mm  long  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  4  mm 
long  behind  the  leaf;  floral  bract  0.5  mm  long,  minutely  spiculate;  pedicel  0.3  mm  long; 
ovary  1.5  mm  long;  sepals  yellow-orange,  glabrous,  ovate,  acute,  3.2  mm  long,  1.8  mm 
wide,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  acute,  3  mm  long,  1.5  mm  wide,  connate  only  at  the  base; 
petals  orange,  transversely  oblong,  1.2  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide,  the  apices  rounded,  with  a 
minute  apiculum  on  the  outer  margin  at  the  midvein;  lip  rose,  the  blades  narrowly  oblong, 
2  mm  long,  the  apex  acute  incurved  with  a  few  hairs,  the  base  rounded,  the  connectives 
short,  connate  to  the  base  of  the  column,  the  appendix  broadly  oblong,  pubescent,  with 
a  small,  terminal  gland;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  auritus,  "a  rabbit,  or  one  with  large  ears,"  referrring  to  the 
petals. 

Type:    ECUADOR:  LOJA:   epiphytic   in   cloud   forest  south  of  Yangana,  alt.  2400  m, 
1  Nov.  1982, C.  Luer&  R.  Escobar  8254  (Holotype:  SEL). 
Distribution:   Southern  Ecuador. 

This  little  species  with  congested  racemes  shorter  than  the  ovate  leaf  is  distinguished 
by  the  proportionately  large  petals  with  broad,  rounded  apices,  narrow  blades  of  the  lip, 
and  a  broadly  oblong  appendix  with  a  small  apical  gland. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  331 

Lepanthes  ballatrix  Luer,   sp.  nuv. 

Planla  ^randis  caespilosa,  inflorescentia  folio  anguste  ovate  acuminato  breviore,  ra- 
ceme congestissimo  disticho,  sepalo  dorsali  Iriangulari,  sepaiis  lateralibu!>  ovatis  subacutis, 
petalis  transverse  bilobatis,  labelli  laminis  lunalis  breviter  pubescentibus,  appendice  late 
triangulari  ciliata. 

Plant  medium  to  large  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  coarse.  Secondary  stems 
slender  to  stout,  10-30  cm  long,  enclosed  by  8-15  lepanthiform  sheaths,  glabrous  to  micro- 
scopically scabrous  on  the  upper  sheaths,  more  or  less  microscopically  ciliate  on  some  of 
the  stomata  of  the  lower  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  thinly  coriaceous,  glabrous  beneath,  narrowly 
ovalc-elliplical,  acute,  acuminate,  6-12  cm  long,  2.5-4  cm  wide,  the  base  rounded,  abruptly 
contracted  into  a  petiole  .3-1  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  very  congested,  distichous,  short- 
pedicellate,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  4  cm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up 
to  3  cm  long  behind  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1-1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  1-1.5  mm  long;  ovary  2 
mm  long;  sepals  yellow,  glabrous,  carinate,  the  dorsal  sepal  triangular,  acute,  7-9  mm  long, 
3.5-4.5  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  subacute, 
connate  2.5-3  mm,  7-8.5  mm  long,  5-7  mm  wide  together;  petals  yellow  to  orange  with  red 
to  purple  margins,  transversely  bilobed,  1.5-2  mm  long,  4-5  mm  wide,  the  lobes  suborbicular 
to  broadly  elliptical;  lip  orange  to  red,  more  or  less  suffused  with  purple,  the  blades  ob- 
long-lunate, 2  mm  long,  obtuse,  minutely  pubescent,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the 
column  below  the  middle,  the  appendix  triangular,  concave,  ciliate;  column  2  mm  long,  the 
anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:     From  the  Latin  ballatrix.  "a  dancer,"  in  reference  to  the  fancied  illusion  of 
the  flower. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  PICHINCHA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Tandayapa  and  Mindo, 
alt.  2320  m,  13  March  1982,  C.  Luer,  A  Hirtz  &  S.  Dalstrom  7294  (Holotype:  SEL);  IMBA- 
BURA:  above  Apuella,  alt.  2500  m,  24  Aug.  1978,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  3349  (SEL); 
Selva  Alegre,  alt.  2430  m,  1  May  1981,  C.  Luer,  A.  Hirtz  et  al.  6048  (SEL);LOJA:  west 
of  the  pass  between  Loja  and  Zamora,  alt.  2700  m,  21  Sept.  1980,  C.  Luer,  C.  H.  Dodson 
et  al.  5525  (SEL);  east  of  Yangana,  alt.  2850  m,  4  March  1982,  C.  Luer.  D.  D'Alessandro 
et  al.    7156  (SEL):  MORONA-SANTIAGO:  between  Gualaceo  and  Limon,  alt.  2600  m, 
26  Dec.  1982,  S. Dalstrom  384  SEL). 

This  large  species  is  very  similar  to  L.  elata  Rchb.  f.  and  L.  monitor,  but  L.  ballatrix 
may  be  distinguished  by  the  narrower  dorsal  sepal  and  suborbicular  lobes  of  the  petals. 
The  lip  is  essentially  the  same  as  that  of  L.  monitor. 


Lepanthes  benzingii  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  suborbiculari  breviter  acuminato 
breviore,  racemo  congestissimo  disticho,  sepaiis  acutis  glabris,  petalis  transverse  bilobatis 
sepaiis  longioribus,  labelli  laminis  oblongis  super  columnam,  appendice  quadrilobata  pubes- 
cenli,  stigmate  hippocrepiformi. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  6-9  cm  long,  enclosed  by  7-8  close,  microscopically  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf 
erect,  coriaceous,  broadly  elliptical,  3.5-4.5  cm  long,  2.2-3  cm  wide,  the  apex  shortly  acu- 
minate, abruptly  acute,  the  base  cuneate  into  a  2  mm  long  petiole.  Inflorescence  an  ex- 
tremely congested,  distichous,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  8  mm  long,  borne  by  a 
filiform  peduncle  7-15  mm  long,  usually  behind  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1  mm  long,  pubescent; 
pedicel  2  mm  long;  ovary  3.5  mm  long;  sepals  yellow-orange,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal 
ovate,  acute,  3  mm  long,  1.9  mm  wide,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  subacute,  connate 
1  mm,  2  mm  long,  2.25  mm  wide  together;  petals  yellow,  suffused  with  red,  microscopically 
pubescent,  transversely  bilobed,  1.3  mm  long,  3.2  mm  wide,  the  lobes  ovate,  obtuse,  the 
lower  lobe  smaller;  lip  red,  the  lobes  oblong  with  rounded  ends,  1.66  mm  long,  microscopi- 
cally ciliate,  in  apposition  over  the  column,  the  connectives  cuneate,  connate  to  the  base  of 
the  column,  the  appendix  pedunculate,  4-lobed,  ciliate;  column  1  mm  long,  the  anther  api- 
cal, the  stigma  subapical,  horseshoe-shaped. 

Etymology:  Named  in  honor  of  Dr.  David  Benzing,  professor  of  botany,  Oberlin  College, 
Oberlin,  Ohio,  co-discoverer  of  this  species. 

Type:  ECU.ADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  north  of  Tena,  "Cotundo,"  alt.  1130  m, 
19  June  1983,  C.  H.  Dodson.  D.  Benzing  &  A.  Hirtz  14120A  (Holotype:  SEL),  C.  Luer 
illustr.  9091. 


332  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    5A,   No.    5 

This  species  is  closely  related  to  the  concept  presently  called  L.  rotundifotia  L.  O. 
Wms.  which  is  common  on  the  western  declivity  of  the  Andes  of  Ecuador.  Lepanthes  ben- 
zingii  is  apparently  rare  at  relatively  low  altitudes  on  the  eastern  declivity.  The  apices  of 
the  round  leaves  of  L.  benzingii  are  shortly  acuminate  instead  of  obtuse,  and  the  bases  are 
broadly  cuneate  instead  of  rounded.  The  oblong  blades  of  the  lip  lie  in  apposition  over  the 
column.  The  anther  is  apical  with  the  horseshoe-shaped  stigma  subapical,  in  close  associa- 
tion with  the  appendix.  In  L.  rotundifolia  the  anther  and  apical  stigma  protrude  between 
the  blades  of  the  lip,  a  considerable  distance  from  the  appendix. 


Lepanthes  bifalcis  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva  caespitosa,  racemo  subdensifloro  folio  angusteovato  acuminato  brevi- 
ore,  sepalo  dorsali  synsepaloque  subaequalibus,  petalis  transverse  bifalcatis,  labello  ciliato 
suborbiculari-bilobato. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  suberect, 
3-8  cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-8  minutely  scabrous  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  suberect,  thinly 
coriaceous,  narrowly  ovate,  acuminate,  acute,  25-40  mm- long,  7-11  mm  wide,  the  base 
cuneate  into  a  petiole  3-4  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  weak,  subdensely  successively  flowered 
raceme  up  to  25  mm  long  including  the  capillary  peduncle,  along  the  back  of  the  leaf;  flo- 
ral bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  1.5  mm  long;  ovary  0.75  mm  long;  sepals  light  yellow,  gla- 
brous, the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  subacute,  convex,  2.5  mm  long,  1.5  mm  wide,  the  lateral 
sepals  connate  into  an  ovate  lamina  2.3  mm  long,  2  mm  wide,  the  subacute  apex  minutely 
bifid;  petals  dark  yellow,  transversely  bilobed,  forked,  0.5  mm  long,  2.3  mm  wide,  the  lobes 
equal,  falcate,  narrowly  obtuse;  lip  orange,  minutely  ciliate,  suborbicular,  0.75  mm  long, 
0.75  mm  wide,  incised  at  the  apex  into  two  rounded  lobes,  the  base  cuneate,  connate  to 
the  base  of  the  column;  column  0.8  mm  long,  the  anther  apical,  the  stigma  subapical. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  bi-,  "two-"  and /a/x,  falcis,   "a  sickle,"  in  reference  to  the 
forked,  bifalcate  petals. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  south  of  Baeza,  alt.  1900  m,  20  Feb. 
1982.  C.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  6864  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  small-flowered  species  is  notable  for  the  bifalcate  petals  and  a  bilobed,  sub- 
orbicular  lip  connate  to  the  base  of  the  column. 


Lepanthes  brachypogon  Luer.  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  longissime  acuminato  breviore, 
racemo  congesto  secundo,  sepalis  acutis  lateralibus  denticulatis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis 
pubescentibus,  labello  laminis  lunatis  ciliatis  connectivis  latissimis,  appendice  late  obtusa 
ciliata. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect, 
slender,  5-11  cm  long,  enclosed  by  8-16  lepanthiform  sheaths  with  microscopically  ciliate 
stomal  margins.  Leaf  suberect  to  horizontal,  coriaceous,  narrowly  elliptical,  2.5-6  cm  long, 
0.7-1.3  cm  wide,  the  apex  acute,  long-acuminate,  mucronate,  the  base  cuneate  into  a  peti- 
ole 1-2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  secund,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to 
15  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  12-25  mm  long  on  top  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1 
mm  long;  pedicel  and  ovary  each  1.5  mm  long;  sepals  green,  suffused  with  brown,  the  veins 
denticulate  externally,  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  acute,  concave,  4.75  mm  long,  3  mm  wide, 
connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  narrowly  ovate,  acute,  denticulate, 
5  mm  long,  1.6  mm  wide,  connate  1  mm;  petals  brown,  transversely  oblong,  pubescent, 
0.6  mm  long,  2.8  mm  wide,  the  ends  obtuse,  the  lobes  nearly  equal;  lip  brown,  the  blades 
lunate,  1.8  mm  long,  ciliate,  the  ends  acute,  the  connectives  broadly  cuneate,  the  wide 
body  connate  to  the  column  above  the  base,  the  sinus  prolonged  downward  with  a  broadly 
rounded,  ciliate  appendix;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  apical,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:   From  the  Greek  brachys     "short,"  and  pogon,     "a  beard,"  referring  to  the 
shortly  ciliate,  chinlike  labellar  body  and  appendix. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  PICHINCHA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Tandayapa  and  Mindo, 
alt.  2320  m,  13  March  1982,  C.  Luer,  A.  Hirtz  &  S.  Dalstrom  7301  (Holotype:  SEL). 

Vegetatively  this  species  looks  like  a  form  of  the  common  and  widespread  L.  mucro- 
nata  Lindl.,   but  the  flowers  prove  no  close  relationship. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  333 

1/epanthes  branchifera  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov 

Planla  parva,  racemo  Hexuoso  folio  late  elliptico  obluso  multilonijiore,  sepalo  dorsali 
synsepaloque  concavis  acutis  cum  carinis  el  marKinibus  anijusle  revolulis  leviler  erosis, 
pelalis  inaequaliter  bilobis,  lobo  superiore  setiformi,  lobo  inferiore  longi-ciliato,  labelli 
laminis  an^usle  oblon^sis,  columna  anguslissima  elon^ata. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose.  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender, 
2.5-4.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  5-6  longciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths  with  markedly  dilated 
oslia.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  broadly  elliptical,  obtuse,  1215  mm  long,  8-10  mm  wide, 
the  base  broadly  cuneate  into  the  petiole  2-3  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  weak,  lightly  flex- 
uous,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  5  cm  long  including  the  filiform  peduncle  1-2.5 
cm  long,  floral  bract  1  mm  long,  pedicel  1.25  mm  long,  ovary  1.25  mm  long,  dorsal  sepal 
peach  colored,  ovate,  acute,  shortly  acuminate,  deeply  concave,  4  mm  long,  2  mm  wide 
unspread,  the  carinae  and  the  narrowly  everted  margins  lightly  erose,  connate  to  the  lat- 
eral sepals  for  1  mm ;  lateral  sepals  yellow,  suffused  with  red  centrally,  completely  connate 
into  a  cymbiform,  ovale,  acute  lamina  3.5  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide  unexpanded,  the  carinae 
and  margins  similarly  narrowly  revolule  and  lightly  erose;  petals  yellow,  transversely  bi- 
lobed,  1  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  column  between  the  basal  and  middle 
thirds,  the  upper  lobe  seliform,lhe  lower  lobe  much  larger,  narrowly  triangular,  attenuate, 
long-ciliale  along  the  inner  margin,  lip  bright  rose,  the  blades  thin,  translucent,  glabrous, 
narrowly  oblong,  1.25  mm  long,  the  ends  oblu.se,  the  connectives  cuneate,  connate  to  the 
column  between  the  distal  and  middle  thirds,  the  appendix  a  membranous  triangle  in  the 
sinus;  column  very  slender,  2  mm  long,  minutely  pubescent,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma 
ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  branchiae,  "the  gills  of  a  fish,"  and  -fer,  "bearing,"  referring 
to  the  appearance  of  the  lower  lobes  of  the  petals. 

Type:  BOLIVIA  COCHABAMBA:  Prov.  of  Chapare:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between 
Cochabamba  and  Villa  Tunari,  alt.  1950  m,  26  Nov.  1978,  C.  Luer.  F.  Fuchs  et  al.  3506 
(Holotype:  SEL). 

The  dorsal  sepal  and  synsepal  gape  to  expose  longciliate  petals  hanging  to  either 
side  of  the  lip  like  gills  while  the  narrow,  pointed  upper  lobes  crisscross  above.  Both  the 
petals  and  the  lip  are  connected  to  the  very  long,  slender  shaft  of  the  column. 


Lepanthes  brenneri  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  minuta  caespitosa,  caulibus  secondares  brevissimis,  folio  elliptico  racemo  flex- 
uoso  breviore,  sepalis  spiculatis  acuminatis,  petalis  pubescentibus  transverse  bilobatis  lobo 
inferiore  uncinato,  labelli  laminis  ovatis  pubescentibus,  appendice  triangular!  apice  biglan- 
duloso. 

Plant  minute,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect, 
1.5-2  mm  long,  enclosed  by  2-3  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous, 
elliptical,  subacute,  apiculate,  6-8  mm  long,  2.5-3.5  mm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  a  peti- 
ole 1-1.5  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  successively  flowered,  subdense,  flexuous  raceme  up  to 
13  mm  long  including  the  filiform  peduncle  7-9  mm  long;  floral  bract  1  mm  long,  pubes- 
cent; pedicel  1.25  mm  long;  ovary  1  mm  long,  spiculate;  sepals  red-purple  with  yellow 
apices,  carinate-spiculate,  sparsely  ciliate,  triangular-ovate,  acute,  acuminate,  the  dorsal  se- 
pal 7  mm  long,  3  mm  wide,  the  lateral  sepals  7  mm  long,  2  mm  wide,  connate  1  mm,  petals 
red-orange,  transversely  oblong,  0.6  mm  long,  3  mm  wide,  minutely  pubescent,  the  upper 
lobe  oblong,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  uncinate,  acute;  lip  red-orange,  the  blades  ovate,  obtuse, 
1  mm  long,  minutely  pubescent,  the  connectives  narrowly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under 
surface  of  the  column,  the  appendix  triangular  with  the  apex  ciliate,  minutely  biglandular; 
column  1  mm  long,  the  anther  apical,  the  stigma  transverse,  ventral. 

Etymology:    Named  in  honor  of  Joe  Brenner,  formerly  of  Puyo,  Ecuador,  who  discovered 
this  species. 

Type:  ECUADOR   PASTAZA:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  ca.  10  km  north  of  Puyo,  alt.  750  m, 
21  March  1976,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  P.  Taylor  &  J.  Brenner  931  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  tiny  plant  produces  flowers  larger  than  the  leaves  on  racemes  just  surpassing  the 
leaves  in  length.  The  sepals  are  acuminate  and  spiculate,  and  the  lower  lobes  of  the  petals 
are  conspicuously  uncinate. 


334  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.   54,   No.    5 

Lepanthes  ciliolata  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva,  racemo  subdenso  flexuoso  plurifloro  folio  elliptico  subaequilongo, 
sepalis  ovatis  ciliolatis  marginibus  sepalorum  lateralium  anguste  incurvis,  petalis  transverse 
oblongis,  labelli  laminis  oblongis,  appendice  minute  bilobulata. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender, 
2.5-5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-7  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coria- 
ceous, elliptical,  acute,  15-24  mm  long  including  the  petiole  2  mm  long,  7-9  mm  wide,  the 
base  cuneate  into  the  petiole.  Inflorescence  a  successive,  subdense,  flexuous,  several- 
flowered  raceme  up  to  15  mm  long  including  the  short,  filiform  peduncle;  floral  bract  1 
mm  long;  pedicel  0.5  mm  long;  ovary  1.5  mm  long,  sepals  purple-brown,  ovate,  acute, 
shortly  acuminate,  carinate,  ciliate  pubescent  near  the  margins,  the  dorsal  sepal  4.5  mm 
long,  2.5  mm  wide,  connate  nearly  1  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  connate 
1.5  mm,  5.25  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide  together,  each  1-veined,  the  lateral  margins  narrowly 
incurved;  petals  yellow  with  brown  margins,  microscopically  cellular-pubescent,  trans- 
versely oblong,  1  mm  long,  2.75  mm  wide,  the  lobes  oblong  with  rounded  ends,  the  lower 
lobe  slightly  smaller;  lip  red-brown,  microscopically  pubescent,  the  blades  oblong,  2  mm 
long,  subacute  at  the  apices,  rounded  at  the  bases,  the  connectives  broadly  cuneate,  con- 
nate to  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  minute,  bilobulate;  column  2  mm  long, 
the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  subapical. 
Etymology:   From  the  Latin  ciliolatus,  "minutely  ciliate,"  referring  to  the  sepals. 

Type:  BOLIVIA:  COCHABAMBA:  Prov.  of  Chapare:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between 
Cochabamba  and  Villa  Tunari,  alt.  2500  m,  4  Feb.  1983,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  R.  Vasquez  & 
E.  Basse  8684  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  species  is  a  member  of  the  "complicata"  group  as  indicated  by  the  narrowly 
incurved  margins  of  the  1-veined  lateral  sepals.  Instead  of  coarsely  toothed,  the  margins 
are  finely  ciliate.  Otherwise  this  species  is  distinct  with  the  minute,  bilobulate  appendix. 

Lepanthes  columbar  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva  caespitosa,  foliis  anguste  lineari-ovatis  racemo  debili  triplolongioribus, 
flore  minuto,  sepalo  dorsali  elliptico,  uninervi,  synsepalo  late  ovato,  petalis  transverse  ob- 
longis, labello  transverse  ovato  ciliato  apice  rotundato  leviter  bilobato. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender,  4-7 
cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-8  close  lepanthiform  sheaths,  microscopically  scabrous.  Leaf  erect, 
coriaceous,  narrowly  linear-ovate,  acute,  24-27  mm  long,  5  mm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into 
a  petiole  3-4  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  successively  few-flowered  raceme  up  to  6  mm  long, 
borne  by  a  capillary  peduncle  up  to  6  mm  long  behind  the  leaf;  floral  bract  0.8  mm  long; 
pedicel  0.75  mm  long;  ovary  1  mm  long;  sepals  yellow,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  elliptical, 
obtuse,  1.8  mm  long,  1.2  mm  wide,  1-nerved,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  into  a  broadly  ovate 
lamina  1.75  mm  long  and  wide,  2-nerved,  the  obtuse  apex  minutely  notched;  petals  orange, 
transversely  oblong-bilobed,  0.4  mm  long,  1.66  mm  wide,  the  lobes  about  equal  with  the 
ends  obtuse;  lip  red-orange,  transversely  ovate-oblong,  0.7  5  mm  long,  1  mm  wide,  ciliate, 
the  apex  broadly  rounded,  shallowly  bilobed,  the  basal  lobes  rounded,  to  either  side  of  the 
column,  the  base  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column;  column  0.8  mm  long,  the 
anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  co/um  bar,  "a  pillory-like  yoke,"  in  reference  to  the  collarlike  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  PICHINCHA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Quito  and  Santo  Do- 
mingo, alt.  ca.  3000  m,  28  Oct.  1979,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4396  (Holotype:  SEL); 
NAPO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  near  Papallacta,  alt.  2500  m,  29  Oct.  1979,  C.  Luer,  J. 
Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4444  (SEL), 

This  species  is  notable  for  the  narrow,  little  leaf,  a  short  inflorescence  of  very  small 
flowers,  an  elliptical,  1-veined  dorsal  sepal,  and  a  ciliated,  transversely  ovate  lip  attached 
like  a  bib  beneath  the  column. 


Lepanthes  complicata  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris,  inflorescentia  foliis  ellipticis  breviter  acuminalis  breviore,  racemo 
disticho  densifloro,  sepalis  laciniatis  acutis,  lateribus  sepalorum  lateralium  complicatis, 
petalis  transverse  late  falcatis,  labelli  laminis  anguste  oblongis  sinu  protuberanti  appen- 
dice parva. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  335 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  relatively 
stout,  erect,  3-7  mm  long,  enclosed  by  5-8  long-ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect, 
coriaceous,  elliptical,  acute,  shortly  acuminate,  3-4  cm  long,  1.5-1.8  cm  wide,  the  base 
cuneate  into  a  2  mm  long  petiole.  Inflorescence  a  dense,  distichous,  successively  flowered 
raceme  up  to  1  5  mm  long,  borne  behind  the  leaf  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  10  mm  long; 
floral  bract  1.5  mm  long,  lightly  vcrrucose,  pedicel  1.5  mm  l<jng;  ovary  1.25  mm  long; 
sepals  translucent  light  yellow,  suffused  with  purple  along  the  veins,  with  margins  and 
carinalc  veins  laciniate,  triangular  with  short,  thickenj'd,  acuminate  apices,  the  dorsal 
sepal  5.5  mm  long,  -1  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  .sepals  for  1.5  mm,  the  lateral  sepals 
with  the  lateral  half  to  one-third  sharply  folded  over  onto  the  anterior  surface,  5.5  mm 
long,  2.25  mm  wide  unexpanded,  connate  1  mm;  petals  lemon  yellow,  essentially  gla- 
brous, at  most  microscopically  pubescent,  transversely  bilobed,  1.5  mm  long,  2.3  mm 
wide,  the  upper  lobe  transversely  falcate,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  obliquely  triangular;  lip 
dull  white  with  a  purple  stripe,  at  most  micro.scopically  pubescent,  the  blades  narrowly 
oblong,  2.1  mm  long,  the  ends  rounded,  the  apex  narrowly  incurved,  the  connectives 
short,  broadly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column  near  the  middle,  the  sinus  protuberant  and 
rounded,  with  a  minute,  round  appendix;  column  2.5  mm  long,  the  anther  and  stigma 
apical. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  compticalus.  "folded  together,"  referring  to  the  sides  of  the 
lateral  sepals. 

Type;  BOLIVIA:  COCHABAMBA;  Prov.  of  Chapare:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  be- 
tween Cochabamba  and  Villa  Tunari,  alt.  1900  m,  26  Nov.  1978,  C.  Luer.  F.  Fuchs  et  al. 
3531  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  species  is  remarkable  for  the  laciniate  sepals.  The  lateral  thirds,  or  nearly  the 
lateral  halves,  are  folded  inward  onto  the  surface  of  the  medial  halves.  A  laciniate,  ribbed 
vein  assumes  the  lateral  margin  of  the  blade,  while  the  true  margin  lies  folded  inward 
reaching  near  the  inner  margin.  Other  newly  described  species  from  Bolivia  also  exhibit 
this  character  but  to  a  less  marked  degree. 

Lepanthes  contingens  Luer.  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  foliis  heteromorphis  late  ovatis  vel  anguste  ellipticis,  ra- 
cemo  brcvi,  sepaJis  glabris  acutis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli  laminis  anguste  oblongis 
diaphanis  ad  apicem  intus  angulatis,  connectivis  erectis,  corpore  longi-unguiculato,  appen- 
dice  oblonga  pubescenti  cum  glande  terminali  processo  stigmatis  contingenti. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  casepitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect  to  suberect,  5-11  cm  long,  enclosed  by  9-11  cUiate  lepanthiform  sheaths  with  broadly 
dilated  ostia.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  variable  in  size  and  shape,  from  broadly  ovate  to  nar- 
rowly elliptical,  from  3.5  cm  long,  2  cm  wide,  to  5.5  cm  long,  1  cm  wide,  the  apex  obtuse 
to  acute,  the  base  cuneate  or  rounded,  contracted  into  a  petiole  2-3  mm  long.  Inflorescence 
a  congested,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  12  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle 
up  to  10  mm  long  up  the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  2  mm  long;  pedicel  1.25  mm  long; 
ovary  2  mm  long;  sepals  yellow  with  purple  stripes  along  the  veins,  glabrous,  the  dorsal 
sepal  triangular,  5  mm  long,  3.75  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  sub- 
acute apex  shortly  acuminate,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  2  mm  into  an  ovate,  acute  synsepal, 
5  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  the  acuminate  apices  approximate;  petals  yellow,  suffused  with  red- 
brown,  transversely  oblong,  1.1  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  with  a  small,  obtuse  angle  on  the 
margin  at  the  midvein,  the  upper  lobe  oblong,  truncate,  the  lower  lobe  smaller,  triangular, 
acute;  lip  red-brown,  the  blades  narrowly  oblong,  thin,  membranous,  transparent,  2.2  mm 
long,  acutely  angled  on  the  inner  margin  near  the  narrowly  obtuse  apex,  the  connectives 
oblong,  erect,  lifting  the  blades  above  the  column,  the  body  with  a  slender,  basal  claw  con- 
nate to  the  base  of  the  column,  the  appendix  oblong,  pubescent,  terminated  by  a  small 
gland  which  is  in  contact  with  a  strap-shaped  process  from  the  cavity  of  the  stigma;  column 
slender,  clavate,  2  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology;  From  the  Latin  contingens,  "in  contact  with,"  in  reference  to  the  process 
from  the  stigma  in  contact  with  the  apical  gland  of  the  sppendix. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  LOJA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  east  of  Yangana,  alt.  2850  m,  4  March 
1982,  C.  Luer.  D.  D'Alessandro  &  S.  Dalstrom  7152  (Holotype:  SEL);  NAPO:  epiphytic  in 
cloud  forest  near  Papallacta,  alt.  2500  m,  29  Oct.  1979,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4448 
(SEL);  COLOMBIA:  NARINO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  east  of  La  Victoria,  alt.  3200  m, 
4  Nov.  1979,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4637  (SEL). 

The  leaves  of  this  species  are  unusually  variable  in  size  and  shape,  but  most  remark- 
able is  the  appendix  which  is  in  contact  with  a  process  from  the  stigmatic  cavity,  a  phe- 
nomenon also  seen  in  L.  transparens.  The  lips  of  both  species  are  attached  to  the  base  of 
the  column  by  a  long,  slender  claw. 


336  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Lepanthes  cosmos  Luer  &  Esgobar,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva,  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  ovato  longi-acuminato  breviore  vel  paulo 
excedenti,  racemo  congesto,  sepalis  glabris  acutis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli  laminis 
ovatis  acutis,  connectivis  erectis  corpora  extus  dense  pubescenti,  appendice  pubescent! 
decorata. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  suberect, 
3-6.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  7-9  close,  minutely  scabrous  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  sub- 
erect,  coriaceous,  ovate,  2.5-4  cm  long,  1.3-1.9  cm  wide,  the  apex  long-acuminate,  the  base 
rounded,  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole  1-2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  very  congested, 
successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  15  mm  long  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  12-32  mm 
long  up  the  back  of  the  leaf,  the  inflorescence  often  surpassing  the  leaf,  floral  bract  1  mm 
long,  minutely  pubescent;  pedicel  1  mm  long;  ovary  1,5  mm  long;  sepals  yellow,  glabrous, 
the  dorsal  sepal  triangular,  acute,  4.25  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals 
for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  2.5  mm  into  a  broadly  ovate,  bifid  lamina  4.25  mm 
long,  4.25  mm  wide,  the  apices  subacute;  petals  rose,  transversely  oblong,  1  mm  long,  3.25 
mm  wide,  with  a  minute  marginal  angle  at  the  level  of  the  midvein,  the  upper  lobe  oblong, 
oblique,  subacute,  the  lower  lobes  shorter,  triangular,  acute;  lip  deep  red,  the  lobes  ovate, 
1  mm  long,  minutely  ciliate,  the  apices  acute,  the  bases  rounded,  the  connectives  broadly 
cuneate,  erect,  the  body  densely  pubescent  externally,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the 
middle  of  the  column,  the  appendix  broadly  strap-shaped,  decurved-sigmoid,  pubescent, 
with  a  terminal  pair  of  adjacent  processes;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  shaft  slender,  the  an- 
ther dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Greek  kosmos,  "an  ornament,"  referring  to  the  intricately  decorated 
appendix  of  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  MORONA-SANTIAGO :  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Gualaceo 
and  Limon,  alt.  2650  m,  29  Oct.  1982,  C.  Luer,  R.  Escobar  &  A.  Pozo  8219  (Holotype: 
SEL). 

This  species  resembles  the  larger  L.  vespertilio  Rchb.  f.,  but  L.  cosmos  may  be  dis- 
tinguished by  the  glabrous  sepals,  a  densely  pubescent  body  of  the  connectives  of  the  lip, 
and  a  remarkably  decorated  "bait,"  (the  appendix  beneath  the  stigma). 


Lepanthes  cotyledon  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  racemo  congestissimo  secundo  folio  elliptico  purpureo 
longi-acuminato  breviore,  sepalo  dorsali  late  ovato  lateralibus  semiconnatis  acutis,  petalis 
transverse  oblongis  cum  processo  filiformi  e  medio,  labelli  laminis  tenuibus  adhaerentibus 
lunatis,  basi  connectivorum  latorum  concava,  appendice  pubescenti  ligulata. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  7-12  cm  long,  enclosed  by  8-11  close,  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf 
suberect,  thinly  coriaceous,  purple  beneath,  reticulate  veined,  elliptical,  6-7  cm  long,  2.5- 
3.5  cm  wide,  the  apex  long-acuminate,  the  bases  rounded,  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole 
2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  an  extremely  congested,  secund  raceme  of  successive,  long-pedi- 
cellate flowers,  up  to  10  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  30  mm  long  along 
the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  5-6  mm  long;  ovary  2.5  mm  long;  se- 
pals brown,  minutely  ciliate,  the  dorsal  sepal  broadly  ovate,  acute,  4.75  mm  long,  4.5  mm 
wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1.5  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  lightly  acu- 
minate, acute,  5  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide,  connate  2  mm;  petals  greenish  brown,  transversely 
oblong,  bilobed,  1  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  with  a  filament  0.5  mm  long  from  the  margin 
near  the  middle,  the  dorsal  lobe  dolabriform,  the  lower  lobe  oblong,  rounded;  lip  brown, 
the  blades  thin,  glabrous,  lunate,  adherent  medially  over  the  column,  2  mm  long,  the  con- 
nective broadly  cuneate,  the  united  body  with  a  central,  cup-shaped  cavity,  connate  pos- 
teriorly to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  ciliate,  ligulate, 
concave,  acute,  nearly  1  mm  long,  the  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma 
ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  cotyledon,  "a  cup-shaped  cavity,"  referring  to  the  cavity  of 
the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  between  Tena  and  Baeza,  alt.  1000  m, 
23  Feb.  1982,  C.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  6975  (Holotype:  SEL). 

The  flowers  of  this  broad-leaved  relative  of  the  common  L.  mucronata  Lindl.  are  dis- 
tinguished by  the  semiconnate  lateral  sepals,  and  the  broad  base  of  the  united  connectives 
with  a  large,  cup-shaped  cavity. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  337 

Lepanthes  craticia  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  grandis  caespilosa,  inflorescentia  folio  elJiptico  acuminate  breviore,  raceme 
cengeste,  sepalis  glabris  acuminatis,  petalis  reniformibus,  labelli  laminis  eilipticis  cenvexis, 
appendice  oblenga  cum  glande  apicali  truncata 

Plant  large,  epiphytic,  caespitose,  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect,  12- 
25  cm  long,  enclosed  by  10-18  close,  glabrous  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  thinly 
coriaceous,  elliptical,  acuminate,  acute,  5-8  cm  long,  1.8-2.6  cm  wide,  the  base  cuneate 
into  a  petiole  3  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to 
35  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  25  mm  long  behind  the  leaf,  floral  bract 
and  pedicel  each  1.25  mm  long,  ovary  2  mm  long;  sepals  yellow,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal 
ovate,  acuminate,  acute,  1 1  mm  long,  4.75  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1.5 
mm,  the  lateral  sepals  oblong,  oblique,  1 1  mm  long,  connate  4  mm,  8  mm  wide  together, 
the  apices  acuminate  acute;  petals  yellow  with  red  margins,  transversely  bilobed,  reniform, 
2.5  mm  long,  5.5  mm  wide,  the  lobes  equal,  oblong  with  rounded  apices;  lip  orange  with 
red-orange  margins,  the  blades  glabrous,  elliptical  with  rounded  ends,  2  mm  long,  the  con- 
nectives short,  broad,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  above  the  base,  the  ap- 
pendix broadly  oblong  with  a  short,  truncate,  terminal  gland;  column  2.5  mm  long,  the 
anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  craticius,  "latticed,"  in  reference  to  the  appearance  of  the 
densely  flowered  rachis. 

Type:  ECUADOR     ZAMORA-CHIHCHIPE:  epiphytic  in  scrub  vegetation  between  Loja 

and  Zamora,  alt.  2700  m,  21  Sept.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer.  C.  Dodson  et  al.  5523  (Holo- 

type:  SEL);  same  area,  alt.  2700  m,  30  Dec.  1980,  M.  Madison  et  al.  7445  (SEL);  MORO- 

NASA 

NASANTIAGO:  between  Gualaceo  and  Limon,  alt.  2650  m,  29  Oct.  1982,  C.  Luer,  R. 

Escobar  &  A.  Pozo  8215  (SEL). 

This  large  species,  one  of  a  large  group  of  similar  species,  is  distinguished  by  the  gla- 
brous, acuminate  sepals,  reniform  petals,  glabrous  blades  of  the  lip,  and  an  oblong  appen- 
dix with  a  truncate,  apical  gland. 


Lepanthes  crista-piscis  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva,  folio  elliptico  inflorescentia  subdensa  successiviflora  longiore,  sepalis 
ovatis  breviter  acuminatis,  sepalis  lateralibus  cristatis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli 
laminis  oblongis  apice  incurvatis,  appendice  microscopica. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender, 
10-35  mm  long,  enclosed  by  4-6  shortly  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coria- 
ceous, suffused  with  purple  beneath,  elliptical,  subacute,   14-22  mm  long  including  the 

2  mm  long  petiole,  6-9  mm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  the  petiole.  Inflorescence  a  sub- 
dense,  distichous,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  7  mm  long,  borne  behind  the  leaf 
by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  6  mm  long;  floral  bract  0.75-1  mm  long,  verrucose;  pedicel 
1-1.5  mm  long;  ovary  1.75  mm  long;dorsal  sepal  purple,  lightly  spiculate  externally,  ovate, 

3  mm  long,  2  mm  wide,  the  apex  acute,  acuminate;  lateral  sepals  yellow,  spiculate  extern- 
ally especially  along  the  veins,  with  a  membranous  crest  along  the  narrowly  infolded  lat- 
eral margins,  ovate,  oblique,  concave,  connate  1  mm,  3.75  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide  together 
unexpanded.  the  apices  acute,  shortly  acuminate;  petals  transversely  oblong,  the  apices 
rounded,  microscopically  pubescent,  0.5  mm  long,  2.3  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  purple, 
the  lower  lobes  shorter,  yellow-orange;  lip  yellow-orange,  microscopically  pubescent,  the 
blades  oblong  with  acute  apices  incurved  beneath  the  apex  of  the  column,  the  connectives 
broadly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  a  microscopic  lob- 
ule, pubescent;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  crista-piscis,  "crest  of  a  fish,"  in  reference  to  the  crests  along 
the  margins  of  the  lateral  sepals. 

Type:  BOLIVIA:  LA  PAZ:  Prov.  of  Nor  Yungas;  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  east  of  Un- 
duavi,  alt.  2400  m,  22  Jan.  1983,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  R.  Vasquez  &  E.  Besse  8548  (Holo- 
type:  SEL). 

By  virtue  of  the  folded  margins  of  the  lateral  sepals  a  member  of  the  "complicata" 
group,  this  species  is  most  remarkable  for  the  finlike,  laciniate  membrane  that  runs  the 
length  of  the  margins  of  the  lateral  sepals. 


338  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,   No.    5 

Lepanthes  crista-pulli  Luer  &  Escobar,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva  caespitosa,  racemo  laxe  paucifloro  folio  anguste  elliptico  breviore, 
sepalis  acutis  pubescentibus,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli  laminis  oblongis  appendice 
extus  cristata. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect,  3-3.5 
cm  tall,  enclosed  by  3-4  minutely  scabrous  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous, 
narrowly  elliptical-ovate,  acute,  3.5-4  cm  long,  0.6-0.8  cm  wide,  the  base  narrowly  cuneate 
into  a  petiole  ca.  5  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  loose,  few-flowered,  flexuous  raceme  up  to 
2  cm  long  including  the  filiform  peduncle  along  the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  and  pedi- 
cel each  1.5  mm  long;  ovary  1  mm  long;  sepals  yellow,  suffused  with  brown  toward  the 
base,  minutely  pubescent,  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  acute,  3  mm  long,  2.33  mm  wide,  the 
lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  acute,  3  mm  long,  1.25  mm  wide,  connate  1  mm;  petals  pur- 
ple, transversely  oblong,  0.5  mm  long,  2.33  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  oblong,  obtusely 
angled  on  the  inner  margin,  the  apex  rounded,  the  lower  lobe  smaller,  narrowly  oblong, 
obtuse;  lip  purple,  the  blades  oblong,  glabrous,  1  mm  long,  the  apex  acute,  the  base  round, 
the  connectives  broadly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  near  the 
base,  the  body  with  a  forked  crest  externally,  only  slightly  protruding  beyond  the  sinus; 
column  1  mm  long,  the  anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:     From  the  Latin  cristapulli,   "the  comb  of  a  chick,"  referring  to  the  small 
crest  on  the  under  surface  of  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  MORONA-SANTIAGO:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  north  of  Gualaquiza, 
alt.  1650  m,  4  Nov.  1982,  C.  Luer,  R.  Escobar  &  D.  D'Alessandro  8280  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  small  species  may  be  identified  by  the  narrowly  elliptical  leaf  with  a  short, 
loose  inflorescence;  minutely  pubescent  sepals;  and  a  forked  crest  on  the  outside  of  the 
body  of  the  united  connectives  of  the  lip. 


Lepanthes  dalessandroi  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  foliis  anguste  oblongis,  racemo  longissimo,  floribus 
grandibus,  sepalis  acuminatis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli  laminis  late  lunatis  pubes- 
centibus, appendice  membranacea  pubescenti. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect, 
slender  to  comparatively  stout,  3-8  cm  long,  enclosed  by  3-6  close  lepanthiform  sheaths, 
microscopically  scabrous.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  narrowly  oblong,  subacute  to  obtuse, 
1.5-4  cm  long,  0.7-10  mm  wide,  the  base  narrowly  cuneate  into  a  petiole  3-5  mm  long. 
Inflorescence  a  progressively  lengthening,  subflexuous,  loosely  flowered  raceme  up  to 
33  cm  long  including  the  peduncle  9-12.5  cm  long;  flowers  large,  orange-brown,  2-3  open 
simultaneously;  floral  bract  2.5  mm  long;  pedicel  4-5  mm  long;  ovary  1.5  mm  long;  sepals 
glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  triangular,  13-15  mm  long,  8-9  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral 
sepals  for  3  mm,  the  acute  apex  attenuated  into  a  4  mm  long  tail,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate, 
oblique,  connate  7  mm  into  an  ovate,  bifurcated  lamina  1415  mm  long,  9-10  mm  wide, 
the  attenuated  apices  curved  outward;  petals  microscopically  pubescent,  transversely  ob- 
long, bilobed,  1  mm  long,  3  mm  wide,  the  lobes  equal,  oblong,  obtuse;  laminae  of  the  lip 
broadly  lunate,  convex,  pubescent,  1  mm  long,  0.5  mm  wide,  the  connective  cuneate, 
connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  a  membranous, 
pubescent  web  in  the  sinus,  with  a  minute  apiculum;  column  1.5  mm  long,  stout,  the  an- 
ther and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:     Named  in  honor  of  Dennis  D'Alessandro  of  Vilcabamba,  Ecuador,  who  ori- 
ginally discovered  this  species. 

Type;  ECUADOR:    LOJA:   epiphytic   in   cloud   forest   south  of  Yangana,  alt.   2400  m, 
3  March  1982.  C.  Luer.  D.  OAlessandro  &  S.  Dalstrom  7087  (Holotvne:  SET.V 

The  exceptionally  large,  orange-brown  flowers  of  this  species  are  borne,  two  or 
three  simultaneously,  in  a  very  long  raceme.  The  blades  of  the  lip  are  lunate,  convex,  and 
pubescent. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  339 

lA-panthes  deleastes  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Pliinta  parva  cacspilosa,  folio  ovalo  acute  racemo  congesto  longiore,  sepalis  sub- 
acutis  minute  ciliatis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labello  laminis  obloni;is,  connectivis 
brevibus,  appendice  pubescent!  oblonga  cum  glande  ovoidea. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender, 
2-6  cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-8  close,  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect, 
thinly  coriaceous,  ovate,  2..'J-3.5  cm  long,  1.6-1.8  cm  wide,  the  apex  acute  to  shortly  acu- 
minate, the  rounded  base  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole  2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a 
congested,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  5  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle 
up  to  12  mm  long  along  the  backofthe  leaf;  floral  bract  1  mm  long;  pedicel  0.5  mm  long; 
ovary  1,5  mm  long;  sepals  purple  with  a  yellow  border,  microscopically  ciliate,  the  dorsal 
sepal  ovate,  subacute,  3  mm  long,  2.1  mm  wide,  connate  0.5  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals, 
the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  acute,  3.1  mm  long,  1.5  mm  wide,  connate  0.5  mm;  pet- 
als orange  with  a  red  border,  transversely  oblong,  1  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide,  the  apices 
round,  with  a  small,  obtuse  angle  on  the  outer  margin  at  the  midvein,  the  upper  lobe 
larger;  lip  purple,  the  blades  oblong  with  obtu.se  ends,  1.5  mm  long,  ciliate  on  inner  mar- 
gin, the  connectives  short,  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  above  the 
base,  the  appendix  pubescent,  oblong,  with  an  ovoid  gland  below  the  apex;  column  1.5 
mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Greek  deleastes.  "a  baiter,"  alluding  to  the  presumed  function  of 
the  appendix  of  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  north  of  Tena,  alt.  1100  m,  22  Feb. 
1982,  C.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  6937  (Holotvpe:  SEL);  MORONA-SANTIAGO:  north  of  Gua- 
laquiza,alt.  1700  m,  29  Dec.  1982,  S.  Dalstrom  399  (SEL);  ZAMORA-CHINCHIPE:  Que- 
brada  Honda,  alt.  1100  m,  18  Jan.  1982,  D.  D'Alessandro  122  (SEL). 

This  not-too-remarkable  species  may  be  identified  by  the  ovate  leaves;  the  short, 
congested  raceme  of  flowers  with  subacute  sepals;  comparatively  large,  transversely  ob- 
long petals;  and  a  lip  with  oblong  blades,  short  connectives,  and  an  oblong  appendix  with 
an  ovoid  gland  extending  to  the  apex  from  the  under  surface  of  the  appendix. 


Lepanthes  delphax  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  racemo  laxo  folio  oblongo  breviter  acuminato  sub- 
aequilongo,  sepalis  glabris,  sepalo  dorsali  late  ovato  lateralibus  falcatis,  petalis  transverse 
oblongis,  labelli  laminis  ovatis  apicibus  incurvatis  acutis  ciliatis,  appendice  brevi  rotun- 
data  pubescent!. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  coarse.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  5-12  cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-10  close  lepanthiform  sheaths,  microscopically  ciliate. 
Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  oblong,  3-5  cm  long,  1-1.5  cm  wide,  the  subacute  to  obtuse  apex 
abruptly  contracted  into  a  5-10  mm  long  acumen,  the  base  cuneate  into  a  petiole  4-5  mm 
long.  Inflorescence  a  loose,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  4  cm  long  including  the 
filiform  peduncle;  floral  bract  and  pedicel  each  1.25  mm  long;  ovary  2  mm  long;  sepals 
light  yellow,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  broadly  ovate,  concave,  obtuse,  3.25  mm  long,  3 
mm  wide  expanded,  connate  1  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  broadly  oblong, 
falcate,  acute,  3  mm  long,  2  mm  wide,  connate  1  mm,  1 -veined;  petals  orange,  edged  in 
purple,  transversely  oblong,  0.9  mm  long,  2.9  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  oblong  with  the 
apex  rounded,  the  lower  lobe  smaller,  oblong,  oblique,  obtuse;  lip  orange,  the  blades 
ovate,  1.5  mm  long,  the  apices  acute,  incurved,  ciliate,  the  connectives  broadly  cuneate, 
connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  below  the  middle,  the  appendix  a  short, 
rounded,  pubescent  organ  protruding  from  the  sinus;  column  1.25  mm  long,  stout,  the 
anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:     From  the  Greek  delphax.   "a  little   pig,"  in  reference  to  the  apical  stigma 
looking  like  the  nose  of  a  pig. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  COTOPAXI:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Angamarca  and  Cora- 
zon.alt.  3000  m,  17  Feb.  1979,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  3986  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  species  is  characterized  by  a  loose  raceme  about  as  long  as  the  oblong,  abruptly 
acuminate  leaf,  a  broadly  ovate  dorsal  sepal,  broadly  falcate  lateral  sepals,  ovate  blades 
of  the  lip  with  falcate,  ciliate  apices  and  a  short,  rounded,  pubescent  appendix.  Common 
to  the  members  of  this  group,  the  anther  and  stigma  are  apical.  In  this  species  the  large, 
rounded,  stigmatic  cavity  protrudes  from  between  the  apices  of  the  blades  of  the  lip. 


340  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G   I  A  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Lepanthes  dictyota  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  plus  minusve  horizontalis  vel  pendens,  foliis  ovatis  acuminatis 
valde  reticulatis  racemo  subdense  flexuoso  longioribus,  sepalo  dorsali  late  ovato  obtuso, 
sepalis  lateralibus  anguste  ovatis  obliquis  acutis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli  laminis 
oblongis,  appendice  scopiformi. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  densely  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems 
slender,  erect,  horizontal  to  pendent,  4-8  cm  long,  enclosed  by  8-10  minutely  ciliate  le- 
panthiform  sheaths  with  thin  dilated  ostia.  Leaf  erect  with  the  stem,  thinly  coriaceous, 
with  purple  reticulations  on  both  surfaces,  suffused  with  purple  beneath,  ovate,  acute, 
acuminate,  4-5.5  cm  long  including  the  2-4  mm  long  petiole,  1.6-2.1  cm  wide,  the  rounded 
base  contracted  into  the  petiole.  Inflorescence  a  subdense,  distichous,  flexuous,  succes- 
sively flowered  raceme  up  to  20  mm  long,  borne  behind  the  leaf  by  a  filiform  peduncle 
9-11  mm  long;  floral  bract  1.5-2  mm  long,  echinate;  pedicel  2  mm  long,  ovary  2  mm  long, 
crested;  sepals  yellow,  suffused  with  purple  centrally,  the  veins  and  margins  minutely  den- 
ticulate, the  dorsal  sepal  broadly  ovate,  obtuse,  3.5  mm  long,  2.5-3  mm  wide,  connate  to 
the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  narrowly  ovate,  oblique,  acute,  connate  1 
mm,  3.5  mm  long,  3.25  mm  wide  together;  petals  red-orange,  minutely  pubescent,  trans- 
versely oblong,  1  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide,  the  ends  rounded,  lip  yellow,  suffused  with  red- 
orange,  glabrous,  narrowly  oblong,  1.7  5  mm  long,  the  ends  rounded,  the  connectives 
short,  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  ligulate,  hinged  at 
the  acute  sinus,  pubescent,  with  a  brushlike  apical  segment;  column  2  mm  long,  the  an- 
ther dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  from  the  Greek  diktyotos,  "reticulated,"  referring  to  the  purple- 
netted  veins. 

Type:  BOLIVIA:  COCHABAMBA:  Prov.  of  Charasco:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  below 
Monte  Puncu  along  Rio  Lope  Mendoza,  alt.  2400  m,  1  Feb.  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  R. 
Vasquez  &  E.  Besse  5820  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  handsome  species  may  be  recognized  by  the  purple-reticulated,  ovate,  acumi- 
nate leaves;  short,  flexuous  inflorescences;  narrowly  oblong  blades  of  the  lip;  and  a  brush- 
like appendix. 


Lepanthes  dodsonii  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parvula  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  cordato  obtuso  reticulato  pubescenti 
breviore,  racemo  congesto,  sepalis  denticulatis  breviacuminatis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis 
pubescentibus,  labelli  laminis  oblongis,  connectivis  posticis  brevibus,  appendice  plana 
oblonga  ciliata. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect, 
15-30  mm  long,  enclosed  by  8-12  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths,  widely  dilated  at  the  ostia. 
Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  pubescent-ciliate,  reticulate-rugose,  the  elevated  veins  red  on  green, 
ovate-cordate,  obtuse,  15-18  mm  long,  13-17  mm  wide,  the  base  broadly  cordate,  abruptly 
contracted  into  a  petiole  1  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  successively  flowered  ra- 
ceme up  to  5  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  6  mm  long,  on  the  dorsum  of  the 
leaf;  floral  bract  1  mm  long;  pedicel  1.5  mm  long;  ovary  1  mm  long,  ciliate  on  the  ribs; 
sepals  green,  suffused  with  red  centrally,  denticulate,  carinate-ciliate  along  the  veins  ex- 
ternally, the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  obtuse,  shortly  acuminate,  5  mm  long,  3.25  mm  wide, 
connate  1  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  connate  2  mm,  6  mm 
long,  4  mm  wide  together,  the  acute  apices  attenuate ;  petals  green,  pubescent,  transversely 
oblong,  0.8  mm  long,  4.5  mm  wide,  the  ends  acute,  the  lower  lobe  smaller,  narrower;  lip 
red,  the  blades  narrowly  oblong,  1.75  mm  long,  angled  on  the  inner  margin  below  the 
apex,  minutely  ciliate,  the  connectives  narrowly  cuneate,  from  the  posterior  portion  of 
the  blade,  connate  to  the  base  of  the  column,  the  appendix  flat,  oblong,  ciliate;  column 
1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:    Named  in  honor  of  Calaway  H.  Dodson,  investigator  of  the  flora  of  Ecuador, 
who  discovered  this  species. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  EL  ORO:  epiphytic  in  an  orange  tree  10  km  west  of  Pinas,  alt.  900  m, 
19  July  1979,  C.  H.  Dodson  et  al.  8475  (Holotype:  SEL),  C.  Luer  illustr.  9085. 

This  species  is  remarkable  for  the  small,  bluntly  cordate,  rugose-pubescent  leaves 
with  red  veins.  Borne  on  top  of  the  leaf  is  the  green  flower  with  denticulate  sepals  with 
acuminate  apices,  pubescent  petals,  narrow  blades  of  the  lip,  and  an  oblong,  ciliate 
appendix. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  341 

Lepanthes  doloma  I-uer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris,  folio  ovato  leviter  acuminate  racemis  pluribus  congestis  lonKiore, 
sepalis  late  ovatis  denticulalis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli  laminis  late  oblongis 
apice  longiciliatis,  connectivis  longissimis,  appendice  grandi  loriformi  ciliata. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose.  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  2-9  cm  long,  enclosed  by  5-8  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous, 
suffused  with  purple  beneath,  ovate,  acute,  lightly  acuminate,  apiculate,  3.5-4.5  cm  long, 
1-1.7  cm  wide,  the  broadly  cuneate  base  contracted  into  a  2  mm  long  petiole.  Inflores- 
cence racemose,  several  congested,  distichous,  successively  flowered  racemes  up  to  12  mm 
long,  borne  behind  the  leaf  by  filiform  peduncles  8- 15  mm  long; floral  bract  1.25  mm  long, 
sparsely  ciliate;  pedicel  2  mm  long;  ovary  2  mm  long,  sparsely  papillose;  sepals  translucent 
orange,  broadly  ovate,  shortly  acuminate,  carinate,  the  carinae  and  margins  conspicuously 
denticulate,  the  dorsal  sepal  5  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1.5 
mm,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  2.5  mm,  5  mm  long,  5  mm  wide  togerther;  petals  orange, 
edged  in  red-orange,  microscopically  pubescent,  transversely  oblong,  1.4  mm  long,  3.75 
mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  acute,  smaller;  lip  bright  rose,  edged  in 
orange,  the  blades  broadly  oblong,  1.25  mm  long,  slightly  concave  with  rounded  ends,  the 
anterior  margins  long-ciliale,  otherwise  microscopically  pubescent,  the  connectives  long, 
oblong,  elevating  the  blades  above  the  column,  connate  to  the  base  of  the  column,  the 
appendix  large,  straplike,  concave  at  the  attachment  to  the  sinus,  convex  and  ciliate  above 
with  an  apical  lobule ;  column  1  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Greek  doloma.  "a  bait,  a  decoy,"  referring  to  the  probable  role  of 
the  appendix. 

Type:  BOLIVIA:  COCHABAMBA:  Prov.  of  Chapare:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  along  the 
road  to  Tablas,  alt.  2500  m,  9  Feb.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  R.  Vasquez  5171  (Holotype: 
SEL);  between  Cochabamba  and  Villa  Tunari,  alt.  1900  m,  26  Nov.  1978,  C.  Luer,  F. 
Fuchset  at.  3534  (SEL). 

The  sepals  of  this  species  with  racemes  shorter  than  the  ovate,  acuminate  leaves 
are  broadly  ovate  and  conspicuously  denticulate;  the  petals  are  large  and  transverse;  the 
oblong  blades  of  the  lip,  borne  above  the  column  by  long  connectives,  are  ciliate  apically; 
and  the  appendix  is  large,  straplike,  and  ciliate. 


Lepanthes  electilis  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Species  haec  L.  etegantutae  Schltr.  affinis  sed  foliis  angustis  acuminatis,  floribus 
minoribus,  labelli  laminis  glabris  et  appendice  late  triangulari  ciliata  differt. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  enclosed  by  5-9  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  nar- 
rowly elliptical,  acute,  acuminate,  5-7.5  cm  long,  2-2.8  cm  wide,  the  base  broadly  cuneate 
into  a  pedicel  5  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  progressively  lengthening,  loose,  lightly  flexuous 
raceme  up  to  15  cm  long,  1-2  flowers  open  simultaneously,  1-2  racemes  produced  simul- 
taneously; sepals  rosy  white,  glabrous,  triangular,  acute,  the  dorsal  sepal  5.5  mm  long, 
3.25  mm  wide,  connate  basally  for  1  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  connate 
3  mm  into  a  triangular,  bifid  lamina  5.5  mm  long,  4  mm  wide  together,  the  apices  acute; 
petals  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  dark  purple, 
ovate,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  yellow,  smaller,  triangular,  acute;  lip  dark  rose,  the  blades 
lunate,  convex,  1.66  mm  long,  glabrous,  the  ends  rounded,  the  connectives  short,  cuneate, 
connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  near  the  middle,  the  appendix  triangular,  cili- 
ate; column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  apical,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:    From  the  Latin  electilis,  "choice,"  alluding  to  the  attractive  qualities  of  the 
plant. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  east  of  Salcedo,  alt.  3000  m,  12  Nov. 
1979,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4766  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  species  with  long,  subflexuous  racemes  is  related  to  L.  elegantula,  but  the  leaves 
of  L.  electilis  are  narrow  and  acuminate,  the  flowers  are  half  the  size,  and  the  appendix  of 
the  lip  is  short,  broadly  triangular  and  ciliate. 


342  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G  I  A  Vol.    5A,   No.    5 

Lepanthes  eumeces  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  perpusilla  caespitosa,  caulibus  secundariis  abbreviatis  folio  elliptico  obtuse 
brevioribus,  racemo  longissimo  flexibili  flexuoso,  sepalis  apiculatis  spiculatis,  petalis 
transverse  anguste  oblongis,  labelli  laminis  oblongis  antice  longiciliatis. 

Plant  very  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose ;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  abbreviated, 
2-4  mm  long,  enclosed  by  2-3  microscopically  ciliate,  ribbed  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coria- 
ceous, elliptical,  obtuse,  8-15  mm  long  including  a  petiole  1-5  mm  long,  5-7  mm  wide,  the 
base  cuneate.  Inflorescence  a  progressively  lengthening,  flexible,  lightly  flexuous  raceme 
up  to  17  cm  long  including  the  filiform  peduncle,  2-3  flowers  open  simultaneously;  floral 
bract  1-1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  1.5-2  mm  long;  ovary  0.75  mm  long,  spiculate;  sepals  dull 
red-brown,  the  margins  and  carinae  along  the  veins  irregularly  spiculate,  the  dorsal  sepal 
ovate,  obtuse,  apiculate,  connate  2  mm,  3.75  mm  long,  3.75  mm  wide  together,  each  1- 
veined;  petals  transversely  narrowly  oblong,  0.5  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide,  the  lobes  sub- 
equal,  lightly  curved,  obtuse;  blades  of  the  lip  narrowly  oblong  with  rounded  ends,  the 
apical  end  sparsely  long-ciliate,  the  connectives  short,  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  sur- 
face of  the  basal  third  of  the  column,  the  appendix  minute,  double,  pubescent,  the  ante- 
rior of  the  two  parts  clavate,  protruding  beyond  the  sinus;  column  0.75  mm  long,  the  an- 
ther dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:   From  the  Greek  eumekes,  "of  good  length,"  referring  to  the  exceedingly 
long  inflorescence. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  between  Tena  and  Baeza,  alt.  1000  m, 
23  Feb.  1982,  C.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  6974  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  tiny  species  produces  a  long,  flexible,  lightly  flexuous  (zigzag)  raceme  of  small, 
spiculate  flowers. 


Lepanthes  falcata  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva,  racemo  laxo  folio  elliptico  subaequilongo,  sepalis  libris  attenuatis 
spiculatis,  petalis  anguste  transverse  oblongis,  labelli  lobis  falcatis  columnam  amplectenti- 
bus,  appendice  minuta. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender, 
10-30  mm  long,  enclosed  by  4-6  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  suf- 
fused with  purple  beneath,  elliptical,  subacute  to  obtuse,  11-18  mm  long  including  a  peti- 
ole 2-3  mm  long,  5-11  mm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  the  petiole.  Inflore.scence  a  loose, 
fractiflex,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  13  mm  long  including  the  peduncle,  often 
with  2  flowers  open  simultaneously;  floral  bract  1-1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  1-1.5  mm  long; 
ovary  1  mm  long,  more  or  less  minutely  papillose;  sepals  brown,  widely  spread,  free  nearly 
to  the  base,  spiculate  externally  along  the  thickened  veins,  the  dorsal  sepal  narrowly  ovate, 
acute,  acuminate,  4.5  mm  long,  1-1.5  mm  wide,  the  lateral  sepals  narrowly  triangular, 
acute,  curved  upward,  4.5-5  mm  long,  0.8-1  mm  wide,  1-veined,  the  outer  margins  nar- 
rowly and  lightly  incurved;  petals  brown,  microscopically  pubescent,  transversely  oblong, 
0.2-0.3  mm  long,  1.5-2.75  mm  wide,  the  lobes  narrowly  obtuse;  lip  brown,  bilobed,  1.3 
mm  long,  the  lobes  falcate,  surrounding  the  column,  the  acute  apices  incurved  beneath 
the  apex  of  the  column,  minutely  pubescent  along  the  inner  margins,  the  sinus  acute 
with  a  minute,  triangular  appendix;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:   From  the  Latin  falcatus,  "sickle-shaped,"  in  reference  to  the  lobes  of  the  lip. 

Type:  BOLIVIA:  LA  PAZ:  Prov.  of  Nor  Yungas:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  west  of  Coroico, 
alt.  2800  m,  4  Feb.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  R.  Vasquez  &  R.  Lara  5113  (Holotype:  SEL); 

COCHABAMBA:  Prov.  of  Chapare:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Cochabamba  and 
Villa  Tunari,  alt.  1500  m,  26  Nov.  1978,  C.  Luer.  F.  Fuchs  et  al.  3582  (SEL). 

The  sepals  of  this  small  species  are  attenuate  and  widely  spread,  the  petals  are  slen- 
der and  transverse,  and  the  falcate  lobes  of  the  lip  embrace  the  column. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  3A3 

Lepanthes  flexuosa  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planla  perpusilla  ceaspitosa,  racemo  fracliflexo  crasso  foliis  ellipticis  mullilon^iore, 
(lore  firandi,  sepalis  rubris  spiculatis  acuminatis,  petalis  transverse  bilobatis,  labelli  laminis 
subfalcatis  pro  (lore  f;randibus,  appendice  cxtus  oblonga  pubescenti. 

Plant  very  small,  epiphytic  to  terrestrial,  caespitose;  roots  proportionately  coarse. 
Secondary  stem  erect,  stout,  5-15  mm  Ujng,  enclosed  by  3-4  close  lepanthiform  sheaths, 
minutely  scabrous.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  purple  beneath,  the  blade  elliptical,  obtuse, 
6-11  mm  long,  5-9  mm  wide,  the  base  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole  3-4  mm  long.  In- 
florescence a  gradually  lengthening,  successively  flowered,  fractiflex  raceme  up  to  7  cm 
long  including  the  peduncle,  the  rachis  and  peduncle  comparatively  stout;  floral  bract 
1.5-2  mm  long;  pedicel  1  5  mm  long;  ovary  1.25  mm  long;  flowers  red,  comparatively 
large  for  the  plant;  sepals  narrowly  triangular,  acuminate,  acute,  minutely  spiculate  along 
the  margins  and  carinate  nerves  externally,  the  dorsal  sepal  6.5  mm  long,  3  mm  wide,  con- 
nate to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  6.5  mm  long,  2.25  mm  wide,  connate 
1  mm;  petals  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide,  the  lobes  equal, 
lightly  recurved  with  rounded  ends;  blades  of  the  lip  oblong-subfalcate,  3.5  mm  long,  sur- 
rounding the  column  just  below  its  apex  with  the  rounded  apices  overlapping,  the  bases 
also  rounded,  the  connectives  short,  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column 
above  the  middle,  the  appendix  a  longitudinal,  oblong  body  beneath  the  united  connec- 
tives, the  pubescent  apex  barely  protruding  beyond  the  sinus;  column  2.5  mm  long,  the 
anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:    From  the  Latin  flexuosus,  "zigzag,"  referring  to  the  fractiflex  rachis. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  MORONA-SANTIAGO:  terrestrial  on  the  road  cut  east  of  Sigsig,  alt. 
2850  m,  6  May  1981,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  et  at.  6110  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  very  small  species  is  notable  for  the  comparatively  stout,  fractiflex  raceme 
much  longer  than  the  leaves.  The  red  flowers  are  comparatively  large  for  the  size  of  the 
plant,  and  the  lip  is  comparatively  large  for  the  size  of  the  flower. 


Lepanthes  focalis  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  folio  oblongo  apice  in  acumen  angustum  abrupte  con- 
stricto,  racemo  congestissimo  folio  dimidio  breviore,  sepalis  glabris  acuminatis,  petalis 
transverse  longi-oblongis,  labello  pubescenti  transverse  cordato  columnam  aplectenti 
apice  rotundato. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  stout, 
erect,  4-11.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  7-12  ciliated  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coria- 
ceous, oblong,  3.5-6.5  cm  long,  1.6-3.2  cm  wide,  the  rounded  apex  abruptly  constricted 
into  a  narrow  acumen  ca.  1  cm  long,  the  rounded  base  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole 
ca.  4  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  successively  flowered,  markedly  congested  raceme  up  to  8 
mm  long,  borne  by  a  slender  peduncle  up  to  15  mm  long,  the  peduncles  in  a  fascicle  along 
the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1.25  mm  long;  pedicel  1  mm  long;  ovary  1.25  mm  long; 
sepals  glabrous  (color  notes  lost),  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  acuminate,  acute,  7  mm  long,  3.5 
mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  3  mm  into  a 
broadly  ovate  bifid  lamina,  6.5  mm  long,  5.75  mm  wide,  the  acute  apices  oblique,  diverg- 
ing; petals  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1.25  mm  long,  5  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  ovate, 
obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  longer,  narrowly  linear,  obtuse,  minutely  pubescent;  lip  fleshy, 
pubescent,  transversely  cordate,  1.5  mm  long,  1.75  mm  wide,  the  broadly  rounded  apex 
minutely  apiculate,  the  obtuse,  concave  basal  lobes  embracing  the  column,  the  base  con- 
nate to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  near  the  middle;  column  cylindrical,  1.75  mm 
long,  the  anther  apical,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  focale,  "a  muffler  to  keep  the  neck  warm,"  referring  to  the 
appearance  of  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  LOJA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  west  of  the  pass  between  Loja  and 
Zamora,  alt.  2700  m,  21  Sept.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  C.  H.  Dodson  et  at.  5524  (Holo- 
type: SEL). 

An  abruptly  constricted  apex  of  an  oblong  leaf  is  seen  in  several  other  species,  but 
the  transversely  cordate,  pubescent  lip  embracing  the  column  is  unusual. 


344  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,   No.    5 

Lepanthes  fusiformis  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva  caespitosa,  foliis  linearifusiformibus  crassissimis  vel  anguste  teretibus 
racemo  fractiflexo  congesto  duplolongioribus,  sepalis  ovatis  acutis  ciliatis,  petalis  trans- 
verse oblongis,  labelli  laminis  oblongis  acutis,  appendice  spathulata. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  very  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect, 
3-7  cm  long,  enclosed  by  4-6  close  lepanthiform  sheaths,  minutely  ciliate.  Leaf  erect,  nar- 
rowly ovate,  fleshy-thickened  to  terete,  acute,  20-43  mm  long,  5-6  mm  vi^ide,  4-5  mm  thick, 
the  base  narrowly  cuneate  into  a  2-3  mm  long  petiole.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  lightly 
zigzag,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  10  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up 
to  18  mm  long;  floral  bract  1  mm  long;  pedicel  1.5  mm  long;  ovary  2.5  mm  long;  sepals 
red  with  yellow  margins,  ciliate,  ovate,  acute,  the  dorsal  sepal  3.66  mm  long,  2  mm  wide, 
the  lateral  sepals  oblique,  3  mm  long,  1.6  mm  wide,  connate  to  about  the  middle;  petals 
red,  edged  in  yellow,  transversely  oblong,  0.66  mm  long,  2.66  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe 
longer,  the  apices  rounded;  lip  red-orange,  the  blades  of  the  lateral  lobes  oblong,  1.2  mm 
long,  the  apices  acute,  the  bases  rounded,  the  connectives  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under 
surface  of  the  column,  the  appendix  spathulate,  0.5  mm  long,  protruding  beyond  the 
sinus;  column  1  mm  long,  the  anther  apical,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:   From  the  Latin  fusiformis,  "narrowly  ellipsoid,"  referring  to  the  leaf. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  LOJA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  south  of  Yangana,  alt.  2450  m,  12 
May  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer.  D.  D'Alessandro  et  al.  6210  (Holotype:  SEL);  same  area, 
3  March  1982,  C.  Luer  et  al.  7086  (SEL). 

Lepanthes  fusiformis  grows  locally  abundantly  near  the  locality  where  L.  teres  was 
found.  They  are  the  only  two  known  species  in  the  genus  with  terete  leaves.  This  species 
is  distinguished  by  the  ciliated  dorsal  sepal,  narrow  petals,  and  the  proportionately  large, 
spathulate  appendix. 

Lepanthes  glaberrima  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris,  racemo  disticho  densifloro  foliis  anguste  ovatis  multibreviore, 
floribus  parvis  longipedicellatis,  ovario  longissimo  sepalis  ovatis  obtusis,  petalis  grandibus 
glaberrimis  transverse  bilobis  incisis,  labelli  laminis  glaberrimis  ellipticis,  appendice  pubes- 
centi  cum  glande  apicali. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  2.5-6.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  5-6  close,  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf 
erect,  coriaceous,  narrowly  ovate,  acute,  lightly  acuminate,  2-4  cm  long,  0.9-1.2  cm  wide, 
the  base  cuneate  into  the  petiole  1.5  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  distichous,  suc- 
cessively flowered  raceme  up  to  6  mm  long,  borne  behind  the  leaf  by  a  filiform  peduncle 
4-7  mm  long;  floral  bract  1  mm  long;  pedicel  2  mm  long,  ovary  slender,  4  mm  long;  sepals 
red-orange,  edged  in  yellow,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  broadly  ovate,  2.5  mm  long,  2.25 
mm  wide,  the  apex  obtuse  to  rounded,  the  base  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  0.5  mm, 
the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  subacute,  connate  1.5  mm,  2.2  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide 
together;  petals  orange,  glabrous,  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1  mm  long,  2.75  mm  wide, 
the  outer  margin  incised  near  the  middle,  the  lobes  triangular-oblong  with  rounded  ends, 
the  lower  lobe  smaller;  lip  purple,  tinged  with  orange,  the  blades  elliptical,  glabrous,  1.75 
mm  long,  the  ends  rounded,  the  connectives  narrowly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column 
above  the  base,  the  appendix  ovoid,  pubescent,  hinged  at  the  sinus,  with  an  ovoid  apical 
gland;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  glaberrimus,  "very  smooth,  without  hair,"  referring  to  the 
petals  and  blades  of  the  lip. 

Type;  BOLIVIA:  COCHABAMBA:  Prov,  of  Chapare:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  on  the 
road  to  Tablas,  alt.  2500  m,  9  Feb.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  R.  Vasquez  5181  (Holotype: 
SEL). 

This  species  is  notable  for  the  small,  long-pedicellate  flowers  produced  in  a  con- 
gested, distichous  raceme.  The  petals  and  blades  of  the  lip  are  proportionately  large  and 
completely  glabrous.  The  petals  are  incised  on  the  outer  margin  between  the  upper  and 
middle  lobes. 


Lepanthes  grypha  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  anguste  elliptico  acuminato  breviore, 
racemo  congesto,  sepalis  glabris  breviter  acuminatis,  petalis  grandibus  transverse  oblongis, 
labelli  laminis  oblongis  planis  ciliatis,  connectivis  angustis  erectis,  corpore  subsphaerico 
pubescenti  appendice  antice  conica  pubescenti. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  345 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
weak,  5-11.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  9-11  microscopically  scabrous  lepanthiform  sheaths. 
Leaf  suberect  to  horizontal,  thinly  coriaceous,  narrowly  elliptical-ovate,  acute,  acuminate, 
4.5-7  cm  long,  1-1.5  cm  wide,  the  base  cuneato  into  a  petiole  2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a 
very  congested,  succe.ssively  flowered  raceme  to  1  5  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle 
10-25  mm  long  on  top  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long,  pedicel  2  mm  long,  ovary  2 
mm  long;  sepals  light  green,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  triangular,  1  mm  long,  2.75  mm 
wide,  the  apex  acute,  shortly  acuminate,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  connate  1  .5  mm, 
3.5  mm  long,  3.75  mm  wide  together,  the  margins  minutely  sub-irregular,  the  acute,  acu- 
minate apices  close;  petals  greenish  brown,  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1  25  mm  long, 
3.5  mm  wide,  shortly  pubescent,  the  lobes  oblong,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  smaller;  lip 
greenish  brown,  the  blades  flat,  oblong,  1.66  mm  long,  ciliate,  adherent  to  each  other 
medially  over  the  column,  the  ends  rounded,  the  connectives  narrowly  cuneate,  erect, 
lifting  the  blades  above  the  column,  connate  to  the  column  at  the  base,  the  body  thick- 
ened, subspherical,  pubescent,  the  appendix  conical,  pubescent,  protruding  from  the 
front  of  the  body;  column  2  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etmology:  Named  for  a  grypha,  a  mythological  creature,  half  lion  and  half  eagle,  re- 
ferring to  the  appearance  of  the  central  apparatus. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  PICHINCHA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  San  Juan  and  Chiri- 
boga,  alt.ca.  2000  m,  7  March  1982,  A.  Hirtz  and  X.  Leon  2i0  (Holotype:  SEL),  C.  Luer 
illustr.  9073. 

This  species  with  a  short,  congested  inflorescence  lying  upon  the  narrowly  acuminate 
leaf  is  notable  for  the  large  pubescent  petals,  flat,  winglike  blades  of  the  lip  elevated  over 
the  column  by  narrow  connectives  from  a  pubescent,  subspherical  body  with  the  conical 
appendix  protruding  from  the  front  surface. 


Lepanthes  hirtzii  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  grandis  caespitosa,  racemo  subdenso  multifloro  folio  elliptico  acuminato 
aequilongo  vel  paulo  longiore,  floribus  grandibus,  sepalis  in  cupulam  non  profundam  con- 
natis,  petalis  transverse  rhomboideis,  labelli  laminis  ellipticis  ciliatis,  appendice  minutis- 
sima  triglandulosa  glabra. 

Plant  large,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender;  secondary  stems  erect,  slender  to 
stout,  7-30  cm  long,  enclosed  by  8-15  close,  glabrous  to  microscopically  scabrous  lepan- 
thiform sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  thinly  coriaceous,  elliptical  8-12  cm  long,  2-4.5  cm  wide,  the 
apex  long-acuminate,  the  base  broadly  cuneate  into  a  petiole  5-7  mm  long.  Inflorescence 
a  densely  to  subdensely  flowered  raceme  8-10  cm  long,  rarely  to  1  4  cm  long,  including 
the  peduncle  5-8  cm  long,  2-3  flowers  open  simultaneously;  floral  bract  2  mm  long;  pedi- 
cel 3  mm  long;  ovary  1.5  mm  long,  curved,  narrowly  winged;  sepals  orange  with  brown  or 
purple  veins,  carinate,  ovate,  acute,  acuminate,  minutely  ciliate  or  glabrous,  the  dorsal 
sepal  11  mm  long,  9  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  4  mm  to  form  a  shallow 
cup,  the  margins  of  all  3  sepals  more  or  less  erose  and  dilated  above  the  angles  of  conna- 
tion,  the  lateral  sepals  oblique,  11  mm  long,  6  mm  wide,  connate  3  mm;  petals  yellow, 
more  or  less  suffused  with  brown  or  purple,  transversely  elliptical,  1.25  mm  long,  2.75 
mm  wide,  minutely  pubescent,  the  lobes  about  equal,  subtriangular,  obtuse;  lip  orange  to 
brown,  the  blades  elliptical,  2  mm  long,  minutely  ciliate,  the  ends  rounded,  the  connec- 
tives broadly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  very  small 
with  a  rounded  gland  bearing  a  pair  of  even  smaller  terminal  rounded  glands,  glabrous; 
column  2  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  Named  in  honor  of  Alexander  C.  Hirtz  of  Quito,  Ecuador,  who  has  discov- 
ered innumerable  species  of  orchids  new  to  science. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  PICHINCHA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Quito  and  Tandapi, 
alt.  ca.  3000  m,  28  Oct.  1979,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4394  (Holotype:  SEL);  LOJA: 
epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  at  the  pass  north  of  Loja,  alt.  3100  m,  30  Oct.  1982,  C.  Luer  & 
R.  Escobar  8246  (SEL);  cloud  forest  east  of  Yangana,  alt.  2650  m,  4  Mar.  1982,  C.  Luer 
et  at.  7145  (SEL);  COLOMBIA:  PUTUMAYO:  cloud  forest  between  La  Cocha  and  Sibun- 
doy,alt.  ca.  2700  m,  30  July  1978,  C   Luer  et  al.  3118  (SEL). 

This  large  species  mav  be  distinguished  from  L.  nanegalensis  Rchb.  f.  and  L.  rhombi- 
petala  Schltr  by  the  larger  flowers  with  the  sepals  connate  into  a  shallow  cup.  The  sepals 
are  more  or  less  erose  and  dilated  above  their  connation.  The  petals  are  without  the  mi- 
nute appendages  on  the  outer  margin  as  in  L.  rhombipetala.  Differing  from  both,  the  ap- 
pendix of  L.  hirtzii  is  a  minute  glabrous  gland  bearing  a  pair  of  even  more  minute  rounded 
terminal  glands. 


346  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Lepanthes  homotaxis  Luer  &  Escobar,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  perparva  caespitosa,  racemo  subdensifloro  folio  elliptico  acuto  subaequi- 
longo,  flore  minuto,  sepalo  dorsali  synsepaloque  ovatis  similibus,  petalis  bifurcatis  lobis 
triangularibus  similibus,  labello  pubescenti  transverse  bilobato  rotundato. 

Plant  very  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose ;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect, 
2-3  cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-9  close,  microscopically  scabrous  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf 
erect,  thinly  coriaceous,  elliptical,  acute,  13-18  mm  long,  7-9  mm  wide,  the  base  obtuse 
to  rounded,  contracted  into  a  petiole  1  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  subdense,  successively 
flowered  raceme  up  to  16  mm  long  including  the  filiform  peduncle,  along  the  back  side 
of  the  leaf;  flowers  very  small,  light  yellow-green,  glabrous;  floral  bract  less  than  1  mm 
long;  pedicel  1  mm  long;  ovary  1  mm  long;  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  acute,  1.75  mm  long,  1.2 
mm  wide,  1-veined,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  into  a  synsepal  similar  to  the  dorsal  sepal, 
ovate,  the  acute  apex  minutely  notched,  1.75  mm  long,  1.25  mm  wide;  petals  forked,  bi- 
lobed,  0.6  mm  long,  1  mm  wide,  the  lobes  equal,  oblong-triangular,  subacute,  spreading 
90  ;  lip  transversely  cordate-bilobed,  0.6  mm  long,  0.9  mm  wide,  pubescent,  the  apex 
cleft  with  a  minute  apiculum  in  the  sinus,  the  apices  and  bases  of  the  lobes  rounded,  the 
lower  lobes  flanking  the  column,  the  base  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  middle  of 
the  column;  column  0.8  mm  long,  cylindrical,  the  anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:  From  the  Greek  homo-,  "similar,"  and  taxis,  "an  arrangement,"  referring 
to  the  similarity  of  the  halves  of  the  floral  parts. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  MORON A-SANTI AGO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Gualaceo 
and  Limon,  alt.  2050  m,  29  Oct.  1982,  C.  Luer,  R.  Escobar  &  A.  Pozo  8228  (Holotype: 
SEL). 

This  tiny  species  is  characterized  by  the  minute  flowers  with  a  similar  dorsal  sepal 
and  synsepal,  similar  upper  and  lower  lobes  of  the  forked  petals,  and  a  pubescent,  trans- 
versely bilobed  lip  joined  to  the  middle  of  a  cylindrical  column. 


Lepanthes  ictalurus  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  pusilla  caespitosa,  caulibus  secondariis  foliis  orbicularibus  multilongioribus, 
racemo  elongato  fractiflexo,  sepalis  anguste  triangularibus  spiculatis,  lobo  inferiore  peta- 
lorum  attenuato  pubescenti,  lobo  superiore  brevi  truncate,  labelli  laminis  ellipticis  apice 
in  caudam  filiformem  abrupte  attenuato. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  suberect, 
2.5-6  cm  long,  enclosed  by  5-8  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  broadly 
elliptical  to  suborbicular,  12-15  mm  long,  8-11  mm  wide,  the  apex  obtuse  to  rounded,  the 
rounded  base  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole  ca.  2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  progres- 
sively lengthening,  successively  flowered,  fractiflex  raceme  up  to  7  cm  long  including  the 
filiform  peduncle;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  2.5  mm  long;  ovary  1.5  mm  long,  with 
serrulate  wings;  sepals  purple  with  yellow  margins,  spiculate  along  the  edges  and  carinate 
nerves  externally,  the  dorsal  sepal  narrowly  triangular,  concave,  7  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide, 
connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  5  mm  into  an  ovate,  bi- 
fid lamina  7  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide,  the  apices  approximate,  acute;  petals  yellow,  suf- 
fused with  rose,  pubescent,  markedly  unequally  transversely  bilobed,  0.75  mm  long,  4.5 
mm  wide,  the  upper  lobes  short,  more  or  less  truncate,  incurved  into  apposition  over  the 
column,  the  lower  lobes  attenuate,  linear  triangular;  lip  yellow,  suffused  with  rose,  the 
blades  elliptical,  glabrous,  2  mm  long,  the  apex  of  each  abruptly  contracted  into  a  fili- 
form appendage  2  mm  long,  the  connectives  short,  broadly  rectangular,  connate  to  the 
under  surface  of  the  column  above  the  middle,  the  sinus  pubescent  with  the  appendix 
reduced  to  a  minute  apiculum;  column  slender,  2.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stig- 
ma ventral. 

Etymology:    Named  for  the  genus  Ictalurus,  the  genus  of  the  common  catfish. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  LOJA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  east  of  Yangana,  alt.  2650  m,  4  March 
1982,  C.  Luer,  D.  D'Alessandro  &  S.  Dalstrom  7151  (Holotype:  SEL);  south  of  Yangana, 
alt.  2400  m,  22  Sept.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  H.  H.  Morgan  5530  (SEL). 

The  column  of  this  species  is  long  and  slender.  Between  the  middle  and  lower 
thirds  the  petals  are  attached;  between  the  middle  and  upper  thirds  the  lip  is  attached. 
The  short  upper  lobes  of  the  petals  meet  over  the  column  while  the  attenuated  lower 
lobes  descend  behind  the  lip  and  protrude  below.  The  apices  of  the  blades  of  the  lip  are 
contracted  into  equally  long,  filiform  appendages.  These  four  descending  tails  of  the 
petals  and  lip  resemble  the  barbels  of  a  catfish. 


1983  Luer,  Hev/  species  347 

Lepanthes  illex  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planla  mediocris  caespilosa,  racemo  sublaxo  folio  antjuste  cUiplico  acuminalo  brevi- 
ore,  sepalo  dorsali  synscpaloque  anguste  ovatis  aculis  similibus  minute  pubescentibus  ciJi- 
alis,  petalis  transverse  panduriformibus  parvulis,  labelli  laminis  ovatis  ^Isbris  appendice 
pedunculala  ovata  ciliata. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  coarse.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  6-10  cm  long,  enclosed  by  7-8  f;labrous  to  microscopically  scabrous  lepanthiform 
sheaths.  Leaf  thinly  coriaceous,  erect,  narrowly  elliptical,  acute,  acuminate,  4.5-7.5  cm 
lontj,  1.5-1.8  cm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  the  petiole  4  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  suc- 
cessive, sublaxly  flowered  raceme  up  to  6  cm  long  including  the  filiform  peduncle  behind 
the  leaf;  floral  bract  2  mm  long,  pedicel  1.5  mm  long;  ovary  2  mm  long,  irregularly  erose- 
winged;  sepals  yellow,  suffused  with  purple  centrally,  carinate-ciliate  externally,  the  mar- 
gins microscopically  ciliate,  microscopically  pubescent  within,  the  dorsal  sepal  triangular, 
acute,  10  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  connate  basally  for  1.5  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lat- 
eral sepals  connate  6  mm  into  an  ovate,  shortly  bifid  lamina  9.5  mm  long,  5  mm  wide,  the 
apices  acute;  petals  orange,  suffused  with  purple  medially,  transversely  panduriform,  0.6 
mm  long,  2  mm  wide,  the  lobes  ovate,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  slightly  smaller;  lip  bright 
purple,  the  blades  oblong-ovate,  1.5  mm  long,  glabrous,  the  apices  subacute,  the  bases 
rounded,  the  connectives  broadly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column  above  the  base,  the 
appendix  ovate,  ciliate,  pedunculate;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma 
ventral. 

Etymology:     From  the  Latin  illex,  "seductive,"  in  allusion  to  the  presumed  attractive 
function  of  the  appendix. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  CARCHI:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  above  El  Carmelo,  alt.  3200  m, 
17  May  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  A.  Hirtz  et  al.  6263  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  species  may  be  recognized  by  the  sublax  raceme  of  large,  succesive  flowers 
shorter  than  the  acuminate  leaf.  The  petals  and  lip  are  comparatively  small,  the  petals 
transversely  pandurate,  the  appendix  of  the  lip  is  a  small,  ovate,  ciliate,  pedunculated  gland. 


Lepanthes  inamoena  Luer,  sp.  nov, 

Planta  parva  caespitosa,  racemo  gracili  folio  ovato  breviore,  flore  parvo  flavo,  sepalo 
dorsali  et  synsepalo  ovatis  aequalibus,  petalis  transverse  bilobatis,  labelli  lobis  falcatis 
minute  ciliatis,  appendice  minuta  acuta  pubescenti. 

Plant  small  or  nearly  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary 
stems  slender,  erect,  3-7. .5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-10  close,  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform 
sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  narrowly  ovate,  acute,  2.5-4.5  cm  long,  1-1.5  cm  wide, 
the  base  cuneate  into  a  3-4  mm  long  petiole.  Inflorescence  a  weak,  successively  flowered, 
subdense  raceme,  up  to  3  cm  long,  erect  behind  the  leaf,  the  filiform  peduncle  from  a 
node  near  the  apex  of  the  secondary  stem ;  floral  bract  1  mm  long;  pedicel  0.75  mm  long; 
ovary  0.75  mm  long;  sepals  translucent  yellow,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  acute,  2.5 
mm  long,  1.75  mm  wide,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  into  an  ovate,  narrowly  obtuse  lamina 
2.25  mm  long,  1.75  mm  wide;  petals  transversely  oblong  bilobed,  0.75  mm  long,  2  mm 
wide,  the  apices  rounded,  the  upper  lobe  slightly  larger  than  the  lower;  blades  of  the  lip 
falcate,  1  mm  long,  minutely  ciliate,  the  apices  acute,  the  bases  rounded,  the  connectives 
narrowly  cuneate,  the  attachment  near  the  base  of  the  lobes,  connate  to  the  under  sur- 
face of  the  column,  the  appendix  a  minute,  pubescent  apiculum  in  the  sinus;  column 
scarcely  1  mm  long,  the  anther  and  stigma  apical. 

Etymology:    From  the  Latin  inamoenus,  "not  pretty,"  referring  to  the  drab,  little  flower. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  MORONA-SANTIAGO:  epiphytic  in  tall  forest  near  Rio  Calagras,  alt. 
1600  m,  19  Sept.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  C.  H.  Dodson  et  al.  5501  (Holotype:  SEL). 

Vegetatively  this  species  is  not  remarkable,  bordering  between  medium  and  small  in 
size.  The  bilabiate,  yellow  flowers  are  among  the  smallest  and  least  showy  of  the  genus 
noted  for  its  intricate  flowers.  The  dorsal  sepal  and  synsepal  are  similar  and  the  two  lobes 
of  the  petals  are  also  similar  in  size  and  shape. 


3A8  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,   No.    5 

Lepanthes  incisa  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris,  folio  anguste  ovato  acuminato  racemis  congestis  distichis  duplo- 
longiore,  floribus  parvis,  sepalis  ovatis  obtusis,  petalis  grandibus  pubescentibus  transverse 
bilobis  incisis,  labelli  laminis  oblongis,  connectivis  angustis  elongatis,  appendice  pubes- 
cent! quadrilobata. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  densely  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems 
slender,  erect,  4.9  cm  long,  enclosed  by  5-8  close,  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths. 
Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  narrowly  ovate-elliptic,  acute,  acuminate,  3-5  cm  long,  1-1.3  cm 
wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  a  3  mm  long  petiole.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  distichous, 
successively  many-flowered  raceme  up  to  13  mm  long,  borne  behind  the  leaf  by  a  filiform 
peduncle  6-10  mm  long;  floral  bract  1.5-2  mm  long;  pedicel  2  mm  long;  ovary  2.5  mm 
long;  sepals  yellow-orange,  suffused  with  purple  basally,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  broadly 
ovate,  subacute,  2.8  mm  long,  2  mm  wide,  connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  0.5  mm,  the 
lateral  sepals  ovate,  connate  to  above  the  middle,  2.2  mm  long,  2.4  mm  wide  together, 
the  apices  obtuse;  petals  yellow-orange,  suffused  with  purple  at  the  base,  minutely  pubes- 
cent, transversely  elliptical,  bUobed,  1  mm  long,  4  mm  wide,  the  outer  margin  incised 
near  the  middle,  the  lobes  obtusely  triangular  with  rounded  ends,  the  lower  lobe  smaller; 
lip  red-orange,  ceOular  pubescent,  the  blades  oblong  with  rounded  ends,  1.5  mm  long,  the 
connectives  narrow,  lifting  the  blades  above  the  column,  the  narrow  body  connate  to  the 
column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  pubescent,  4-lobed,  hinged  at  the  sinus  in  contact 
with  the  rostellum,  column  1  mm  long,  the  anther  apical,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:   From  the  Latin  incisus,  "cut  into,"  referring  to  the  incision  on  the  petals. 

Type:  BOLIVIA:  LA  PAZ:  Prov.  of  Inquisivi:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Inquisivi 
and  Circuata,  alt.  2550  m,  27  Jan.  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  R.  Vasquez  &  E.  Besse  5796 
(Holotype:  SEL). 

The  species  seems  superficially  similar  to  L.  glaberrima,  even  the  petals  being  similar 
in  size  and  shape  with  the  incision  on  the  outer  margin.  However,  the  petals  of  L.  incisa 
are  pubescent;  the  connectives  of  the  lip  are  long,  elevating  the  blades  above  a  short  col- 
umn; and  the  appendix  is  four-lobed. 


Lepanthes  intonsa  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva  caespitosa,  foliis  ovatis  acuminatis  racemo  congesto  longioribus,  sepalis 
minute  cUiatis  ovatis  obtusis,  petalis  grandibus  transverse  bilobatis,  labeUi  lobis  oblongis 
apice  sparsim  longicQiatis,  connectivis  oblongis  elongatis,  appendice  loriformi  sigmoidea. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect, 
2.5-4.5  mm  long,  enclosed  by  5-6  close,  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect, 
thinly  coriaceous,  ovate,  acuminate,  acute,  2.5-3  cm  long,  1.2-1.7  cm  wide,  the  rounded 
base  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole  2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  successively 
flowered  raceme  up  to  10  mm  long,  borne  by  a  fOiform  peduncle  up  to  8  mm  long  along 
the  back  side  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1-1.25  mm  long,  pedicel  1.5-2  mm  long;  ovary  2.5 
mm  long;  sepals  yellow,  suffused  with  rose,  minutely  ciliate,  broadly  ovate,  obtuse,  the 
dorsal  sepal  3.5  mm  long,  3.1  mm  wide,  connate  0.5  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral 
sepals  oblique,  3  mm  long,  2.25  mm  wide,  connate  1  mm;  petals  yellow,  suffused  with 
orange,  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1.25  mm  long,  3.75  mm  wide,  the  outer  margin 
acutely  angled  at  the  junction  between  the  oblong,  apically  rounded  upper  lobe  and  the 
smaller  oblique,  obtuse  lower  lobe;  lip  yellow,  suffused  with  rose,  the  blades  oblong,  1.3 
mm  long,  both  ends  obtuse,  the  apical  margin  with  a  few,  very  long  cilia,  the  connectives 
oblong,  elongated,  lifting  the  blades  above  the  column,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of 
the  column  near  the  middle,  the  appendix  straplike,  terminating  in  a  small  gland,  S- 
shaped,  shortly  pubescent,  hinged  to  the  sinus;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  apical, 
the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:    From  the  Latin  intonsus.  "unshaven,"  referring  to  the  long  hairs  on  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  LOJA :  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  south  of  Yangana,  alt.  2450  m,  12 
May  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  D.  DAlessandro  et  al.  6212  (Holotype:  SEL);  same  area, 
3  March  1982,  C.  Luer  et  al.  7088  (SEL). 

The  most  distinguishing  feature  of  this  species  is  the  lip  with  the  pair  of  oblong 
lobes  long-ciliate  anteriorly,  held  high  above  the  column  by  elongated  connectives. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  349 

Lepanthes  intricata  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planla  parva  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  ovalo  acuminate  breviore,  racemo  con- 
tjesto,  sepalis  aculis,  petalis  tranversale  oblongis,  labeili  laminis  subfalcatis,  connectivis 
anguste  cunealis,  appendice  inlricata  glande  pedunculata  multilobala. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect, 
4.5-7.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  8-11  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths,  the  ostia  mark- 
edly dilated.  Leaf  erect,  thinly  coriaceous,  ovate,  lightly  acuminate,  acute,  4-5  cm  long, 
1-1.5  cm  wide,  the  rounded  base  contracted  into  a  petiole  2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a 
congested,  fractiflex,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  8  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform 
peduncle  up  to  12  mm  long  behind  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1  mm  long;  pedicel  1  mm  long; 
ovary  1.5  mm  long;  sepals  greenish  white,  suffused  with  rose  centrally,  carinale  externally 
along  the  veins,  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  shortly  acuminate,  acute,  4  mm  long,  2.3  mm  wide, 
the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  acute,  4  mm  long,  1.75  mm  wide,  connate  0.5  mm;  petals 
yellow-orange,  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1  mm  long,  2.75  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe 
oblong,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  half  as  large,  triangular,  obtuse ;  lip  rose-purple,  the  laminae 
narrowly  subfalcate,  1.5  mm  long,  the  connectives  short,  narrowly  cuneate,  connate  to 
the  under  surface  of  the  column  in  the  lower  third,  the  appendix  proportionately  large, 
pubescent,  ligulate,  with  a  more  or  less  4-lobed,  pedunculated,  apical  gland;  column  1.5 
mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:     From  the  Latin  intricalus,  "intricate,"  referring  to  the  appendix  of  the  lip. 

Type:  ECUADOR:   LOJA :  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  south  of  Yangana,  alt.  2450  m,  12 
May  1981,  C.  Luer.  J.  Luer.  D.  D'Alessandro  et  al.  6209  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  species  is  distinguished  by  the  narrow,  subfalcate  blades  of  the  lip  with  short, 
narrow  connectives,  and  the  intricately  sculptured  appendix.  From  the  apex  of  a  pubes- 
cent, tonguelike  stalk,  the  terminal,  more  or  less  4-lobed  gland  is  delicately  attached  by  a 
nearly  invisible  thread. 


Lepanthes  iricolor  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  perparva  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  ovato  reticulato  breviore,  racemo 
congcsto,  floribus  parvis  multicoloribus,  sepalis  ovatis  breviter  acuminatis  denticulatis,  pe- 
talis grandibus  transverse  oblongis,  labeili  laminis  ovatis  appendice  parva  triangulari  ciliata. 

Plant  very  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect, 
0.5-2.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  4-6  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous, 
purple-reticulate,  ovate,  subacute,  7-14  mm  long,  5-9  mm  wide,  the  broadly  cuneate  base 
contracted  into  a  twisted  petiole  1  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested  raceme  of  succes- 
sive flowers, up  to  3  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  3  mm  long,  along  the 
back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1  mm  long;  pedicel  0.7  5  mm  long;  ovary  1  mm  long,  nar- 
rowly winged;  sepals  ovale,  acute,  shortly  acuminate,  denticulate,  connate  basally,  the 
dorsal  sepal  purple  with  green  margins,  2.1  mm  long,  1.3  mm  wide,  the  lateral  sepals  ob- 
lique, yellow  with  the  midvein  red,  2  mm  long,  1.1  mm  wide;  petals  orange,  transversely 
oblong,  0.6  mm  long,  2  mm  wide,  obtusely  angled  on  the  outer  margin  at  the  midvein, 
the  upper  lobe  oblong,  truncate,  the  lower  lobe  triangular,  obtuse;  lip  orange,  the  blades 
ovate,  1.25  mm  long,  the  apices  acute,  the  bases  rounded,  glabrous,  the  connectives 
broadly  cuneate,  ciliate,  connate  to  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  small,  tri- 
angular, ciliate;  column  1  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:    From  the  Latin  iricolor,  "with  the  colors  of  the  rainbow,"  referring  to  the 
multiple  colors  of  the  flowers. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  near  Rio  Jalunyacu  west  of  Tena,  alt. 
600  m,  21  Feb.  1982,  C.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  6895  (Holotype:  SEL). 

The  multiple,  brilliant  colors  of  the  flowers  of  this  little  species  with  purple-reticu- 
lated leaves  are  probably  variable  as  they  are  in  other  species.  The  flowers  are  tiny  with 
denticulate  sepals  and  proportionately  large  petals. 


350  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Lepanthes  jubata  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  acuminato  breviore,  racemo  congesto, 
sepalis  breviter  laciniatis  ovatis  breviter  acuminatis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli 
laminis  longiciliatis  super  columnam,  appendice  minute  bilobata. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  suberect, 
2-5.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  5-8  minutely  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  suberect,  coria- 
ceous, ovate,  acuminate,  acute,  10-28  mm  long,  7-9  mm  wide,  the  margins  smooth  or  mi- 
nutely undulate,  the  rounded  base  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole  ca.  2  mm  long.  In- 
florescence a  congested,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  5  mm  long,  borne  by  a  fili- 
form peduncle  up  to  12  mm  long  up  the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1-1.25  mm  long, 
minutely  spiculate;  pedicel  0.5-1  mm  long;  ovary  0.5-1.5  mm  long,  echinate;  flower  parts 
red  to  yellow;  sepals  ovate,  shortly  acuminate,  the  margins  shortly  laciniate,  the  carinae 
along  the  nerves  spiculate,  the  dorsal  sepal  acute,  3-4  mm  long,  1.8-2.25  mm  wide,  connate 
basally,  the  lateral  sepals  oblique,  obtuse,  connate  to  about  the  middle,  3-4  mm  long, 
3.5-4  mm  wide  together;  petals  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1  mm  long,  3.25-4.25  mm 
long,  both  lobes  obtuse,  the  upper  longer;  laminae  of  the  lip  oblong,  oblique,  the  margins 
with  long,  straight  hairs,  the  connectives  broad,  rectangular,  erect,  lifting  the  laminae 
above  the  column,  connate  to  the  base  of  the  column,  the  sinus  broadly  rounded  and  pro- 
truding with  a  minute,  pedunculated,  bilobed  appendix;  column  1  mm  long,  the  anther 
dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  jubatus,  "crested  with  hairs,"  referring  to  the  long  hairs  on 
the  margins  of  the  laminae  of  the  lip. 

Type;  ECUADOR:  NAPO;  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  near  Papallacta,  alt.  2500  m,  29  Oct. 
1979,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4447  (Holotype:  SEL);  southeast  of  El  Carmelo,  alt. 
2050  m,  17  May  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer,  A.  Hirtz  et  al.  6309  (SEL). 

This  species  may  be  distinguished  by  the  minutely  laciniate  sepals,  large  petals,  and 
the  long-ciliate  borders  of  the  blades  of  the  lip  which  are  lifted  over  the  column  by  erect 
connectives.  The  margins  of  the  leaves  of  4447  are  smooth,  the  margins  of  the  leaves  of 
6309  are  minutely  undulate. 


Lepanthes  lloensis  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  grandis  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  oblongo  acuminato  breviore,  racemo 
congesto,  sepalo  dorsali  triangular!  acuto,  synsepalo  transverse  ovato  apicibus  obtusis, 
labelli  laminis  lunatis  convexis,  appendice  minutissima. 

Plant  large,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  erect,  slender, 
9-22  cm  long,  enclosed  by  8-15  minutely  scabrous  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  thinly 
coriaceous,  ovate-oblong,  acuminate,  acute,  8-11  cm  long,  2.2-3.4  cm  wide  the  base 
rounded  or  lightly  cordate,  abruptly  contracted  into  a  petiole  3-4  mm  long.  Inflorescence 
an  extremely  congested,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  10  mm  long,  borne  by  a  fili- 
form peduncle  up  to  20  mm  long,  along  the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long; 
pedicel  1  mm  long,  ovary  1.5  mm  long;  sepals  translucent  light  yellow,  glabrous,  the  dor- 
sal sepal  triangular,  acute,  8  mm  long,  5.75  mm  wide,  connate  1.5  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals, 
the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  connate  4.5  mm  into  a  transversely  ovate  lamina  8  mm 
long,  9.5  mm  wide  expanded,  the  obtuse  apices  distant;  petals  bright  yellow  with  purple 
margins,  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1.66  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  tri- 
angular with  the  apex  rounded,  the  lower  lobe  falcate,  acute;  lip  yellow,  suffused  with 
purple,  the  blades  ovate-lunate,  convex,  2  mm  long,  the  apices  acute,  minutely  ciliate,  the 
connectives  broadly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  below  the  mid- 
dle, the  appendix  a  minute,  slender  filament  from  a  minutely  pubescent  membrane  in  the 
sinus;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:     Named  for  the  community  of  Lloa,  near  Quito,  where  the  species  was  dis- 
covered. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  PICHINCHA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  remnant  below  Lloa,  alt.  2700 
m,  27  Oct.  1979,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4363  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  large  species  is  recognized  by  the  short,  congested  raceme  of  rather  large  flow- 
ers with  a  broad  synsepal  with  distant,  obtuse  apices.  The  blades  of  the  lip  are  convex  and 
the  appendix  is  reduced  to  a  microscopic  filament. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  351 

I^panthes  lophius  Luer  &  Escobar,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa  pulchra,  inflorescentia  folio  anguste  ovato  breviore, 
raceme  conf^esto  fractiflexo,  sepalis  anguste  attenuatis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis,  labelli 
laminis  oblongis,  appendice  spathulata  pubescenti. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  3-8.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  a  10-1-J  ciliated  lepanthiform  sheaths  with  markedly 
dilated  ostia.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  purple  beneath,  narrowly  ovate,  acute,  3-5  cm  long, 
1.2-1.5  cm  wide,  cuneate  below  into  a  petiole  3-4  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested, 
flexuous,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  2  cm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up 
to  2.5  cm  long,  up  the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  1.25  mm  long; 
ovary  2  mm  long,  papillose;  sepals  purple  with  the  outer  thirds  cream,  carinate-spiculate, 
the  dorsal  sepal  triangular,  slightly  concave,  acute,  attenuate,  1 1  mm  long,  5  mm  wide, 
connate  1.5  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  margins  distantly  subserrulate,  the  lateral  sepals 
narrowly  ovate,  oblique,  acute,  attenuate,  11  mm  long,  3  mm  wide,  connate  1.5  mm,  the 
margins  serrulate,  petals  orange,  suffused  with  red-purple,  transversely  oblong,  2  mm  long, 
5  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  more  or  less  quadrate,  truncate,  the  lower  lobe  shorter,  nar- 
rowly oblong,  obtuse;  lip  rose,  the  blades  oblong  with  rounded  ends,  2.66  mm  long,  cili- 
ate  anteriorly,  the  connectives  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  surface  of  the  column  above 
the  base,  the  appendix  spathulate,  pubescent;  column  2  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the 
stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  Named  for  the  genus  of  common  anglers  (Lophius)  becasue  of  the  similarity 
of  the  appendix  to  the  pedunculated  "bait"  peculiar  to  these  fish. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  MORON A-SANTIAGO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Gualaceo 
and  Limon,  alt.  2650  m,  29  Oct.  1982,  C.  Luer.  R.  Escobar  &  A.  Pozo  8212  (Holotype; 
SEL). 

This  species  is  notable  for  the  congested  raceme  of  pretty  flowers  with  attenuated 
sepals  and  truncate  petals.  The  blades  of  the  lip  are  oblong,  and  the  appendix  is  spathu- 
late and  pubescent.  The  appendix  undoubtedly  acts  as  a  lure  for  pollinators,  much  the 
same  as  the  pedunculated  "bait"  of  an  agler  acts  as  a  lure  for  a  meal. 


Lepanthes  magnifica  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  grandis  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  magno  ovato  acuminato  breviore,  ra- 
cemo  congestissimo  disticho  multifloro,  sepalis  albis  apicibus  breviter  acuminatis  laterali- 
bus  pubescentibus,  petalis  transverse  bilobatis,  labelli  laminis  anguste  oblongis  glabris,  ap- 
pendice oblonga  cilia ta  cum  glandibus  duobus  terminalibus. 

Plant  large,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  coarse.  Secondary  stems  stout,  erect,  20-30 
cm  long,  enclosed  by  15-19  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  thinly  coriaceous, 
ciliate  along  the  veins  beneath,  ovate,  acute,  acuminate,  12-15  cm  long,  5-6.5  cm  wide,  the 
base  rounded  to  subcordate,  abruptly  contracted  into  a  twisted  petiole  3-4  mm  long.  In- 
florescence a  very  congested,  distichous,  successively  many-flowered  raceme  up  to  3  cm 
long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  4  cm  long  along  the  back  of  the  leaf;  floral  bract 
1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  2  mm  long;  ovary  3  mm  long;  sepals  white,  the  dorsal  sepal  glabrous, 
triangular,  the  acute  apex  shortly  acuminate,  12  mm  long,  5.5  mm  wide,  connate  basally 
to  the  lateral  sepals  for  2  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  oblong,  pubescent,  concave  basally,  10-5 
mm  long,  5  mm  wide,  connate  3.5  mm,  the  obtuse  apices  abruptly  contracted  into  re- 
curved, setiform  tails  1.5  mm  long;  petals  white  with  a  broad  red  margin,  transversely 
oblong,  oblique,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  smaller;  lip  rose,  the  blades  narrowly  oblong,  ob- 
tuse, glabrous,  2.25  mm  long,  the  connectives  short-cuneate,  connate  to  the  column  above 
the  base,  the  appendix  oblong,  ciliate,  with  a  pair  of  terminal  lobules;  column  2  mm  long, 
the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  magnificus.  "magnificent,"  referring  to  the  large  plant  with 
large  white  and  purple  flowers. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  PINCHINCHA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between  Mindo  and  Puerto 
Quito,  alt.  1600  m,  13  March  1982,  C.  Luer.  A.  Hirtz  &  S.  Dalstrom  7333  (Holotype: 
SEL);  above  Mindo,  alt.  2200  m,  15  Oct.  1979,  A.  Hirtz  s.n.  (SEL). 

This  huge,  spectacular  species  is  notable  for  the  large  white  flower  produced  suc- 
cessively in  a  congested  raceme  behind  the  leaf.  The  lateral  sepals  are  pubescent  with  the 
obtuse  apices  contracted  into  short  tails;  the  small  petals  are  rimmed  in  purple;  the  blades 
of  the  lip  are  glabrous  and  narrow;  and  the  appendix  is  oblong  and  ciliate  with  a  pair  of 
apical  lobules. 


352  PHYTOLOGIA  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Lepanthes  mastodon  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa  vaginis  caulium  secondariorum  dilatatis  ciliolatisque, 
folio  ovato  acute  coriaceo  purpureo  inflorescentia  longiore,  flore  super  folium,  sepalis 
ciliatis  carinatis  caudatis,  caudis  sepalorum  lateralium  longis  attenuatis  incurvis,  petalis 
transverse  oblongis,  labelli  lobis  oblongis  appendice  vestigiali. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  suberect, 
slender,  3-10  cm  long,  enclosed  by  8-12  lepanthiform  sheaths  markedly  dilated  at  the  os- 
tia,  ciliate  along  the  margins  and  ribs.  Leaf  dark  green,  purple  beneath,  suberect  to  hori- 
zontal, coriaceous,  more  or  less  sulcate  dorsally  between  convex  halves,  ovate,  2.5-4  cm 
long,  1.5-2.2  cm  wide  expanded,  the  apex  acuminate,  acute,  the  base  broadly  cuneate  or 
rounded,  sessile.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  successively  flowerred  raceme  up  to  15  mm 
long  lying  in  the  sulcus  of  the  dorsum  of  the  leaf,  the  filiform  peduncle  from  a  node  at 
the  apex  of  the  secondary  stem;  floral  bract  1  mm  long;  pedicel  1.5  mm  long;  ovary  2.5 
mm  long;  sepals  purple-black  or  red-brown,  with  yellow  or  green  margins,  carinate-spicu- 
late  along  the  veins,  the  margins  ciliate,  the  dorsal  sepal  concave,  ovate,  6  mm  long,  3.5 
mm  wide  expanded,  the  apex  acuminate,  acute,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  connate 
2  mm,  4  mm  wide  together,  the  acute  apices  attenuated  into  incurved  tails,  the  entire 
length  of  the  lateral  sepal  10  mm;  petals  green,  yellow  or  purple,  minutely  pubescent, 
transversely  oblong-bilobed,  1.25  mm  long,  4.25  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  oblong,  obtuse, 
the  lower  lobe  narrowly  triangular,  oblique,  obtuse;  lip  with  the  blades  flat,  oblong,  2  mm 
long,  minutely  ciliate,  the  connectives  narrow,  cuneate,  the  appendix  reduced  to  an  ob- 
tuse angle  in  the  sinus;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  Named  for  the  elephantlike  Mastodon,  referring  to  the  tusklike  tails  of  the 
lateral  sepals. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  CARCHI:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  above  Maldonado,  alt.  ca.  2000  m, 
25  Aug.  1978,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  3381  (Holotype:  SEL).  Additional  material 
examined:  same  area,  20  May  1973,  L.  Holm-Nielsen,  S.  Jeppesen,  B.  L0jtnant  &  B.  Oil- 
gaard  6145  (AAU,  SEL);  IMBABURA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest,  Selva  Alegre,  west  of 
Otavalo,  alt.  1900  m,  2  May  1981,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  A.  Hirtz  et  al.  6085  (SEL);  COLOM- 
BIA: NARINO:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  east  of  Ricuarte,  alt.  1800  m,  1  Nov.  1979, 
C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  4521  (SEL). 

The  flower  of  this  unusual  species  lies  in  the  midline  groove  on  the  dorsum  of  the 
leaf.  The  color  varies  remarkably  among  the  three  collections,  but  morphologically  the 
flowers  are  identical.  Most  remarkable  are  the  long,  upcurved  tails  of  the  lateral  sepals 
which  resemble  a  pair  of  tiny  tusks. 


Lepanthes  megalostele  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris  caespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  elliptico  breviore,  racemo  congesto 
disticho,  sepalis  glabris  subacutis  quam  petalis  transverse  oblongis  brevioribus,  labello 
laminis  ellipticis  ciliatis  columna  minoribus,  appendice  grossa  pubescenti  apice  incurvato. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  5-8  cm  long,  enclosed  by  7-8  blackish,  close,  microscopically  ciliate  lepanthiform 
sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  elliptical,  acute,  3-4  cm  long,  1.5-1.8  cm  wide,  the  base 
cuneate  into  a  petiole  3  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  distichous,  successively  flow- 
ered raceme  up  to  7  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  pedicel  10-22  mm  behind  the  leaf; 
floral  bract  1  mm  long,  spiculate;  pedicel  1.75  mm  long;  ovary  2  mm  long;  sepals  light 
yellow,  glabrous,  carinate,  subacute,  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate-triangular,  2.66  mm  long,  1.9 
mm  wide,  connate  0.66  mm  basally  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  connate 
1.5  mm,  2.66  mm  long,  2.5  mm  wide  together;  petals  orange,  suffused  with  red,  trans- 
versely oblong,  0.8  mm  long,  3.33  mm  wide,  microscopically  pubescent,  the  upper  lobe 
elliptical,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  smaller,  oblong,  obtuse;  lip  red,  the  blades  elliptical, 
1  mm  long,  the  apices  acute,  ciliate,  the  bases  rounded,  the  connectives  and  body  narrow, 
connate  to  the  base  of  the  column,  the  appendix  thick,  broadly  triangular,  pubescent, 
with  an  acute,  incurved  apex;  column  proportionately  large,  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  and 
stigma  apical. 

Etymology:   From  the  Greek  megalo-,  "large,"  and  stele,  "column,"  in  reference  to  the 
large  column  of  the  species. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  north  of  Tena,  "Cotundo,"  alt.  1100 
m,  June  1983,  A.  Hirtz  91  7B  (Holotype:  SEL),  C.  Luer  illustr.  9090. 

This  species  is  notable  for  the  congested,  distichous  inflorescence  shorter  than  the 
elliptical  leaf;  the  small  flowers  with  petals  longer  than  the  sepals;  the  column  larger  than 
the  blades  of  the  lip;  and  the  thick,  pubescent  appendix  with  an  incurved  apex. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  353 

Lepanthes  micropogon  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  parva  caospilosa,  inflorescentia  folio  elliptico  breviore,  raceme  congesto  dis- 
ticho,  sepalis  fjlabris  ovatis  acutis,  petalis  transverse  oblongis  sepalis  longioribus,  labelli 
laminis  ellipticis  apicibus  cilialis  connectivis  anguste  cuneatis  cum  sinu  rotundato  pubes- 
cent! et  appendice  minuta  pedunculata  ciliala. 

Plant  small,  epiphytic,  caespltose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender,  erect,  2-3 
cm  long,  enclosed  by  5-7  close,  microscopically  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect, 
coriaceous,  elliptical,  subacute,  20-22  mm  long,  9-1 1  mm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  a 
twisted  petiole  ca.  2  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  distichous,  successively  flowered 
raceme  up  to  4  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  10  mm  long  behind  the  leaf; 
floral  bract  1  mm  long,  ciliate;  pedicel  2  mm  long;  ovary  1.5  mm  long;  sepals  glabrous, 
light  yellow,  ovate,  acute,  the  dorsal  sepal  2.5  mm  long,  1.5  mm  wide,  connate  basally  to 
the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  connate  1 .5  mm,  2.5  mm  long,  2.25  mm  wide  together: 
petals  bright  yellow,  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide,  the  lobes 
oblong,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  smaller;  lip  rose,  the  blades  elliptical  with  rounded  ends, 
1.2  mm  long,  the  apices  ciliate,  the  connectives  narrowly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column 
above  the  base,  the  sinus  protruding  forward,  rounded,  pubescent,  with  a  small,  rounded, 
ciliate,  pedunculated  appendix;  column  1.3  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Greek  micros,  "small,"  and  pogon.  "a  beard,"  referring  to  the  pro- 
truding sinus  of  the  lip  with  the  little,  ciliate  appendix. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  NAPO:  epiphytic  in  wet  forest  north  of  Tena  along  the  new  road  to 
Coca,  alt.  1100  m,  22  Feb.  1982,  C  Luer  &  A   Hirtz  6952  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  small  species  with  a  congested,  distichous  inflorescence  shorter  than  the  ellip- 
tical leaf  is  notable  for  the  proportionately  large  petals,  and  the  pubescent  sinus  of  the 
lip  that  bulges  forward  with  a  small,  pedunculated,  ciliate  appendix. 


Lepanthes  miraculum  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris,  racemo  laxe  plurifloro  foliis  ellipticis  multilongiore,  floribus  gran- 
dibus,  sepalis  erosis  breviter  acuminatis,  petalis  bilobatis  ciliatis,  lobo  superiore  minimo 
acuto  refiexo,  lobo  inferiore  grandi  falcato  acuto,  labelli  laminis  breviter  ciliatis  oblongis, 
sinu  obtuso  cum  appendice  lata  membranacea  retusa. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  relatively  coarse.  Secondary  stems 
slender,  erect  to  suberect,  3-9.5  cm  long,  enclosed  by  6-9  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths 
with  markedly  dilated  ostia.  Leaf  erect,  coriaceous,  suffused  with  purple  beneath,  ellipti- 
cal, acute,  2-3  cm  long,  0.9-1.1  cm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  a  petiole  2-4  mm  long.  In- 
florescence a  loose,  subflexuous,  distantly  successively  flowered  raceme  up  to  10  cm  long 
including  the  slender  peduncle  2.5-4  cm  long;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long,  ciliate;  pedicel 
2.5  mm  long;  ovary  1.5  mm  long,  papillose-winged ;  sepals  dark  red,  the  margins  erose,  the 
carinae  serrate,  the  dorsal  sepal  triangular,  acute,  acuminate,  10.5  mm  long,  6.5  mm  wide, 
connate  to  the  lateral  sepals  for  3  mm;  the  lateral  sepals  connate  5  mm  into  a  bifid  lamina 
11.5  mm  long,  8.5  mm  wide,  shortly  pubescent,  concave  basally,  the  apices  ovate,  acute, 
shortly  acuminate;  petals  red,  ciliate,  bilobed,  the  upper  lobe  1  mm  long,  acute,  reflexed, 
the  lower  lobe  falcate,  acute,  3  mm  long,  1  mm  wide,  long-ciliate;  lip  bright  purple,  the 
blades  oblong,  1.75  mm  long,  glabrous  except  for  short  cilia  at  the  narrowly  obtuse  api- 
ces, the  bases  rounded  and  continuous  with  the  cuneate  connectives  connate  to  the  col- 
umn near  the  middle  below  the  stigma,  the  sinus  obtuse  with  a  broad,  membranous,  retuse, 
ciliate  appendix  in  contact  with  a  clavale  appendage  from  the  stigma;  column  2  mm  long, 
the  apical  half  dilated  with  the  dorsal  anther  and  ventral  stigma,  the  shaft  extremely  slender. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  miraculum,  "a  marvel,"  referring  to  the  grotesque  features 
of  the  flowers. 

Type;  BOLIVIA:  COCHABAMBA:  Prov.  of  Chapare:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  between 
Cochabamba  and  Villa  Tunari,  alt.  2500  m,  22  Jan.  1980,  C.  Luer,  J.  Luer  &  R.  Vasquez 
4906  (Holotype:  SEL);  same  area,  alt.  2600  m,  26  Nov.  1978,  C.  Luer,  F.  Fuchs  et  al. 
5490  (SEL),  same  area,  collected  by  B.  Wuerstle,  alt.  2700  m,  13  Jan.  1981,  C.  Luer  5662 
(SEL);  Pampa  Tambo,  alt.  2800  m,  24  Dec.  1979,  R.  Vasquez  234  (SEL). 

This  remarkable  species  produces  large,  dark  red  flowers  in  loose  racemes.  The  se- 
pals are  erose,  shortly  pubescent  and  shortly  acuminate.  The  lower  lobes  of  the  ciliate 
petals  flank  the  column,  while  the  minute  upper  lobes  twist  behind.  The  lobes  of  the  lip 
are  narrowly  oblong  and  cover  the  column,  the  shaft  of  which  is  very  slender  like  that  of 
L.  vespa.  The  weblike  appendix  is  in  contact  with  a  clavate  process  from  the  stigma  like 
that  seen  in  the  Ecuadorian  L.  contingens. 


354  P  H  Y  T  0  L  0  G   I  A  Vol.    54,    No.    5 

Lepanthes  monitor  Luer,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocriscaespitosa,  inflorescentia  folio  oblongo  acuminato  breviore.racemo 
congesto,  sepalis  glabris  acutis,  petalis  transverse  bilobatis,  labelli  laminis  ovatis  convexis 
glabris,  appendice  parvula  pubescenti. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  coarse.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  8-25  cm  long,  enclosed  by  9-14  close,  minutely  ciliate  lepanthform  sheaths.  Leaf 
erect,  thinly  coriaceous,  oblong-ovate,  acute,  acuminate,  6.5-12  cm  long,  1.9-3  cm  wide, 
the  rounded  base  contracted  into  a  petiole  3  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  congested,  succes- 
sively flowered  raceme  up  to  30  mm  long,  borne  by  a  filiform  peduncle  up  to  25  mm  long 
behind  the  leaf;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  1  mm  long;  ovary  2  mm  long;  sepals 
yellow-white,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  triangular,  acute,  5  mm  long,  2.6  mm  wide,  con- 
nate to  the  lateral  sepals  for  1  mm,  the  lateral  sepals  5  mm  long,  connate  2.5  mm  into  an 
ovate,  bifid  lamina  4  mm  wide,  the  acute  apices  shortly  acuminate;  petals  white  with  pur- 
ple margins,  transversely  bilobed,  1.25  mm  long,  3.5  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  broadly 
oblong-falcate,  obtuse,  the  lower  lobe  smaller,  narrowed  to  an  oblong,  rounded  apex;  lip 
white  with  purple  margins,  the  blades  ovate,  convex,  1.5  mm  long,  glabrous,  the  apices 
narrowly  rounded,  the  bases  rounded,  the  connectives  short,  cuneate,  connate  to  the  base 
of  the  column,  the  sinus  rounded  with  a  small,  rounded,  pubescent  appendix;  column  1.5 
mm  long,  protruding  from  between  the  blades  of  the  lip,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma 
ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  monitor,  "a  reminder,"  referring  to  the  morphological  fea- 
tures reminiscent  of  L.  elata  Rchb.  f.  and  its  relatives. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  LOJA:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  south  of  Yangana,  alt.  1400  m, 
3  March  1982,  C.  Luer,  D.  D'Alessandro  &  S.  Dalstrom  7096  (Holotype:  SEL);  NAPO: 
south  of  Baeza,  alt.  1900  m,  20  Feb.  1982,  C.  Luer  &  A.  Hirtz  6863  (SEL),  ZAMORA- 
CHINCHIPE:  near  Km  41  between  Loja  and  Zamora,  alt.  1500  m,  3  Nov.  1982,  C.  Luer, 
R.  Escobar  &  D.  D'Alessandro  8275  (SEL). 

This  large  species  seems  to  be  the  austral  counterpart  of  L.  elata  Rchb.  f.  from  Cen- 
tral America  and  northern  Colombia,  The  leaves  of  large  specimens  of  L.  monitor  are 
oblong-ovate,  not  broadly  cordate  as  they  are  in  large  specimens  of  L.  elata.  Small  speci- 
mens of  both  species  have  similar  leaves.  The  flowers  of  the  two  species  are  also  similar 
in  size,  shape  and  colors,  but  the  appendix  is  pedunculate  and  narrowly  hinged  in  the 
sinus  of  the  lip  in  L.  elata.  while  the  appendix  in  L.  monitor  is  a  broad,  triangular  mem- 
brane across  the  sinus. 


Lepanthes  muscula  Luer  &  Escobar,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  grandis  caespitosa,  caulibus  secondares  folio  elliptico  acuminato  multi- 
longioribus,  racemis  paucis  laxe  multifloris  subflexuousis  folio  multilongioribus,  sepalis 
ovatis  acutis,  petalis  transverse  bilobatis,  labelli  laminis  oblongis  minute  ciliatis,  appendice 
triglandulosa. 

Plant  medium  in  size  to  large,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  coarse.  Secondary  stems 
erect,  slender  to  stout,  7-22  cm  long,  enclosed  by  10-14  close,  minutely  ciliate  lepanthi- 
form  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,  thinly  coriaceous,  elliptical,  acute,  acuminate,  5-7  cm  long,  1.5- 
1.5-2  cm  wide,  the  base  cuneate  into  the  petiole  2-3  mm  long.  Inflorescence  a  progressively 
lengthening,  loose,  lightly  flexuous  raceme  to  20  cm  long,  2-3  flowers  open  simultaneously ; 
floral  bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  0.75  mm  long;  ovary  2  mm  long;  sepals  purple-brown, 
glabrous,  narrowly  ovate,  acute,  acuminate,  the  dorsal  sepal  7.5  mm  long,  3  mm  wide, 
connate  basally  1  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  7  mm  long,  2.25  mm  wide, 
connate  2  mm;  petals  dark  red,  microscopically  cellular,  transversely  oblong,  bilobulate, 
1.25  mm  long,  3.75  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  oblong,  the  apex  obliquely  narrowed,  ob- 
tuse, the  lower  lobe  similar  but  smaller;  lip  dark  red,  the  blades  oblong  with  rounded 
ends,  1.75  mm  long,  minutely  ciliate,  the  connectives  cuneate,  connate  to  the  under  sur- 
face of  the  column,  the  appendix  minute,  pubescent,  orbicular  with  a  pair  of  rounded, 
terminal  glands;  column  1.5  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  ventral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Latin  musculus,  "a  little  mouse,"  in  reference  to  the  appearance  of 
the  trilobed  appendix. 

Type:  ECUADOR:  CARCHI:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  above  San  Gabriel,  alt.  3400  m, 
8  Nov.  1982,  C.  Luer  &  R.  Escobar  8300  (Holotype:  SEL). 

This  species  may  be  recognized  by  the  long  stems  and  long,  flexible,  subflexuous 
racemes  with  several  flowers  open  simultaneously.  The  appendix  is  a  small,  spherical, 
pubescent  organ  with  a  pair  of  rounded,  terminal  glands. 


1983  Luer,  New  species  355 

Lepanthes  mystax  Luer  &  Escobar,  sp.  nov. 

Planla  mcdiocris,  foliis  suborbiculalis  brpviler  acuminatis  palenlibus  racemo  conges- 
tissimo  lonuioribus,  scpaJis  ovalis,  petalis  grandibus  cilialis  transverse  bilobis,  labelli  laminis 
ellipUcis  divergentibus  marginibus  interioribus  longissime  cilialis,  appendice  ligulala,  stig- 
male  bi-auriculala. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespituse;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  412  cm  long,  enclosed  by  5-10  close  lepanthiform  sheaths,  minutely  ciliate  on  the 
narrow  ostia.  Leaf  more  or  less  spreading,  thinly  coriaceous,  broadly  ovate  to  suborbicu- 
lar,  2.5-4.5  cm  long,  1.5-2.7  cm  wide,  the  apex  abruptly  acuminate,  acute,  the  rounded 
base  abruptly  contracted  into  a  twisted  petiole  2-3  mm  long.  Inflorescence  an  extremely 
congested,  distichous,  successively  flowered  raceme  up  U>  10  mm  long,  borne  below  the 
leaf  by  a  filiform  peduncle  10-12  mm  long;  floral  bract  1.5  mm  long;  pedicel  2.5  mm  long; 
ovary  2  mm  long;  sepals  yellow,  glabrous,  the  dorsal  sepal  ovate,  subacute,  5  mm  long,  3 
mm  wide,  connate  0.5  mm  to  the  lateral  sepals,  the  lateral  sepals  ovate,  oblique,  connate 
1  mm,  the  subacute  apices  in  apposition,  together  forming  a  synsepal  3  mm  long,  3.75 
mm  wide;  petals  orange,  ciliate,  minutely  pubescent,  transversely  oblong,  bilobed,  1.75 
mm  long,  5  mm  wide,  the  upper  lobe  suborbicular,  the  lower  lobes  obliquely  triangular,  ob- 
tuse; lip  red,  the  blades  elliptical,  1.25  mm  long,  with  rounded  ends,  the  apices  diverging, 
the  inner  margins  with  long,  straight,  lavender  hairs  over  the  column,  the  connectives 
broadly  cuneate,  connate  to  the  column  above  the  base,  the  appendix  pubescent,  ligulate; 
column  1.25  mm  long,  the  anther  dorsal,  the  stigma  transversely  bilobed,  the  lobes  auricu- 
late,  lateral. 

Etymology:  From  the  Greek  mystax,  "a  moustache,"  in  reference  to  the  long-ciliated 
lobes  of  the  lip. 

Type:  COSTA  RICA:  SAN  JOSE:  epiphytic  in  cloud  forest  below  La  Georgina,  alt.  2850 
m,  20  Sept.  1979, C.  Luer.  J.  Luer  &  K.  Walter  423  7  {Hololype:  SEL);  CARTAGO:  forest 
along  road  to  Cerro  de  la  Muerte,  all.  2530  m,  10  July  1983,  R.  Escobar  &  K.  Anderson 
2759  (SEL). 

This  species  with  round,  shortly  acuminate  leaves  is  remarkable  for  the  small  flowers 
with  seemingly  over-sized  petals,  and  a  lip  with  diverging,  long-ciliale  blades.  The  straight, 
purple  hairs  point  diagonally  inward,  the  longest  toward  the  apex,  together  forming  a 
screenlike  cover  for  the  column.  The  stigma  is  transversely  bilobed  with  the  lobes  pro- 
jecting laterally,  reminiscent  of  the  genus  S(e/is  Sw. 

liCpanthes  nebulina  Luer  &  Vasquez,  sp.  nov. 

Planta  mediocris,  racemo  laxe  multifloro  foliis  ellipticis  acutis  multilongiore,  sepalis 
acuminatis,  petalis  transverse  bilobis  lobo  superiore  oblongo  majore,  labelli  laminis  ob- 
longis,  appendice  parva  gracili  incurvata. 

Plant  medium  in  size,  epiphytic,  caespitose;  roots  slender.  Secondary  stems  slender, 
erect,  3.5-9  cm  long,  enclosed  by  7-9  ciliate  lepanthiform  sheaths.  Leaf  erect,